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"In  the  original  plan  of  the  work,  it  was  intended 
that  Chinese  characters  shonld  be  foUoived  by  the  Ro- 
manization  in  parentheses.  In  some  instances,  in  the 
early  pages  of  the  book,  this  order  has  been  inadvertenth^ 
reversed,  the  Romanization  standing  first,  followed  by  the 
Chinese  characters  in  parentheses.  This  is  especially 
trne  in  the  articles  on  Aconitum  and  Acorns.  The 
names  of  the  natural  orders  should  appear  in  Roman 
letters  ;  a  few  are  in  Italics.  When  used  adjectivally, 
these  should  7iot  begin  with  a  capital  letter." 

The  above  is  from  Dr.  Stuart's  own  pen.  Would 
that  he  could  have  completed  these  Hrrata  that  the}^ 
might  have  been  more  perfectly'  done. 

A  table  of  errors,  excepting  the  ones  mentioned  here, 
is  placed  in  the  back  of  the  book  following  the  indexing. 

Both  wprds'of  Customs  Lists  ;  the  first  word  in  botan- 
ical names  of  more  than  one  word  ;  the  first  word  in  the 
Romanization  of  Chinese  terms,  and  the  word  Appendix 
should  always  begin  with  capital  letters. 

A  few  other  mistakes  in  the  use  or  nonuse  of  capitals 
will  be  noticed.  Szechuen  should  be  Szechuan.  Caret  e 
should  alwa3's  be  found  in  Li  Shih  Chen.  Parentheses 
marks  and  punctuation  marks  are  not  invariably.'  correct. 

A.  G.  S: 





ABRUS-  PRECATORIUS.— ;f0  ,g  ^  (Hsiang-ssu-tzu), 
^X  M.  (Himg-tou),  423.  This  is  a  twining  shrub,  growing  to 
the  height  of  several  feet,  and  found  in  the  south  of  China 
and  parts  of  the  East  Indies.  The  first  Chinese  name  given 
above,  meaning  "love  sick",  refers  to  the  legend  of  a  man 
who  died  by  the  side  of  one  of  these  shrubs,  and  his  wife  sat 
beneath  its  shade  and  wept  until  she  died  also.  The  bright 
scarlet  seeds,  of  the  size  of  large  shot,  with  a  black  spot  at  the 
hilum,  are  used  as  beads  by  children.  They  are  said  to  be 
slightly  poisonous  (emetic)  and  to  have  the  power  of  preventing 
Baroos  camphor  from  evaporation  when  they  are  kept  with  it. 
When  taken  as  medicine,  they  are  said  to  "permeate  the 
nine  cavities  of  the  body"  and  to  "expel  every  sort  of  evil 
effluvia  from  heart  and  abdomen",  to  be  diaphoretic,  ex- 
pectorant, antiperiodic,  and  to  "destroy  every  sort  of  visceral 
or  cuticular  worm".  The  Pentsao  gives  in  this  connection 
what  is  regarded  as  a  reliable  prescription  for  the  destruc- 
tion of  a  "cat-devil".  "  If  a  cat-devil  has  been  seen  or 
its  cry  heard,  use  Abriis  precatorhis^  Ricimis  communis^  Croto?i 
tiglmm^  of  each,  one  bean  ;  pulverized  cinnabar  and  wax,  of 
each,  four  shit;  make  into  pills  the  size  of  a  hemp  seed  and 
administer  at  once.  Then  surround  the  patient  with  ashes  and 
place  before  him  a  cinder  fire.  Spit  the  medicine  into  the 
fire,  and  as  it  bubbles  up,  mark  a  cross  on  the  surface  of  the 
fire,  when  the  cat-devil  will  die". 

The  root  of  Abriis  precatoruis  is  long  and  woody,  pale  red- 
dish-brown externally  and  yellowish  internally.  It  has  a  thin 
bark,  a  peculiarly  disagreeable  odor,  and  a  bitterish  acrid 
flavor,  leaving  a  faintly  sweet  after-taste.  It  is  used  in  India 
and  Java  as  a  substitute  for  licorice,  but  is  not  employed  medic- 
inally by  the  Chinese.  Waring  directs  an  extract  to  be  pre- 
pared in  the  same  way  as  the  Extractum  Glycyrrhizse  of  the 


British  Pharmacopceia.  The  leaves  have  been  found  to  contain 
a  sweet  principle  similar  to  that  of  licorice.  The  wood  has  an 
excellent  grain,  but  as  the  plant  is  small  it  is  not  of  much  value. 

One  of  the  Abrus  berries  is  said  by  Dr.  Williams  to  be  the 
unit  of  weight  employed  by  the  Burmese.  From  the  fact  that 
these  berries  are  red,  and  look  something  like  "  crab's-eyes " 
(a  concretion  found  in  the  stomach  of  Astacus  fluviatilis,  and 
on  account  of  its  comparative  rarity  counted  among  precious 
stones),  some  persons  have  given  them  this  name.  Under  the 
name  oi  jeqiicrity^  this  substance,  or  its  globulin  Ab^-iii^  was 
formerly  recommended  in  Europe  and  America  for  the  treat- 
ment of  granular  lids  and  corneal  opacities  ;  but  on  account  of 
its  action  being  beyond  the  control  of  the  surgeon,  it  has  right- 
ly fallen  into  disuse.  Abrin  is  a  tox-albumin  similar  in  its  action 
to  Ricin  and  C^-oiin. 

Tatarinov  and  others  have  fallen  into  the  error  of  con- 
founding Abrus  precaiorhis  with  a  genuine  species  of  bean,  the 
Phaseolus  radiatus^  perfectly  distinct,  and  separately  described 
under  the  division  of  grains  as  ^  ij>  ^a  (Ch'ih-hsiao-tou),  or 
"red  small  bean",  141.  Other  Chinese  names  given  in 
various  books  for  the  Abrus  precatoruts  are  ;fg  ,g,  ^  (Hsiang- 
ssu-tou),  423,  and  H  fij-  ^  (Ma-liao-tou),  804 ;  but  the  two 
given  at  the  head  of  this  article  are  the  only  ones  authorized  by 
the  Pentsao. 

ABUTILON  INDICUM.— According  to  Ford  and  Crow, 
the  seeds  sold  at  Hongkong  as  ^  ^  ^  (Tung-k'uei-tzu),  1393, 
are  so  identified.  But  in  other  parts  of  China  the  article  so 
sold  seems  to  be  the  seeds  of  a  Malva^  which  see. 

ACACIA  CATECHU.— §i  1^  (Erh-ch'a)  ;  288  ;  ^  5i  ^ 
(Hai-erh-ch'a)  \  %  ^  'i^  (Wu-tieh-ni).  The  names  given  in 
the  Pentsao  to  this  drug  are  partly  founded  on  the  old  notion 
that  it  was  an  earth  or  a  preparation  of  tea,  and  partly  are  an 
imitation  of  the  Bengalese  word  khaiar  and  of  the  Hindu  word 
teni^  by  which  the  drug  is  known  at  the  place  of  its  origin. 
The  same  idea  is  perpetuated  in  the  old  pharmaceutical  name, 
Terra  Japonica^  when  the  "earth  "  (in  Chinese  ni')  was  brought 
from  Japan.      The  account  in  the  Pentsao  is  to  the  effect  that 


Java,  Siam,  and  the  countries  of  the  Indian  Archipelago  furnish 
a  drug  prepared  by  putting  fine  tea  dust  into  a  bamboo  tube, 
which  is  then  closed  up  at  both  ends  and  buried  in  the  wet  mud 
of  a  sewer  for  a  long  time.  It  is  then  taken  out,  the  juice 
expressed  and  boiled  down  to  a  thick  syrup,  which  when  cold 
forms  the  extract.  The  country  of  the  Laos  tribes  living  between 
Yunnan,  Annam,  and  Siam,  and  a  district  in  the  north-west 
part  of  Yunnanfu,  are  said  to  have  formerly  yielded  this  drug. 

The  catechu  entering  into  the  world's  commerce  is  largely 
exported  from  Calcutta  and  from  Pegu.  Since  much  of  it 
comes  from  the  borders  of  the  Gulf  of  Cutch,  the  substance  is 
often  called  aitch.  Or,  this  name  may  come  either  from  a 
corruption  of  the  Malay  name  cachu  or  of  the  Indian  name  kiitt. 
Dr.  Williams  says :  "  That  brought  from  Bombay  is  friable,  of 
a  red-brown  color,  and  more  hard  and  firm  than  that  brought 
from  Bengal.  The  cakes  resemble  chocolate,  and  when  broken, 
have  a  streaked  appearance.  Good  cutch  has  a  bright  uniform 
color,  a  sweetish  astringent  taste,  and  is  free  from  grittiness". 
He  suggests  that  this  variety  may  indeed  be  pale  catechu,  or 
gambler  ;  but  it  may  be  a  kind  of  Acacia  catechu  which  is 
manufactured  in  Northern  India,  in  which  the  process  of 
evaporation  is  stopped  before  the  liquid  becomes  too  thick,  thus 
resulting  in  a  paler  and  clearer  preparation.  There  is  a  black 
catechu,  the  Kassa  of  Persia,  which  occurs  in  round,  flat  cakes, 
from  two  to  three  inches  in  diameter  and  from  a  half  an  inch 
to  an  inch  in  thickness,  having  the  properties  of  Acacia  catechu 
extract.  It  is  the  product  of  the  betel-nut  {Areca  catechu^ 
which  see)  and  is  prepared  in  India,  where  it  is  known 
as  catta-cambu.  It  does  not  appear  in  commerce,  and  is  not 
known  in  China  ;  unless,  indeed,  the  Ping-lang  hsin  (;^  |g|J  )^>), 
1026,  or  Ping-lang-kao  (;|ffi  \%  ^),  1027,  ^^^  ^^^  article. 

Chinese  medical  works  recount  the  astringent,  antiphlo- 
gistic, styptic,  and  corrective  properties  of  this  excellent  drug  ; 
but  at  the  present  time  it  is  mostly  used  as  a  detergent, 
stimulating,  styptic,  or  constringing  application. 

ch'iu-shu).  This,  the  "thorny  catalpa  ",  from  the  resemblance 
of  its  leaves  to  those  of  Catalpa  kcempferi^  is  a  tall  tree,  with 


grey  bark  mottled  with  yellowish-white,  and  having  thorns 
on  the  branches.  The  bark  and  leaves  of  this  tree  are  recom- 
mended for  insecticide  purposes  and  for  the  treatment  of  skin 
disease  and  all  sorts  of  ulcers  and  infected  sores.  The  Customs 
Reports  say  that  the  substance  known  as  ^  ;j^  ^  (Hai-t'ung- 
P'i)'  357'  or  ;j:ls)  J^  (T'ung-p'i),  1402,  is  probably  in  part  the 
bark  of  this  tree  ;  that  exported  from  Ningpo  being  so  con- 
sidered, while  that  exported  from  Canton  is  thought  to  be  the 
bark  of  the  cotton  tree.  See  Bovibax  malabariaun  and 

ACANTHOPANAX  SPINOSUM.  —  35.  *n  (Wu-chia), 
5.  5^0  i^  (Wu-chia-p'i),  1449.  This  is  probably  the  proper 
identification  of  the  shrub  or  tree  which  produces  this  drug. 
But,  without  doubt,  the  product  found  upon  the  market  comes 
from  a  number  of  Araliaceous  plants,  allied  to  angelica, 
spikenard,  and  sarsaparilla.  So  we  find  it  classed  by  Tatarinov 
^S'^ylralm  pahttata^  and  by  Henry  identified  as  Eletttherococctis 
He^iryi  and  Eleutherococcus  leucorrhizus ;  and,  in  addition  to 
these  latter  the  Customs  Reports  mention  Elciit/wi'ococcus 
senticosus.  Indeed,  in  the  Chinese  books  it  is  described  by 
some  as  a  tree  or  shrub,  and  by  others  as  a  climbing  plant. 
One  observer  wisely  says  that  the  plant  which  grows  in  the 
north  in  sandy  soil  is  a  tree,  while  that  which  grows  in  the 
south  in  hard  soil  is  an  herbaceous  pla-atj^  The  Pentsao^ 
following  the  Peiitsaoching  of  Shennung,  classes  it  among 
the  trees. 

The  part  used  is  the  cortex  of  the  root.  It  is  found  on  the 
markets  as  yellowish-brown  quilled  pieces,  odorless  and 
tasteless.  It  is  specially  recommended  in  rheumatism,  general 
debility,  and  for  the  cure  of  tertiary  syphilitic  manifestations. 
It  is  usually  prescribed  as  a  tincture. 

ACERANTHUS  SAGITTATUS.— f^  ^  ^  (Yin-yang- 
huo),  1536.  This  is  identical  with  Epimedinm  sagittattiDi .  It 
is  a  Berberidaceous  plant  said  to  have  strong  aphrodisiac 
properties.  Goats  eating  the  plant  are  said  to  be  incited  to 
excessive  copulation,  hence  the  Chinese  name.  It  is  commonly 
called  lilj  ^  flf.  (Hsien-ling-p'i),  and  grows  in  mountain  valleys 


throughout  China.  The  root  and  leaves  are  parts  used  in 
medicine.  It  is  prescribed  in  sterility  and  barrenness,  and  is 
said  to  have  great  virtues  in  these  conditions.  In  decoction  it 
is  used  in  corneal  affections  and  ulcerations  of  the  eye  after 
exanthematous  diseases. 

ACER  TRIFIDUM.— £  '^  M  (San-chio-feng).  It  is 
uncertain  whether  the  leaves  reported  in  the  Customs  Lists  are 
from  this  tripartite  maple,  or  whether  they  are  the  leaves  of 
the  Liquidamber  forfiiosana  {orientale).  There  is  not  much 
uniformity  of  classification  of  this  substance  at  the  different 
ports;  at  one  place  it  being  called  "oak  leaves",  which,  to 
say  the  least,  is  a  bold  guess.  The  Chinese  names  for  Acer 
trifidiim^  in  addition  to  the  one  given  above,  are  |5  ;fH  1^  (Ya- 
feng-shu),  1481,  and  IH  jfj[  i^  (Feng-hung-shu).  Bretschneider 
and  the  Japanese  have  been  followed  in  the  use  of  the  term 
placed  at  the  head  of  this  paragraph.  This  tree  is  not  mention- 
ed in  the  Pentsao^  and  what  its  leaves  may  be  used  for  (if, 
indeed,  it  is  the  leaves  of  this  tree  that  appear  in  commerce) 
it  has  not  been  possible  to  learn.  The  supply  reported  by  the 
Customs  came  from  Anhui  and  Kiangsu. 

ACHILEA  SIBIRICA.— ^  (Shih).  This  is  a  common 
plant  in  the  mountains  of  Northern  China,  and  is  so  identified 
by  the  Japanese.  Legge  calls  the  Shih  plant  milfoil.  Wil- 
liams, in  his  dictionary,  says  it  is  a  sort  of  "  syngenesious  plant 
resembling  the  Ayithcmis  or  mayweed,  the  Ptarniica  sibcrica^ 
which  grows  around  Confucius'  grave  in  Kiihfeu,  and  as  was 
done  in  ancient  times,  is  still  sold  there  in  parcels  of  sixty-four 
stalks  for  divination  ;  the  stems  were  once  used  for  hair-pins". 
In  the  Historical  Record  (^  |5)  it  is  said  that  a  hundred  stalks 
of  the  Shih  plant  come  out  of  the  same  root.  "Where  this 
plant  grows  neither  tigers,  wolves,  nor  poisonous  plants  are 
found."  The  Shuo-wen  (^  "^  says  :  "The  Shih  is  a  kind  of 
Hao  (^'  Artejnisid).  The  plant  will  yield,  when  a  thousand 
years  old,  three  hundred  stalks.  The  lengths  of  the  stalks 
used  for  divination  were  :  for  the  Son  of  Heaven,  nine  feet  ; 
for  the  feudal  princes,  seven  feet  ;  for  the  high  officers,  five 
feet ;  and  for  the  graduates,  three  feet." 


The  use  of  this  drug  is  said  to  benefit  respiration,  to  in- 
vigorate the  skin  and  muscular  system,  to  brighten  the  eye,  to 
promote  intelligence,  and  if  taken  for  a  long  time  to  prevent 
hunger  and  tissue  waste.  It  is  prescribed  for  dyspepsia  and 
dyspeptic  constipation. 

ACHRYANTHES  BIDRNTATA.— ^  JJI  (Niu-hsi),  903. 
This  is  an  Amarantaceous  plant,  with  greenish-purple  stems, 
having  large  joints  resembling  the  knee  of  an  ox,  whence  the 
Chinese  name  (ox-knee).  The  product  sold  under  this  name 
in  the  Chinese  drug  shops  is  not  always  of  this  species  ;  other 
products  of  the  same  or  allied  genera  being  included  :  as 
Achryanthes  aspcra^  Amarantus^  and  Cyathiila.  Tatarinov  has 
wrongly  identified  this  as  Pupalia^  in  which  error  he  was 
followed  by  Porter  Smith. 

The  product  of  the  shops  varies  considerably  in  appearance, 
as  might  be  expected  from  the  number  of  different  species  of 
plant  used.  The  best  quality,  which  comes  from  Huaiching- 
fu  in  Honan,  occurs  in  straight  flexible  roots  of  the  size  of  a 
small  quill,  wrinkled  longitudinally,  and  of  a  brownish  yellow 
color.  The  taste  is  bitterish  and  somewhat  acrid.  This  is 
probably  the  true  "ox-knee".  Another  specimen  of  the  root 
is  of  a  bark  brown  or  yellowish  color,  twisted,  knotted, 
irregular,  light  and  open  in  structure,  with  fibrous  rootlets 
attached,  of  a  dirty-white  color  in  the  interior,  and  with  very 
little  flavor.  A  coarser  variety,  known  as  )\\  ^  jj^  (Ch'uan- 
niu-hsi),  2452,  differs  in  no  material  respect,  excepting  size, 
from  the  last.  One  ancient  observer  says  that  the  plant  with 
the  large  purple  joints  is  the  staminate  one,  while  that  with 
small  green  joints  is  pistillate.  The  former  is  the  best  for 
medical  purposes.  The  stalk  and  leaves  are  also  used  in 
medicine,  being  regarded  as  having  virtues  similar  to  those  of 
the  root.  The  shoots  of  all  of  the  different  varieties  are  edible. 
Anti-rheumatic  and  anodyne  properties  are  among  the  chief 
ones  ascribed  to  this  drug.  It  is  also  said  to  be  of  use  in  ague, 
fever,  urinary  difficulties,  puerperal  and  cutaneous  diseases. 
So  persistently  is  it  recommended  in  labor  and  puerperal 
conditions,  that  it  might  well  be  worth  while  to  investigate  its 
virtues  in  this  respect.     The  stems  and   leaves    are    especially 


recommended  in  chronic  malarial  and  palludal  poisoning.  In 
India  diuretic  and  astringent  properties  are  attributed  to 
Achryanthes  aspera. 

ACONITUM.  — A  great  many  species  of  Aconite  are  met 
with  in  China.  Maximowics  met  with  nine  in  the  Amur 
region,  fonr  near  Peking,  and  three  in  Mongolia.  Doubtless, 
if  all  of  the  wild  and  cultivated  varieties  of  Szechuan  were 
enumerated,  the  list  would  be  very  much  enlarged.  It  is  also 
probable  that  several  drugs  prepared  for  the  market  are  derived 
from  the  same  species,  being  altered  in  appearance  by  cultivation 
and  domestication.  Identifications  are  exceedingly  difficult, 
and  it  is  only  necessary  to  go  through  the  list  of  those  already 
attempted  to  see  the  hopeless  state  of  the  subject.  In  Peking 
a  specimen  with  a  blue  flower  called  ^  '^  gg  (Ts'ao-wu-t'ou) 
is  identified  as  Aconitum  kiisiiezoffLi.  Tatarinov  identified 
another,  called  ]^  ^  (Ts'ao-wu),  from  specimens  of  the  root,  as 
AconituDi  japo7iicii))i.  Among  other  identifications  are  ^^  -^ 
(Fu-tzu),  a  blue  flowered  kind,  Aconitum  fischeri ;  a  green 
flowered  plant,  ^  ^^  (Wu-t'ou),  Aconitum  lycoctomini ;  and 
Henry  called  the  wild  ^  ^  (Wu-tu),  which  grows  in  the 
mountains  of  Hupei,  Aconitiiju  fischeri.  The  principal  names 
under  which  the  article  appears  in  commerce  are  [^  '^  (Ts'ao- 
wu)  and  [^  '^  HI  (Ts'ao-wu-t'ou),  1353  ;  ]\\  %  (Ch'uan-wu), 
262,  %^  ,1^  (Kuang-wu),  655,  and  ^  |^  (Wu-t'ou),  1472  ;  and 
pf  ^  (Fu-tzu),  343,  5^i|(T'ien-hsiung),  1291,  |?(:f  j^  (Fu-p'ien), 
337,  and  Jll  Iff  (Ch'uan-fu),  243.  Of  the  three  groups,  the 
Customs  Lists  classify  the  first  as  being  derived  from  Aconitiivi 
kusnezojfii  at  Newchwang,  and  from  other  ports,  Aconitum. 
volubile  and  Aconitum  unciatum  ;  the  second,  possibly  Aconitum 
napellus ;  and  the  third,  Aconitum  fischeri.  The  jiff  ^  (Fu- 
p'ien)  is  sliced  aconite  root,  probably  of  the  last  named 

The  statements  of  the  Pentsao  in  regard  to  the  derivation 
and  classification  of  the  drug  are  interesting,  if  not  accurate. 
T'ao  Hung-ching,  the  compiler  of  the  P^ntsaoching^  says 
that  Fti-tzu  and  IVu-f^ou  are  names  applied  to  the  root  of 
the  same  plant.  That  taken  up  in  the  eighth  moon  is  called 
Fu-t2U^   while    that    dug    up    in    the    spring,    when    the    plant 


begins  to  sprout,  and  resembling  a  crow's  head  in  shape,  is 
called  lVu-i''oi{.  That  with  a  pedicle  like  an  ox-horn  is 
called  Wu-hui  (,^  P^).  The  inspissated  juice  is  called  ^J  [^ 
(She-wang).  The  T''  ien-lismng  resembles  the  Fu-tsu^  but 
is  more  slender,  and  from  three  to  four  inches  long.  The 
Tse-tzti  (tpj]  -^j  is  a  large  lateral  horn  of  the  Fii-tzu.  All  'Of 
these  names  refer  to  the  root  of  the  same  plant.  Another 
author  considers  them  to  be  applied  to  different  plants,  each 
of  them  growing  in  a  different  locality.  Li  Shih-chen,  the 
author  of  the  Pentsao^  however,  makes  a  statement  similar  to 
that  of  T'ao  Hung-ching's.  Among  other  terms  applied  to 
aconite  by  the  Chinese  are  ^  ^  ^  (Lou-lan-tzu),  which  are 
said  to  be  the  smallest  lateral  tubers  ;  ^  Bg  1^  (Liang-t'ou- 
chien),  which  is  a  synonym  for  Wn-hiii ;  fj"  f^  ^  g^  (Chu- 
chieh-wu-t'ou),  which  is  synonymous  with  Ts^  ao-ztm-f  on ^  or 
the  wild  species  ;  |!t  ^  (Keng-tzu),  ^  7^  (Tu-kung),  and  ^  |^ 
(Ti-ch'iu).  A  kind  known  as  j^  !%  ^  (T'u-fu-tztl)  is  specially 
spoken  of  as  furnishing  the  arrow  poison. 

It  may  be  said  in  regard  to  this  matter  of  identification 
and  classification,  that  as  all  of  these  varieties  contain  either 
Aconitine,  Japaconitine,  Pseudaconitine,  or  possibly  Delphin- 
ine,  so  far  as  the  pharmacist  and  physician  are  concerned,  the 
distinction  becomes  of  less  importance.  Varying  strengths  of 
the  alkaloid  represented  in  different  specimens  of  the  drug 
would  be  the  only  question  of  importance  to  the  dispenser,  and 
under  the  new  methods  of  drug  assay  this  can  be  readily 

The  so  called  Ch'uan-wu-t'ou  {)\\  "^  g|)  and  Kuang-wu 
(5iu  %^^  ^s  they  appear  in  commeice,  are  top-shaped,  tuberous 
roots,  from  one  inch  and  a  quarter  to  one  inch  and  a  half  in 
length,  and  rather  more  than  half  an  inch  in  thickness, 
according  to  the  number  and  size  of  the  dried  rootlets  which 
project  irregularly  from  the  surface.  The  external  cuticle  is 
irregularly  rough  and  hard,  and  of  a  brownish-black  color,  while 
the  interior  structure  is  firm,  amylaceous,  and  of  a  dirty  white 
color.  The  taste  is  bitter,  acrid,  and  benumbing,  the  tubers 
being  seldom  worm-eaten.  The  drug  is  highly  poisonous.  The 
Pentsao  gives  the  following  description  of  Ch'uan-wu  (/I|  %\ 
which  it  makes  identical  with  Wu-t'ou  {%  Bf )  and  Ts'ao-wu- 


t'ou  (^  ^  Ig) :    "The  leaves  and  the  flowers  come  at  the  same 
time,  appearing  in  the  first  moon.      The  leaves  are  thick,  the 
pedicle  square  and  hollow.      They  are  similar  to  Artemisia  (^) 
leaves.     From  the  fourth  to  the  eighth  moon  a  juice  can   be 
expressed  from  the  stalks,   which  may  be  evaporated  'o  make 
anow  poison.      This,  when  placed  upon  arrow  tips  and  used  for 
killing  birds,  will  produce  death  in  a  bird  so  shot  in  the  time  it 
would  take  one  to  walk  ten  steps.      If  men  are  shoe  with  these 
arrows,  they  will  also  die."     "^oth  the  Piivsao  and  the  Customs 
Reports  give  the  origin  of  this  drug  as  the  province  of  Szechuan. 
The  drug  called  Ts'ao-wu  (^.  ,^)  and  Ts'ao-wu-t'ouC^  % 
^),  ns  found  in  the  Customs  sheds  and  native  drug  stores,  is 
somewhat    different    from    that   just    described.     It    consists   of 
mixed    tuberous   roots,   evidently  of  more  than  one  species  of 
Aconitum ;   that    coming    from    Manchuria  being   classified   as 
Aconitiim  kusnezowii^  and  that   from  other  ports  as  Aconitu^n 
volubile  and  Aconitum  iinciatum.     It  is  possible  that  Aconitum 
ferox  may  be  included  in  the  list.     The  specimens,  therefore, 
vary  a  good  deal,  being  sometimes  ovoid,  oblong,  and  tapering 
to  a  point,  or  bifid,  or  even  rounded  at  the  extremities.      They 
vary  from  three  quarters  of  an  inch  to  one  inch  and  a  half  in 
length,  are  covered  with  smoothish  or  wrinkled,   dark  cuticle, 
and  are  frequently  worm-eaten.    Internally  they  are  whitish  and 
starchy,  having  very  little  odor,  but  the  taste  is  very  acrid  and 
benumbing.     In  Manchuria  a  sun-dried  extract  of  this  aconite 
is  said  to  be  prepared,  the  deadly  properties  of  which  have  been 
confirmed  by  the  experiments  of  Dr.  Christison.     Hanbury  says 
that  equal  parts  of  Ts'ao-wu  ([^  %)^   Ch'uan-wu  \]\\  %\   and 
•  Nao-yang-hua  (j^J  i^  ^),   in  powder,   is  used  to  produce  local 
anaesthesia.      The  moistened  powder  is  applied  to  the  surface  of 
the    part    to    be   operated   upon  for  two  hours  previous  to  the 
operation,  by  which  means,  it  is  alleged,   insensibility  to  pain 
will  be  produced.      The  last  substance  above  named  is  probably 
Hyoscyamus  niger^  although  it  may  be  a  Datnra. 

Fu-tzu  (jff  ^)  is  probably  best  classified  as  Aconitum 
Jischcri.  The  Pentsao  makes  this  an  inferior  or  unripe  (•^) 
sort  of  Wu-t'ou  {%  pj,  which  is  called  f^  -f  #•  To 
distinguish  it  from  Pai-fu-tzu  {^"^  ■?),  a  plant  of  the  Atiim 
family,  it  is  sometimes  called  Hei-fu-tzu  (M  ^j  ^ ).     It  is  said 


to    be    cultiv^ated    upon    a    large    scale    in    Changming    Hsien, 
Lungan  Fu,  Szechnan.      An  elaborate  work  on  its  cultivation 
was  written  in  tlie  Sung  dynasty,  from  which  it  appears  that  by 
the  use  of  pig's-dung,  and  a  long  period  of  domestication,  this 
species  of  aconite,  and  perhaps  Acoiiitum  napellus^  have   been 
rendered  much  less  poisonous.      The  plant  is  made  to  develop 
very  many  appended  side  tubers,  which,  when  gathered  in  the 
winter,  are  prepared  by  steeping  in  vinegar  and  salting  them, 
and  afterwards  treating  them  by  a  process  best  known  to  those 
engaged  in  the  trade.      The  tubers  with  numerous  radicles  are 
the  most  esteemed.      As  found  in  the  drug  shops,  they  are  larger 
than  the  roots  of  the    Ts'ao-wu    (U^  H^),    but    otherwise    very- 
similar  in  appearance.      Fu-p'ien  (|f|  Y^)  is  merely  the  tubers  of 
the   Aconitum  Jischeri  stripped    of   the    cuticle,    after    soaking 
with  vinegar,  dried  thoroughly,  and  cut  into  slices,  which  are 
brittle,   curled,   translucent,   white,   and   exhibit  the  concentric 
arrangement  of  the  vascular  bundles  which    traverse    the    root 
lengthwise.      It  is  but  very  slightly  acrid,  as  might  be  expected 
from  the  action  of  the  acid  on  the  root,  in  which  it  is  macerated 
for  a  week.      Another  drug,  said  to  be  derived  from  the  small 
side  tubers  of  the  Aconitiun  fischeri^  is  called  Tse-tzii  (/jB,!)  ■^). 
The    first    character    in    both  Fii-tzu  and   Ts^-tzu  are  properly 
written  with  the  grass  radical  {f^  and  ^). 

T'ien-hsiung  (5c  11)  is  by  some  classed  as  Aconitum 
variegattnn.  But,  judging  by  the  description  given  in  the 
Pentsao^  it  would  almost  appear  to  be  a  stameniferous  or  sterile 
variety  of  the  Aconitutn  Jischeri^  cultivated  in  Szechnan  and 
altered  by  domestication.  The  prepared  tubers  are  top-shaped, 
ovoid,  measuring  one  inch  and  three  quarters  long  by  one  inch 
and  a  half  in  breadth,  of  a  black  color  externally,  and  often 
encrusted  with  a  saline  efflorescence.  Several  tubercles  emboss 
the  outer  surface,  more  especially  at  the  upper  part.  The 
interior  is  of  a  blackish-brown  color,  moist  and  greasy.  In  some 
fresher  specimens  the  color  was  lighter  and  the  texture  more 
amylaceous.  The  taste  is  saltish,  followed  by  the  characteristic 
sensations  caused  by  aconite. 

The  Pentsao  considers  all  of  the  various  forms  of  aconite 
to  be  the  same.  That  is  to  say,  each  is  a  different  stage  in  the 
growth  or  cultivation  of  the  plant.     A  number  of  explanations 


are  quoted  from  various  authors.  As,  for  instance,  one  says 
that  the  product  of  the  first  year  of  the  plant's  life  is  called 
Tse-tzu  (H!)  ~f ) ;  that  of  the  second  year,  Wu-hui  (^  P^)  ;  the 
third,  Fu-tzfi  (fJff  •^);  the  fourth,  Wu-t'ou  (J^  gf)  ;  and  the 
fifth,  T'ien-hsiung  (^  ^|).  A  sixth  form  is  spoken  of,  which 
is  called  Lou-lan-tzu  (|)§  ^  ■^),  and  is  considered  to  be  an 
immature  form  of  the  aconite  plant.  But  as  Mu-pieh-tzu 
(TfC  ^^-p)  is  given  as  another  name  for  it,  and  as  this  is  probably 
the  fruit  of  the  Momordica  cochinchinensis^  the  terminology  is 
here  probably  at  fault. 

The  P^ntsao  also  says  that  an  arrow  poison  is  prepared 
from  a  plant  growing  in  some  country  west  of  China  ;  the  plant's 
name  being  ^  j^  ;^  (Tu-pai-ts'ao).  It  says  that  this  is  an 
aconite,  but  not  the  Ch'uan-wu  (Jlf  ,^).  This  probably  is 
because  aconite  is  practically  the  only  substance  that  has  been 
used  as  arrow  poison  in  China.  The  "western  country"  drug 
may  as  well  have  been  Strophanthtis ^  or  some  allied  plant  of  the 
digitalis  series.  As  the  substance  is  not  readily  found  in  the 
drug  shops,  and  its  exact  place  of  origin  is  not  known,  it  has 
not  yet  been  studied.  Another  very  poisonous  substance,  called 
%  ^  (Lang-tu,  "wolf's-bane")  and  %%l^  (Lang-tu-t'ou), 
693,  is  possibly  Aconituvi  lycoctonum^  but  more  probably 
Aconituvi  ferox.  The  roots  are  large  and  starchy,  and  are  often 
much  worm-eaten.  It  is  used  as  a  sedative  and  in  violent 
coughs.  It  is  the  common  article  for  poisoning  birds  and 
beasts  whenever  this  is  done. 

The  Chinese  do  not  seem  to  have  considered  any  of  the 
aconites  as  edible,  but  the  Pentsao  speaks  of  one  variety  as  non- 
poisonous.  This  is  ^  ,^  (Niu-pien),  which  may  be  the 
Aconituvi  septc7itrioiiale,  used  in  Lapland  as  a  potherb.  It  is 
entirely  probable  that  the  edible  varieties  indigenous  to  India, 
such  as  the  Aconitiim  multijidum  and  the  Aconiturn  rotundi- 
foliinn,  are  also  found  in  China.  The  Niu-pien  (^  j^)  is  only 
used  as  a  lotion  for  ulcers  and  as  an  insecticide  on  cattle. 

All  of  the  drugs  included  in  this  list  of  aconites,  so  far  as 
they  are  used  by  the  Chinese,  are  only  employed  after  they  have 
been  prepared  in  various  ways  so  as  to  diminish  the  poisonous 
properties  of  the  plants.  This  explains  the  almost  uniform 
practice  ot  soaking  the  tubers  in  vinegar  for  a  longer  or  shorter 


period  before  tliey  are  placed  on  the  market.  As  is  the  case 
with  most  drugs  having  strong  physiological  properties  these 
aconites  are  prescribed  for  the  widest  variety  of  bodily  disorders. 
A  simple  list  of  the  diseases  for  which  they  are  recommended 
would  include  most  of  the  disorders  to  which  flesh  is  heir. 
They  are  considered  to  be  stimulant,  diaphoretic,  diuretic, 
arthritic,  sedative,  alterative,  and  deobstruent.  They  are 
accordingly  used  in  fevers,  ague,  rheumatism,  nervous  disorders, 
neuralgias  and  all  sorts  of  painful  conditions,  dropsy,  cholera, 
and  are  considered  to  be  specially  efficacious  in  the  many  forms 
of  dysentery  found  in  Chinese  nosology.  Conditions  considered 
to  result  from  the  disturbance  in  the  balance  between  the  dual 
principles  are  differently  affected  by  the  different  varieties  of 
this  plant.  For  instance,  if  the  "  yin  "  (|^)  is  deficient,  or  the 
"  yang "  i[JJ)  in  excess,  Wu-t'ou  {^  B^)  is  the  one  to  be 
employed  ;  but  if  the  opposite  condition  exists  then  T'ien- 
hsiung  (  5c  ^)  should  be  administered.  This  seems,  at  least,  to 
be  in  harmony  with  the  sexuality  of  these  plants. 

ACORUS. — The  character  ch'ang  (^")  is  applied  in  China 
and  Japan  to  the  genus  Acorics^  of  which  several  species, 
including  the  common  sweet  flag  (Acorns  calamus)^  are  found 
in  Eastern  Asia.  The  character  p'u  (-/[If)  is  defined  by  Kang 
Hsi  as  "a  rush  suitable  for  making  mats".  This  character 
might  be  suggested  as  a  distinctive  term  for  the  order  of 
Juncacecs.  Owing  to  the  aquatic  habit  of  the  principle  rep- 
resentative of  the  genus  both  the  Pentsao  and  Kang  Hsi  classify 
the  Acorns  with  the  rush  family.  Hence  Ch'ang-p'u  (^'  y^), 
"  Acorus  rush  ".  Of  the  different  varieties  oi  Acorns  the  two 
characters  ^  y|f,  29,  seem  to  be  reserved  for  Acorus  terrcstris^ 
while  the  Acorus  calamus  is  shui-ch'ang-p'u  (jjIC  ^  fif  j  and  the 
Acorus graminens  is  shih-ch'ang-p'u  {^S  M  W\  ii39-  Another 
variety  known  as  ch'ang-jung  (^  ^),  28,  ^^  Acorus  okra''\  and 
pai-ch'ang  (j^  ^)  is  the  Acorus  spurius.  The  leaf  of  the 
latter  is  described  as  without  a  raid-rib,  which  probably  means 
that  it  does  not  have  the  elevated  ridge  on  the  leaves  common 
to  the  other  varieties.  Its  rhizome  is  not  considered  to  be 
edible,  and  it  is  used  in  medicine  only  as  an  insecticide  and  an 


It  is  probable  that  the  Acorus  terrestris  and  the  Acorns 
gramineus  furnish  the  greater  part  of  the  product  to  the 
commerce  of  China,  although  it  is  reported  as  Acorus  calamus 
from  several  ports.  The  provinces  from  which  the  larger  part 
comes  aie  Szechuan,  Kuangtung,  and  Kuangsi  ;  while 
Chekiang,  Anhui,  and  Honan  are  mentioned  as  additional 
sources  of  supply.  The  plant  is  artificially  cultivated  to  supply 
the  demand  for  its  sword-like  leaves,  which  are  hung  up  at  the 
Dragonboat  festival  on  the  fifth  day  of  the  fifth  moon  of  each 
year.  (See  the  article  on  Ariefuisia. )  The  drug  is  met  with 
in  the  form  of  brittle,  brownish-yellow,  broken  rootlets, 
irregularly  ridged,  and  not  inaptly  compared  by  the  Chinese  to 
whip-cord.  They  have  an  agreeable  smell,  and  the  interior  is 
white  and  starchy  in  texture  and  of  a  sweetish  aromatic  flavor. 
As  the  rhizome  proper  is  a  more  efiicient  drug,  it  is  probable 
that  it  is  also  employed,  although  it  is  not  so  often  found  in  the 
samples  passing  through  the  Imperial  Customs.  Stimulant, 
tonic,  antispasmodic,  sedative,  stomachic,  diaphoretic,  anti- 
periodic,  and  other  properties  are  referred  to  this  drug,  which 
has  some  excellent  virtues,  as  confirmed  by  many  trustworthy 
observers  in  India  and  Europe.  Its  insecticidal  and  insectifugal 
properties  are  understood  by  the  Chinese,  who  refer  its 
prophylactic  powers  to  some  such  influence.  It  is  worth  while 
remembering  that  in  Constantinople  this  drug  is  largely  eaten 
as  a  preventive  against  pestilence.  The  powder,  the  juice,  and 
a  tincture  are  the  favorite  methods  of  exhibition  with  the 
Chinese,  who  use  it  in  haemoptysis,  colic,  menorrhagia,  and 
other  fluxes,  and  apply  the  juice  or  coarse  powder  to  carbuncles, 
buboes,  deaf  ears,  and  sore  eyes.  It  is  said  to  be  antidotal  to 
the  poison  of  euphorbiaceous  plants.  The  leaves  are  used  to 
wash  pustular  eruptions  and  leprous  sores.  The  prolific 
flowering  of  the  plant  is  said  to  betoken  large  harvests. 

ACTEA  SPIC ATA.— Under  the  Chinese  name  of  ff-  % 
(Sheng-ma  ,  1132,  the  roots  of  a  number  of  Ranunculaceous 
plants  are  found  in  the  markets ;  such  as  Actea  spicata^  Astilbe 
chinensis^  Astilbe  thunbergi^  Ciniicifuga  dnurica^  Cimicifuga 
foetida^  and  Cimicifuga  japonica.  Porter  Smith,  following 
Hanbury,  who  in  turn  had  followed  a  wrong  identification  by 


Siebold,  calls  this  TJialictrum  rubclluni.  While  these  may  all 
be  similar  in  physiological  action,  it  is  scarcely  probable  that 
they  are  of  equal  value  and  medicinal  strength.  The  identifica- 
tion of  the  various  species  remains  yet  to  be  done  ;  while,  if  the 
drug  has  the  medicinal  properties  ascribed  to  it  by  the  Chinese, 
the  comparative  value  and  action  of  the  various  kinds  is  still  to 
be  ascertained.  According  to  the  Chinese  books  the  chief 
source  of  the  drug  is  the  mountain  ravines  of  Szechuan  ;  but 
the  Customs  Reports,  in  addition  to  the  province  already 
mentioned,  give  Manchuria,  Shensi,  Chekiang,  Kuangtung, 
and  Kuangsi  as  sources  of  supply.  It  is  possible  that  the 
various  provinces  may  furnish  roots  from  different  but  allied 
genera  and  species.  The  superior  quality  of  the  drug  is  called 
^  Hi  I^  (Sheng-ma-jou),  1133,  while  the  inferior  is  designated 
5^  ISI,  li  (Sheng-ma-t'ou),  11 34.  The  commonly  used  variety 
of  the  plant  most  nearly  resembles  Actea  in  the  descrip- 
tion given  in  the  books,  so  this  article  is  written  under  this 

Marvelous  properties  are  ascribed  to  this  drug  in  Chinese 
medical  works.  It  is  regarded  as  "  a  corrective  for  every  form 
of  poison,  preserving  from  old  age  and  preventing  death  ;  a 
prophylactic  against  pestilence,  malaria,  evil  miasms,  and  the 
ku  (^)  poison".  One  is  reminded  that  forty  years  ago 
Cimicifiiga  raceniosa  was  held  in  almost  as  high  repute  by  a 
certain  school  of  physicians  in  America.  Whether  the  Chinese 
drug  is  as  inert  as  the  American  product,  remains  to  be 
considered.  To  say  the  least,  it  is  remarkable  that  empirics 
separated  by  wide  oceans  and  by  reaches  of  time,  should  have 
come  to  practically  the  same  estimate  of  what  is  apparently  so 
worthless  a  drug.  In  addition  to  its  use  in  miasmatic  and 
infectious  disorders  it  is  prescribed  in  nervous  crying  of 
children,  in  skin  diseases,  in  the  treatment  of  malignant 
tumors,  in  aphthous  sore  mouth,  and  in  post-partum 

ACTINIDIA.— ^  %  (Ch'ang-ch'u).  This  is  the  classical 
name.  The  Shuo-wen  says  it  is  the  -^  ^^  (Yang-t'ao).  It  is  a 
climbing  shrub  with  edible  fruit  about  the  size  of  a  plum. 
There  seems  to  be  two  varieties,  which  have  been  identified  as 


Actinidia  chinensis  (:^  \%  or  -^  |IB,  Yang-t'ao)  and  Actinidia 
rufa  (^  \^  f^^,  Mi-hou-t'ao).  In  the  south  of  China  the  char- 
acters ^  ^t'^^  are  used  for  the  fruit  of  the  Averrhoa  carambola^ 
1497,  or  "Chinese  gooseberry"  as  it  is  called  by  Europeans. 
But  this  usage  is  evidently  only  a  local  one,  and  the  plant  so 
designated  by  the  Pentsao  is  certainly  not  the  carambola,  but 
Actinidia.  It  is  described  as  a  clambering  plant,  growing  in 
hilly  districts,  with  a  round,  furry  leaf  and  a  greenish  fruit 
about  the  size  of  a  hen's  egg.  The  fruit  is  edible,  and  in  the 
mountainous  districts  of  Shensi,  where  it  grows  plentifully,  it  is 
greatly  relished  by  the  monkeys.  Hence  the  name  by  which 
it  goes  in  the  north.  The  bark  is  used  to  make  paper,  and 
when  removed  in  one  piece  from  near  the  root  and  placed  in 
hot  ashes,  it  is  converted  into  a  firm  tube,  which  is  used  for 
pencils.  The  fruit  is  useful  for  quenching  thirst,  and  this  and 
the  juice  of  the  stalk  are  of  some  repute  in  the  treatment  of 
"gravel  ".  A  decoction  of  the  branches  and  leaves  is  used  for 
the  cure  of  mange  in  dogs. 

ADENOPHOR A.— Several  Campanulaceous  plants,  the 
roots  of  which  bear  some  resemblance  to  ginseng,  and  for  which 
they  are  sometimes  fraudulently  substituted,  are  found  among 
the  flora  of  China.  These  are  Adenophora  verticillata  (^  ^, 
Sha-shen),  Adenophora  polyviorpha^  var.  alternifolia  (^  ^  \»^ 
^,  Hsing-yeh-sha-shen),  Adenophora  tracheloides  (^  ^,  Ti- 
ui),  Codonopsis  laticeolata  (j^  ^  ^1  T'u-tang-shen),  Glos- 
socomia  lanceolata  (^  ^,  Yang-ju),  Platycodon  grandiflormn 
(1^  SI)  Chieh-keng),  Wahlenbergia  marginata  (|g  ^  tl^  ^, 
Hsi-yeh-sha-sheu),  and  others. 

The  Pentsao  counts  Sha-shen  (j^?  :^)  among  the  five  gin- 
sengs ;  the  other  four  being  Jen-shen  ( A  ^)}  Hsiian-shen  (^ 
§>,  Tan-shen  (^fj  ^),  and  K'u-shen  (^  ^).  It  also  says  that 
it  is  white  in  color,  from  which  it  gets  the  name  of  Pai-shen 
(fe  ^\  £^nd  grows  best  on  sandy  soil,  from  whence  its  principal 
name  {^  •^).  The  juice  of  the  root  is  milky,  and  is  vulgarly 
called  ^  1^  15  t Yang-p'o-nai),  "sheep  mother  milk".  This 
root  is  also  sometimes  called  ^  |L  (Yang-ju)  and  Jfe  ^  (Ti- 
hwang).  It  occurs  ( 1078)  in  tapering  pieces,  from  four  to  eight 
inches  in  length,  with  a  whitish-brown,  wrinkled  exterior,  and 


is  much  lighter  and  bulkier  than  ginseng.  The  interior  is 
spongy  and  of  a  yellowish-white,  and  the  cross-section  shows  a 
cunou'^.ly  plicated  arrangement  of  the  tissue,  the  folds  radiating 
irregularly  from  the  center  to  the  circumference.  As  the  stem 
grows  older,  thi'^  arrangement  is  less  distinct.  The  taste  is 
bitter-sweet,  sligntly  cooling  and  demulcent.  It  is  used  largely 
in  pulmonary  diseases,  especially  those  attended  by  fever,  and 
as  a  general  tc-'Ac  and  restorative  of  bodily  vigor.  The  books 
say  the  Jen-shen  (A  ^)  is  -^  restorative  of  the  "  yang  "  prin- 
ciple, while  Sha-shen  (fp  ^)  restores  the  "  yin  ". 

Haing-yeh-sha-shen  (^  ^  fp  ^)  is  considered  to  be  iden- 
tical with  Chi-ni  (^  j^).  The  Pentsao  says  in  regard  to  this 
latter  that  the  root  is  like  Sha-shen  k^  ^)  and  the  leaves  are 
like  the  apricot  ;  therefore,  the  people  of  Honan  call  it  "apricot- 
leaved  sha-shen".  The  plant  contains  a  large  quantity  of 
juice,  which  is  called  ^  ^  i^  ^  (Chi-ni-nung-lu),  "chi-ni 
thick  dew  ".  The  Chi-ni  (^  ^)  is  Adenophoi^a  remotifolia^  the 
common  harebell.  The  properties  of  this  root  are  sweet  and 
cooling.  It  is  reputed  as  an  antidote  for  all  kinds  of  medicinal 
poisons.  It  also  is  said  to  be  efficacious  in  the  bites  of  poison- 
ous insects  and  reptiles,  as  well  as  to  overcome  the  effects  of 
arrow-poison.  Virulent  ulcers,  poisoned  wounds,  and  the  kii 
(jS)  poison  are  also  said  to  be  benefited  by  it.  As  the  drug 
seems  to  be  a  simple  demulcent,  one  does  not  understand  how 
it  can  have  secured  a  reputation  in  such  a  wide  range  of 
poisonous  affections.  Ti-ni  (^  '^)  is  given  as  a  synonym  of 
the  above,  but  it  probably  is  distinct,  as  indicated  at  the  head 
of  this  article.  Similarity  in  general  appearance  of  the 
root  and  in  medical  properties  may  account  for  the  Chinese 

Tang-shen  i%^  ^\  1251,  is  classed  by  the  Phitsao  with 
true  ginseng.  The  name  comes  from  J:  %,  fShang-tang\  the 
ancient  name  of  Lu-an-fu  in  Shansi,  from  which  one  of  the  two 
principal  kinds  of  ginseng  originally  came.  For  this  reason 
the  complete  name  is  J:  ^.  A  #  (Shang-tang-jen-shen).  But 
at  the  present  time  at  least  Tang-shen  represents  Campanula- 
ceous  roots,  and  sometimes  goes  by  the  name  of  Bastard  Gin- 
seng. These  roots  are  much  more  open  than  even  the  worst 
specimens    of    ginseng,    all    of  which    have    a    much    sharper 


and  more  aromatic  flavor.  The  Customs  Lists  classify  Tang- 
shen  f^,  ^)  as  Canipanumoea  pilosula^  and  it  is  possible  that 
the  T'u-tang-shen  (i  '%  #),  mentioned  above,  is  not  the  same, 
although  supplying  a  root  similar  in  appearance  and  quality 
to  the  former.  It  is  met  with  in  long,  slender,  tapering,  pale 
yellow  pieces,  slightly  twisted.  They  are  about  five  inches 
in  length,  much  smaller  than  Fang-tang-shen  (|J5  %  ^), 
which  they  very  much  resemble,  being  wrinkled  or  furrowed 
longitudinally  and  transversely.  The  interior  is  brittle,  brown- 
ish-yellow, open  in  structure,  and  with  a  lighter  central  pith. 
The  taste  is  sweetish  and  slightly  mucilagenous,  resembling 
that  of  malt.  The  Customs  Lists  also  give  Ming-tang-sh8a 
(B^  %  ^),  853,  and  say  that  this  is  the  Chi-ni  (^  ~^,  and 
that  it  is  quite  different  from  Tang-shen  (^  ^),  1251.  On 
the  supposition  that  Tang-shen  is  from  a  species  of  true  ginseng, 
this  would  be  correct.  But  even  these  lists  give  the  origin  of 
Tang-shen  from  the  CampanulacecB ^  and,  if  there  is  any  dis- 
tinction, it  would  be  between  the  different  genera  or  species 
of  this  order,  e.g.,  Codonopsis  lanceolata  and  Ca7npa7iunioea 
pilosula.  Ming-tang  (Bfl  ^),  or  ''clear  ginseng  from  Shang- 
tang,"  is  found  in  hard  pieces  of  four  inches  in  length,  taper- 
ing at  both  ends  like  a  cigar  ;  one  end  being  truncated  and  the 
other  pointed.  The  cuticle  is  of  a  yellowish  color,  stained 
with  reddish  points,  marked  with  fine  lines  or  furrows,  and 
the  interior  hard,  white,  porous,  and  easily  separated  from  the 
translucent  cortical  part.  Tang-shen  (^  ^)  is  distinguished 
in  commerce  by  several  special  designations,  indicating  its 
source  or  the  manner  of  packing.  Among  these  is  Fang-tang 
(§5  ^)»  ^Iso  called  Fang-tang-shen  (jJJ  ^  ^)  and  Fang-feng- 
tang-shen  (|55  M  %.  #)•  This  is  the  kind  that  comes  from 
Hupeh,  and  is  described  by  Porter  Smith  as  follows:  "This 
is  a  drug  met  with  in  bundles  of  long,  tapering,  angular 
pieces,  of  dirty-brown  color,  marked  with  wrinkles  and  fissures, 
or  transverse  rings.  They  average  about  a  foot  in  length,  and 
are  more  or  less  tough  or  brittle,  according  to  age.  There 
are  remnants  of  the  radicles  at  the  thicker,  or  lower  ends. 
The  cross  section  is  of  a  lighter  color,  showing  the  same  open, 
plicated  arrangement  of  the  woody  tissue  as  the  Sha-shen 
{W  ^))  with  a  firmer  central  pith  of  a  yellow  color.     The  two 


drugs  resemble  each  other  a  good  deal,  but  the  one  under 
consideration  is  much  larger  and  darker,  and  marked  ex- 
ternally with  dark  patches  of  the  dried  juice.  It  has  a  sweet, 
mucilagenous  taste,  and  is  used  as  a  tonic  like  ginseng.  It  is 
used  in  syphilis,  just  as  the  Campanula  glaiica  is  amongst  the 
Japanese."  Ch 'nan-tang  (/![  ^)  is  from  Szechuan,  and  is  in 
large  dark  pieces,  resembling  Sha-shen  (^  ^);  Hsi-tang 
(H  ^.)  is  from  Shensi,  Lu-tang  (^{^  ^)  from  Luan  prefecture 
in  Shausi.  Pao-tang  (-gj  ^)  is  the  drug  in  bales,  Hsiang- 
tang  (^  ;^i  is  that  in  boxes,  while  Feng-p'i  (H,  ^),  or  Feng- 
p'i-tang  (HI,  ^  ^),  or  Hung-tang  (ifl  %)  is  the  substance  in 
bundles  fastened  with  red  cord.  Tatarinov  thought  to  identify 
Tang-shen  (^^  i^)  as  a  Convolvulus^  but  there  is  no  doubt  that 
this  is  a  campanulaceous  plant. 

Chieh-keng  k\%  ^),  Platycodon  grandifiorum^  is  a  red 
stemmed  genus  of  the  Campamilacecs.  The  Pentsao  savs  that 
it  is  like  the  Chi-ni  (^^),  the  latter  being  sweet,  while  the 
former  is  bitter.  Like  others  of  this  order,  its  roots  are  used 
to  falsify  ginseng.  It  is  brought  from  Szechuan,  Hupeh, 
Honan,  Shansi,  and  possibly  from  other  provinces  of  North 
China.  It  occurs  in  short,  dark-brown  pieces,  much  shriveled 
and  wrinkled,  and  sometimes  moniliform,  varying  in  size  from 
that  of  a  little  finger  to  a  writing  quill,  or  even  smaller.  Its 
taste  is  said  to  be  slightly  bitter  and  demulcent.  Its  ascribed 
medicinal  qualities  are  many,  among  which  the  more  important 
are  tonic,  astringent,  sedative,  stomachic,  and  vermifuge.  It 
is  specially  recommended  in  bloody  fluxes  from  the  bowels. 

ADIANTUM. — The  substance  spoken  of  in  the  Customs 
Lists  as  T'ieh-sien-ts'ao  (||j  H  :^),  1281,  is  given  in  the  List 
of  Chinese  Plants  known  to  Linnaeus  as  Adiantuni  fiabellatum^ 
and  is  also  included  in  Loureiro's  Flora  Cochinchinensis  under 
the  same  classification.  T'ieh-sien-ts'ao  1^  |f^  i^ ),  as  given 
in  the  Pentsao^  seems  rather  to  be  a  Polygonum^  and  is  repre- 
sented to  be  the  same  as  Pien-hsli  {%  H),  Polygonum  avicu- 
lare.  The  part  used  is  the  root,  while  the  product  appearing 
at  the  Customs  is  the  stalk  and  leaves.  Further  identification 
of  this  substance  is  necessary.  The  drug  spoken  of  in  the 
Pentsao  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  colds. 


Adiantiim  monochlamys^  Shih-ch'ang-slieng  {^  ^  ^), 
is  a  true  Filix.  It  is  found  in  mountainous  districts,  growing 
upon  the  edge  of  cliffs.  The  root  is  the  part  used,  and  its 
taste  is  said  to  be  salt}',  slightly  cooling,  and  the  drug  is 
somewhat  poisonous.  Its  properties  are  febrifuge  and  para- 
siticide.    It  is  recommended  in  parasitic  skin  diseases. 

^GLE  SEPIARIA.— In  the  Customs  Lists  fa  (Chih), 
133,  137,  is  so  identified.  But  the  preponderance  of  authority 
seems  to  be  in  favor  of  considering  this  as  Citrus  fusca.  or 
Citrus  trifoliata.      (See  Citrus. ) 

^SCUIvUS  CHINENSIS.— 5fc  U  ^  (T'ien-shih-li).  The 
fruit  of  this  sapandaceous  plant  is  but  little  different  from  the 
common  horse-chestnut.  The  Pentsao  says  that  it  is  found  only 
in  the  mountains  of  Western  Szechuan,  but  it  is  said  also  to 
come  from  the  province  of  Hupeh.  The  name  is  derived  from 
51  5c  Bifi  (Chang  T'ien-shih),  a  famous  Taoist  priest,  who 
dwelt  at  Ts'ing-ch'en  {%  ^\  a  city  situated  in  this  part  of 
Szechuan,  and  studied  "tao. "  It  is  probable  that  this  is  the 
same  as  ^  j^  -^  or  ^  ^  -^  (So-lo-tzii),  as  given  in  Tatari- 
nov's  list.  The  fruit  is  also  compared  to  the  acorn.  The 
hilum  is  large  and  the  integument  of  a  dark,  reddish-brown 
color.  The  bark  of  the  tree  contains  a  crystalline,  fluorescent 
principle,  and  some  species  of  this  genus  are  poisonous,  but 
these  nuts  are  sweet,  and  are  merely  credited  with  being 
useful  iu  cases  of  contracted  limbs  from  palsy  or  rheumatism. 
The  fruits  selling  at  a  valuation  of  threepence  each  in  Hankow, 
induces  the  Chinese  to  put  some  faith  in  them,  for  they  usually 
value  a  remedy  in  proportion  to  its  cost. 

Another  representative  of  this  genus  is  the  ^sculus  tur- 
binata  (^  ^  jg^,  Ch'i-yeh-shu\  It  is  so  classified  in  the 
Japanese  lists,  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao^  and  may  not 
be  found  in  China. 

AGAVE  CHINENSIS.— J:  U  ^  (T'u-ch'en-hsiang), 
1365.  This  amaryllidaceous  plant  is  not  mentioned  in  the 
Pintsao,  but  is  apparently  met  with  in  Formosa.  The  Agave 
Americana  {Bi  9^  Mi  Lu-sung-ma),  is  said  by  Mr.  T.  Sampson 


to  have  been  introduced  into  Canton  province  from  Manila  ;' 
at  least  the  fibers,  sometimes  called  Pita-fiax^  are  said  to  be 
employed  in  the  manufacture  of  mosquito  netting.  This  fiber 
has,  however,  been  referred  by  French  botanists  to  Chamcsrops 
excelsa  (:j=^  f^,  Tsung-lii),  the  coir-palm.  The  hemp  has  also 
been  called  Po-lo-ma  (JS^  %.\  but  it  is  more  probable  that 
this  latter  is  the  Chinese  name  for  Corchoriis  or  Triumfetta^ 
tiliaceous  plants,  which  see.  The  Agave  Mexicana  has  been 
confounded  by  Professor  Neuman  with  the  ^  ^  (Fu-sang), 
which  is  evidently  a  malvaceous  shrub,  the  Hibisnis  rosa- 
sinensis^  and  upon  his  identification  he  has  grounded  a  pre- 
sumption in  favor  of  an  early  discovery  of  America  by  the 
Chinese.  The  land  named  after  this  plant,  which  was  seen 
growing  in  profusion  there,  has  been  identified  by  Klaproth 
with  Saghalien ;  by  Leland  with  a  part  of  the  American 
continent,  and  by  others  with  Japan.  The  Fu-sang,  of  which 
the  ancient  Chinese  books  speak,  was  not  the  Hibisais  rosa- 
sinensis^  but  it  was  the  name  of  a  fabulous  tree,  behind  which 
the  sun  was  supposed  to  rise.  The  Agave  Mexica^ia  has  been 
naturalized  in  India,  and  is  largely  cultivated  there.  Indian 
experience  has  confirmed  the  anti-syphilitic  properties  assigned 
by  the  Mexicans  to  this  plant.  Dr.  Hutchinson,  of  India,  cut 
the  large,  fleshy  leaves  into  thin  slices,  and  used  them  as 

AGLAIA  ODORATA.— H  ^  H  (San-yeh-lan),  %-^M 
(Mi-sui-lan).  The  flowers  of  this  meliaceous  plant  are  used  to 
scent  teas.  The  dried  buds  are  called  M  iTt  ^It  (Lan-hwa-mi), 
691.  The  leaves  and  root  are  well  worth  trial  as  tonics,  as 
Canella  and  other  excellent  tonics  are  referred  to  this  order. 
The  tender  leaves  are  eaten  as  a  vegetable. 

AILANTHUS  GLANDULOSA.— ^f  fCh'u),  otherwise 
know  as  ^\%  (Ch'ou-ch'u)  and  J^  ;j§  (Ch'ou-ch'un).  The 
Pcntsao  includes  this  and  Cedt'ela  sinenses  under  the  common 
heading  of  ;j^  |g  (Ch'un-ch'u).  Although  these  belong  to  two 
distinct  orders — the  Ailan  thus  to  the  Sunarubacecs  and  the 
Cedrela  to  the  RiUacece — it  is  well  known  that  there  is  a  strong 


'resemblance  between  the  trees  and  shrubs  of  the  former  order 
and  the  Rtitacccs  xanthoxylecs ;  so  it  is  not  surprising  that  the 
Chinese  should  have  classed  these  together.  Several  species 
of  both  genera  yield  timber  of  various  qualities,  but  the 
red,  fine-grained,  mahogany-like  wood  of  the  Cedrela  is 
far  superior  to  the  coarse,  white,  open  timber  of  the 
Ailanthus^  much  used  as  fuel.  Other  species  of  trees,  similar 
in  general  appearance  to  the  Ch'u  i\%\  and  having  leaves 
giving  off  odor,  are  classed  in  the  Phitsao  with  this ;  an 
effort  being  made  to  distinguish  the  different  kinds  by  the 
odor.  Reason  for  this  may  be  found  in  the  fact  that  the 
Ch'un  (|§)  has  fragrant  leaves  that  can  be  eaten,  and  is  there- 
fore sometimes  called  Hsiang-ch'un  (:§;  ;].^),  while  the  Ch'u 
'^%)  has  leaves  with  an  offensive  smell,  and  therefore  not  used 
as  food.  The  leaves  of  the  Ailanthus  are  large  pinnate,  from 
one  to  two  feet  long,  and  are  very  similar  to  those  of  the 
Cedrela^  both  of  which  trees  grow  in  profusion  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Peking.  On  close  examination,  however,  the  leaves 
of  the  former  are  easily  distinguished  by  the  two  little  glands 
near  the  basis  of  each  leaflet,  to  which  the  species  name 
'■'' glandulosa  "  refers.  The  Ailanthus  grows  very  easily  and 
rapidly,  and  its  wood  is  used  only  for  fuel.  In  the  phrase 
\%^  i.'^  it  becomes,  classed  with  the  scrub  oak,  a  figure  of 
speech  for  "uselessness."  The  leaves  are  used  to  feed  silk- 
worms, and  in  times  of  scarcity  are  eaten  as  a  vegetable, 
though,  on  account  of  their  offensive  odor,  not  from  choice. 
They  are  said  to  be  very  slightly  poisonous,  and  are  used  as 
astringent,  anthelmintic,  and  deobstruent  remedies.  They  are 
given  in  diseases  of  the  lungs,  dysuria,  menstrual  diseases,  the 
kan  (^)  disease  of  children,  spermatorrhoea  and  fluxes  in 
general,  and  a  wash  is  made  to  promote  the  growth  of  the 
hair  and  to  wash  parasitic  ulcers  and  eruptions.  In  most  of 
the  cases,  the  bark  both  of  the  tree  and  of  the  root  is  used, 
having  precisely  the  same  properties.  The  name  Ch'u-p'i 
(1#  i^))  o^  ^s  in  the  Customs  Lists  Shu-pai-p'i  {\%  H  j^),  1168, 
should  be  confined  to  the  bark  of  the  Ailanthus ;  while 
Ch'un-p'i  (;ji  ^),  or  Hsiang-ch'un-p'i  (f:  #  i^',  275,  415, 
is  more  correctly  applied  to  that  of  the  Cedrela.  See  Cedrela 


AKEBIA  QUINATA.— 7tc  jg  (Mu-t'nng).  A  drug 
obtained  from  a  Peking  drug  shop,  bearing  this  Chinese  name, 
was  sent  to  Kew  and  there  examined.  It  proved  to  be  Akebia 
quinata.  It  was  in  thin  slices,  evidently  the  transverse 
sections  of  a  ligneous  stem,  half-an-inch  in  diameter ;  the 
marrow  showing  small  holes  like  a  sieve.  In  the  Customs 
Lists,  878,  the  drug  is  said  to  be  derived  from  various  species 
of  Clematis;  "the  export  from  Newchwang  is  probably 
Clematis  heracleoefolia^  that  from  Hankow  is  Clematis  grata^ 
while  that  from  Ningpo  and  Canton  has  not  yet  been 
determined."  Loureiro  and  Faber  identify  it  as  Clematis 

It  is  a  climbing  plant,  with  a  jointed,  woody  stem,  varying 
in  thickness  from  that  of  a  finger  to  about  three  inches  in 
diameter.  The  wood  is  yellow,  and  is  arranged  in  vascular 
plates,  leaving  tubular  openings  large  enough  for  air  to  be 
blown  through  ;  hence  the  Chinese  names,  %  jj  (Mu-t'ung)and 
j§  !^  (T'ung-ts'ao  .  This  latter  name,  however,  is  also  some- 
times applied  to  Fatsia  papyrifera.  The  twigs  and  fruit  are 
used  in  medicine.  The  fruit,  which  in  the  south  of  China  is 
called  ipt  ^  ^  (,Yen-fu-tzu)  and  .^  ^  ^  (Wu-fu-tzii),  is  from 
three  to  four  inches  long,  has  a  white  pulp  with  black  kernels, 
is  edible  and  of  an  agreeable,  sweet  taste.  The  wood  is  bitter 
to  the  taste,  and  is  pronounced  to  be  a  stimulating,  diaphoretic, 
laxative,  diuretic,  stomachic,  and  vulnerary  drug,  quickening 
all  of  the  senses  and  faculties.  The  fruit  is  said  to  be  tonic, 
stomachic,  and  diuretic. 

ALBIZZIA  JULIBRISSIN.— ^  f;  (Ho-huan),  373,  -^  ^ 
(Yeh-ho).  This  is  one  of  the  leguminosae  of  the  suborder 
MtmosecB^  and  is  also  called  Acacia  julibrissin.  Loureiro 
calls  it  Mimosa  arboi-ea.  It  is  sensitive,  the  leaves  folding 
together  at  night,  as  the  Chinese  name  implies.  It  is  probable 
that  in  this  sense  another  name  given  by  the  Phttsao^  namely, 
^  ^  (Ho-hun),  "uniting  dark,"  is  more  nearly  correct  than 
the  first  given  above.  It  is  considered  to  be  an  auspicious  tree, 
promoting  agreement  and  affection,  and  therefore  is  given  a 
place  among  domestic  shrubbery.  Its  leaves  are  also  edible. 
The  parts  of  the  plant  appearing  in  the  Customs  Lists  are  the 


flowers,  but  the  portions  recommended  to  be  used  by  the 
Pintsao  are  the  bark  and  wood.  On  account  of  the  auspicious 
character  of  this  tree,  its  use  in  medicine  is  also  thought  to  be 
attended  with  the  happiest  results  :  "  promoting  joy,  assuaging 
sorrow,  brightening  the  eye,  and  giving  the  desires  of  the 
heart."  In  the  treatment  of  disease,  it  is  regarded  as  tonic, 
vulnerary,  sedative,  anthelmintic,  and  discutient.  A  gummy 
extract  is  prepared  and  used  as  a  plaster  for  carbuncles,  swell- 
ings, and  as  a  retentive  in  fractures  and  sprains. 

ALEURITES  TRILOBA.— :&  ^  (Shih-li).  This  eu- 
phorbiaceous  tree  is  either  closely  allied  to,  or  identical 
with,  the  Aleiirites  riwluccaiia^  or  Candle  Nut  tree  of  India 
and  the  Pacific  Islands.  It  is  also  closely  related  to  the 
Excoecm-ia  sebi/era  (,^  1^  7fC,  Wu-chiu-mu),  or  Tallow  tree. 
It  bears  an  acorn-like  fruit,  called  by  the  Chinese  "stone 
chestnuts,"  which  is  the  meaning  of  the  term  given  above. 
It  is  a  native  of  Annam,  or  Cochin  China,  and  was  known  to 
Loureiro  as  a  species  of  walnut,  just  as  it  is  called  in  India 
Belg2ia77i^  or  Indian  walnut.  It  is  incidentally  mentioned  in 
the  Pentsao  under  the  head  of  "chestnut,"  as  growing 
commonly  in  the  south  of  China,  but  it  is  not  considered  to  be 
a  chestnut.  A  fixed  oil  is  expressed  from  the  kernels,  which 
is  reported  by  Dr.  O'Rorke  to  be  superior  to  linseed-oil  as  an 
economic  substance.  He  finds  its  medicinal  action  to  be 
similar  to  that  of  castor-oil,  but  it  does  not  cause  nausea  or 
pain,  and  is  free  from  any  unpleasant  smell  or  taste.  Neither 
the  fruits  nor  the  oil  appear  in  the  Customs  Report,  which 
seems  a  surprising  fact  when  their  reputed  usefulness  is 
considered.  The  tree  abounds  in  the  Moluccas,  where  the 
fruit  is  eaten  as  an  aphrodisiac,  and  is  met  with  in  the  island 
of  Tahiti  ;  a  gummy  substance  which  exudes  from  the  bark 
being  chewed  by  the  natives.  The  name  Shih-li  (^  ^)  has 
been  incorrectly  given  to  the  fruit  of  Qiierais  cornea. 

KLiQf]^. — \%  "%.  (Hai-tsao),  355.  The  character  ^  is  used 
for  all  sorts  of  aquatic  plants,  and  the  name  above  given  could 
almost  be  limited  to  marine  algse.  ^-  '%  (Hai-ts'ai)  is  also 
used  for  the  same  purpose.  Several  kinds  of  algse  are  used 
by  the  Chinese  both  as  dietetic  articles  and  as  medicinal  agen^g^ 


Specimens  of  the  Hai-tsao  obtained  from  Tientsin  and  identified 
by  Professors  Agardli  and  Gobi,  proved  to  belong  to  Sargassum 
siliquast7'tim.  The  proper  Chinese  name  of  this  is  j!§  j^  (Hai-lo). 
The  large  sea-weed  which  is  so  commonly  used  for  food  in  China, 
and  called  by  the  common  name  of  ;^  ^  (Hai-ts'ai),  comes 
from  the  coast  of  Manchuria  and  Korea,  and  is  Latninaria 
sacchaj'iiia  ;  the  correct  Chinese  name  being  |^  ^\  (K'un-pu)  or 
3^  ^  (Lun-pu).  Several  species  of  Laminaria^  Rhodymetiia^ 
Alaria^  h^idcea^  and  Potaviogeio7i  are  found  in  the  Chinese 
medicine  shops.  Their  identification  is  very  uncertain.  The 
names  \%  |^:  (Hai-tsao),  ^  ^  (Hai-tai),  354,  \^.  ||  (Hai-yiin), 
and  ^  ^  (K'un-pu),  677,  are  applied  rather  indiscriminately  to 
these  specimens.  '-'•Agar-agar^''  is  made  of  Gracilm-ia  licJie- 
noides^  Gracilaria  spinosa^  Gigartina  teiiax^  and  Sphisrococcus^ 
which  grow  upon  the  shores  of  most  of  the  islands  of  the 
eastern  sea.  Nostoc  edjile  is  another  form  of  edible  sea-weed. 
In  colloquial,  however,  these  are  all  called  ^  '%,  (Hai-ts'ai). 

The  Pentsao  recommends  all  of  the  medicinal  algse  in  the 
treatment  of  goitre.  Under  the  name  of  Gilhir-ka-putta^  a 
dried  sea-weed,  assumed  to  be  collected  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Saghalien  river,  is  highly  prized  in  upper  India  as  a  remedy 
for  bronchocele.  K'un-pu  is  recommended  in  dropsies  of  all 
kinds,  and  Hai-tai  is  prescribed  in  menstrual  disorders,  and  is 
said  to  have  the  power  of  increasing  the  action  of  the  uterus 
in  difficult  labors.  The  Chinese  regard  a  diet  of  sea-weed  as 
cooling,  but  rather  debilitating  if  pursued  for  a  long  time.  A 
fine  quality  of  sea-weed,  which  has  been  cleansed  and  bleached, 
is  imported  from  Japan  and  sold  under  the  name  of  ^  |j^ 
(Yang-ts'ai).  It  is  called  isinglass  in  the  table  of  imports. 
Among  fresh  water  algse,  the  Phitsao  speaks  of,  ||  ^  ^  (Lung- 
she-ts'ao),  790,  "dragon  tongue,"  which  is  specially  recom- 
mended as  an  application  in  the  treatment  of  mammary  abscess 
and  cancer.  We  cannot  agree  with  Faber  in  classifying  ^  25 
(Shih-jui)  among  the  algae  ;  it  is  a  lichen. 

ALISMA  PLANTAGO.— ^1  \%  (Tse-hsieh),  1354.  This 
is  the  common  water  plantain,  which  in  Northern  China  grows 
plentifully  in  ditches  and  ponds.  Other  names  given  for  it  in 
the  Phitsao  are  ^JC  \%  (Shui-hsieh;,    J^  J^  (Chi-hsieh),   %  {g 


(Ku-hsieh),  ]g  ^  (Mang-yii),  and  ^j  ^,  (Yii-sun)  ;  this  last 
name  being  in  honor  of  the  Great  Yii,  the  reputed  founder  of 
the  Hsia  dynasty,  who  drained  the  empire  of  the  great  flood 
that  had  prevailed  up  to  the  time  of  his  reign.  In  the  classics 
the  plant  is  called  ^  (Yii)  and  ^  (Hsieh).  In  the  Japanese 
list  it  is  called  y^  -^  \%  (Shui-tse-hsieh).  The  supply  of  the 
drug  passing  through  the  Customs  comes  from  Fukien,  Che- 
kiang,  Honan,  and  Szechuan.  The  Pentsao  recommends  that 
which  grows  south  of  the  Jii  ('^)  river,  which  is  a  tributary 
of  the  Huai.  The  parts  used  are  the  leaves,  which  are 
gathered  in  the  fifth  moon ;  the  rhizome,  gathered  in  the 
eighth  moon  ;  and  the  achene,  gathered  in  the  ninth  moon. 
The  rhizome,  which  is  the  part  most  frequently  employed,  is 
globular,  or  ovoid,  and  fleshy.  The  drug  is  generally  met 
with  in  the  form  of  thin,  circular  sections,  from  one  inch  to 
one  inch-and-a-half  in  diameter,  of  a  pale  yellow  color,  mealy, 
'slightly  bitter  in  taste,  and  often  worm-eaten.  The  fresh 
rhizome  is  somewhat  acrid.  Tonic,  cooling,  diuretic,  arthritic, 
stomachic,  astringent,  galactogogue,  and  discutient  properties 
are  attributed  to  this  plant.  In  fact,  any  disease  of  the  nature 
of  a  flux  or  dropsy,  or  disease  of  the  hydrology  of  the  system, 
is  supposed  to  be  benefited  by  this  water  plant.  "If  taken 
for  a  long  time,  the  eye  and  ear  become  acute,  hunger  is  not 
felt,  life  is  prolonged,  the  body  becomes  light,  the  visage 
radiant,  and  one  can  walk  upon  water."  It  is  also  said  to 
render  labor  easy,  to  stimulate  the  female  generative  apparatus, 
and  to  promote  conception.  The  leaves,  in  addition  to  their 
other  properties,  are  reputed  to  be  serviceable  in  leprosy.  The 
action  of  the  achene  is  said  to  be  similar  to  that  of  the  root, 
even  to  the  production  of  visual  radiance,  but  its  use  is  said 
to  produce  sterility. 

ALLIUM  ASCALONICUM.— ^  (Hsieh).  This  is  the 
ordinary  garden  shallot ;  the  slight  variation  from  the  European 
variety  being  produced  by  the  different  method  of  culture 
employed  by  the  Chinese.  It  is  indigenous  to  China  ;  the  wild 
variety  being  readily  found  in  the  Lii  mountains  of  Kiangsi. 
The  seeds  are  usually  planted  in  the  autumn  and  the  small 
bulbs  separated  and  transplanted  in  the  spring.     It  is  used  .as 


a  vegetable,  though  not  so  highly  prized  as  the  native  leek 
(Alliu7n  odorn7n).  The  small  bulbs,  called  ^Jj!  ^  (Hsieh-pai), 
449,  are  pickled,  as  in  Europe,  and  they  are  also  preserved  for 
medicinal  use  in  alcohol.  Tonic,  nutrient,  astringent,  and 
alterative  properties  are  attributed  to  the  plant,  and  the  bruised 
bulb  is  applied  as  a  discutient  or  vulnery  remedy.  Combined 
with  honey,  it  is  said  to  be  a  useful  application  in  burns. 

ALLIUM  FISTULOSUM.— ^  (Ts'ung).  This  is  the 
Chinese  onion,  or  ciboule,  native  to  Siberia  and  Mongolia.  It 
is  largely  cultivated  in  several  parts  of  China.  It  differs  from 
the  common  onion  (Allium  cepa)  in  never  forming  a  globular 
bulb.  The  common  onion  is  largely  cultivated  in  Southern 
China  and  Cochin  China,  but  it  probably  is  of  foreign  origin. 
It  is  called  ^  ^  Hu-ts'ung)  and  0  [el  7^  (Hui-hui-ts'ung)  ; 
this  latter  term,  "Moharaedan  onion,"  indicating  its  deriva- 
tion from  the  West.  The  Chinese  onion,  belonging  to  the 
class  of  nitrogenous  foods  called  ^  (Hun  i,  is  much  used  as  an 
article  of  diet.  It,  together  with  other  vegetables  of  its  class, 
constitutes  a  large  proportion  of  the  poor  man's  "meat"  ; 
being  eaten  with  rice,  millet,  or  bread,  together  with  succulent 
and  green  vegetables.  Several  varieties  are  cultivated,  and  the 
article  is  as  much  used  as  its  prototypes  are  in  Spain  and 
Portugal.  A  large,  coarse  variety  is  called  Tfc  ^  (Mu-ts'ung), 
or  "tree-onion"  (Alliuvi  cepaproliforu77if).  The  wild  onion, 
§  ^  (Ko-ts'ung)  or  ^  ^,  (Shan-ts'ung),  {Allium  victorialis?)^ 
and  the  foreign  onion  are  specially  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao. 
It  says  that  the  latter  are  indigenous  to  the  mountains  of 
Szechuan,  but  we  have  not  been  able  to  verify  this.  Onion 
tea  is  given  to  persons  suffering  from  catarrh,  fever,  headache, 
cholera,  diarrhoea,  dysentery,  urinary  affections,  and  rheumatic 
disorders.  It  is  also  used  as  a  sedative  in  children's  diseases. 
The  persons  in  charge  of  life  boats  on  the  Yangtse  depend,  in 
cases  of  drowning,  upon  strong  onion  tea  to  excite  vomiting  and 
reaction.  Onions  are  applied  to  the  noses  of  persons  who  have 
attempted  to  hang  themselves.  Buboes,  abscesses,  and  frac- 
tures are  poulticed  with  the  bruised  bulb,  or  annointed  with 
the  juice.  Every  part  of  the  plant  is  supposed  to  have  some 
special  therapeutic  property. 


ALLIUM  ODORUM.— Ml  (Chiu),  203.  Other  names  for 
this  seem  to  be  Allnim  uliginosum^  Allium  tuberosum^  and 
Alliu7ti  senescens.  It  is  indigenous  to  Siberia,  Mongolia,  and 
the  whole  of  China ;  is  a  common  plant  in  the  mountains  of  the 
north,  and  is  cultivated  everywhere  in  gardens.  The  Chinese 
eat  the  whole  plant,  it  being  specially  relished  when  it  is  in 
flower  in  mid-summer.  It  somewhat  resembles  the  leek^  but  is 
much  smaller.  The  leaves  are  ligulate,  and  the  bulb  flat  and 
continuous  with  the  stem.  The  Book  of  Rites  calls  this  plant 
^  7(S,  feng  pen  (the  rich  root),  when  it  is  used  for  the  sacrifices 
in  the  ancestral  temple,  and  it  is  also  used  in  other  sacrifices. 
It  is  raised  from  the  seed  or  from  the  transplanted  bulbs ; 
patches  of  the  fresh  vegetable  being  kept  ready  for  use  during 
the  entire  year  in  Central  China.  It  is  supposed  to  nourish 
and  purify  the  blood,  to  act  as  a  cordial,  and  to  in  every  way 
benefit  those  who  are  ailing.  It  can  be  partaken  of  freely  and 
for  a  long  time.  Special  diflSculties  for  which  it  is  regarded 
to  be  eflScacious  are  poi.'^onous  bites  of  dogs,  serpents,  or  insects, 
hemorrhages  of  every  sort,  and  spermatorrhoea.  For  this 
latter  the  seeds  are  considered  to  be  especially  useful. 

The  wild  leek,  lU  ii  (Shan-chiu),  also  called  ^  :^  Ml 
(Chu-ko-chiu),  is  considered  by  Faber  to  be  a  distinct  species, 
Alliuvi  japonicuni.  It  is  specially  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao^ 
and  is  thought  to  have  special  action  in  promoting  excretion 
and  in  the  flatulent  dyspepsia  of  elderly  persons. 

ALLIUM  SATIVUM.— IJ.  (Suan).  Garlich?.^  been  known 
to  the  Chinese  from  a  very  early  period  ;  it  being  mentioned  in 
the  Calendar  of  the  Hsia,  a  book  of  two  thousand  years  before 
Christ.  It  is  now  called  )\\  |,^  Hsiao-suan)  to  distinguish  it 
from  Allium  scorodoprastivi^  which  is  called  -^^  ,^  (Ta-suan). 
The  Erh-ya  relates  that  when  the  Emperor  Huang-ti  was 
ascending  a  certain  mountain,  some  of  his  followers  were 
poisoned  by  eating  the  ^  ^  yu-yii  (probably  an  aroid  plant); 
but  by  eating  the  garlic,  which  was  also  found  there,  their  lives 
were  saved.     From  that  time  it  was  introduced  into  cultivation. 

The  Phitsao  gives  thirty-two  varieties  of  vegetable  under 
the  classification  oS.%%  (hun-ts'ai).  In  addition  to  alliaceous 
plants,  there  are  mustard,  ginger,  and  the  like  ;  all  seeming  to 


be  characterized  by  the  presence  of  a  volatile  oil,  carminative 
and  stomachic  in  its  action.  Consequently  some  of  them  are 
used  as  condiments,  and  all  are  used  to  give  flavor  to  the 
amylaceous  basis  of  the  ordinary  Chinese  diet.  The  character 
^,  however,  is  applied  as  well  to  all  kinds  of  nitrogenous  food  ; 
the  21  H  being  the  five  kinds  of  food  forbidden  to  the  Buddhist 
priesthood  and  to  fasting  persons  generally.  These  are  the 
flesh  of  the  horse,  dog,  bullock,  goose,  and  pigeon.  The 
geomancers  enumerate  as  the  |^,  garlic,  rocambole,  leek,  rue, 
and  coriander ;  the  Taoists,  leek,  shallot,  garlic,  rue,  and 
coriander  ;  and  the  Buddhists,  rocambole,  garlic,  assafoetida, 
onion,  and  scallion.  Among  the  common  people,  however,  ^, 
while  including  these  articles,  more  properly  refers  to  animal 
flesh  ;  the  lean  parts  being  termed  ^  |^  and  the  fatty  parts 
f^  ^.  Chinese  patients  usually  request  directions  as  to  the 
eating  of  these  various  kinds  of  food. 

The  medicinal  virtues  of  garlic  are  considered  to  be  many. 
It  is  thought  to  have  a  special  influence  upon  the  spleen, 
stomach,  and  kidneys,  acting  as  a  sedative  and  removing 
poisons.  It  is  supposed  to  correct  the  unwholesomeness  of 
water,  to  destroy  the  noxious  effect  of  putrid  meat  and  fish, 
and  to  prevent  goitre  and  pestilential  diseases. 

ALLIUM  SCORDOPRASUM.— ;^  ^  (Ta-suan),  ^  ,^ 
(Hu-suan),  jSjj  (Hu).  The  rocambole^  according  to  the  Po-wu- 
chi  and  the  Phitsao^  was  introduced  into  China  from  the  West 
by  Chang-ch'ien,  a  famous  general  of  the  Han  dynasty.  The 
Arabic  name  (Soin)  resembles  the  Chinese  word  S2ian^  but  as 
both  names  date  back  to  the  earliest  period  of  written  history, 
it  is  difficult  to  say  whether  one  was  derived  from  the  other,  or 
both  came  from  a  common  source  now  unknown.  This  plant 
is  considered  to  be  slightly  deleterious,  and  if  eaten  for  a  long 
time  the  eyesight  is  thought  to  be  affected.  It  is  recommended 
as  a  digestive  and  for  expelling  poisonous  effluvia.  In 
combination  with  other  drugs,  it  is  used  in  the  treatment  of 
hemorrhages  and  fluxes. 

ALLIARIA  WASAHL— i^  %  fHan-ts'ai).  One  of  the 
Crucifercey  closely  allied  to  Sisymbriicm  [Hedge  viustard).     It 


has  white  flowers  and  a  characteristic  foliage,  and  the  plant 
has  an  alliaceous  odor,  from  which  fact  it  derives  its  name. 
It  is  recommended  as  an  appetizer  and  digestive,  giving  a 
pleasant  sensation  of  warmth  to  the  stomach  and  acting  as  a 
carminative  in  flatulent  dyspepsia. 

ALOCASIA  MACHRORIZA.— ?^  ^  (Hai-yii).  This 
aroid  plant  is  so  named  in  the  Japanese  lists.  The  Phitsao 
calls  it  also  H  •^  jH  (Kuan-yin-lien),  which  in  the  Japanese 
identifications  is  Lysichihnn  camtschaieiise.  Also,  a  small 
variety,  named  ^  ^  ( Yeh-yii),  is  by  them  classified  as 
Richardia  africafta.  The  Phiisao  seems  to  regard  these  as 
identical.  The  original  habitat  of  the  plant  under  considera- 
tion is  said  to  have  been  Szechuen,  but  it  now  is  found  in 
various  parts  of  the  empire.  It  grows  up  in  spring  with  a  stalk 
four  or  five  feet  high  and  with  leaves  like  the  taro.  In  the 
early  autumn  it  blooms  with  a  sessile  flower  like  the  lotus  petal, 
jade  colored,  and  with  a  pistil  which  resembles  the  image  of 
Kuanyin.  Hence  the  common  name  for  the  flower  is 
*'Kuanyin  lotus."  The  plant  is  said  to  be  exceedingly 
poisonous,  and  is  highly  recommended  in  the  treatment  of 
miasmatic  poisoning. 

ALOE  VULGARIS.— l:  %  (Lu-hm\  765.  Bretschneider 
says  that  this  Chinese  name  is  so  applied  in  Canton,  and  that 
the  plant  that  Loureiro  describes  as  Aloe perfoliata  is  the  same. 
The  name  is  probably  a  transliteration  of  some  foreign  name, 
as  other  names  similar  in  sound  are  also  given,  such  as  ^  -^ 
(Nu-hui)  and  fft  %  (No-hui).  The  drug  is  also  called  ^  |§ 
(Hsiang-tan),  "elephant's  gall,"  in  reference  to  its  bitter  flavor. 
The  Phitsao  describes  it  as  the  exudation  from  a  tree  which 
grows  in  Persia,  and  says  that  at  that  time  it  entered  China  only 
at  the  port  of  Canton.  It  admits,  however,  that  it  is  uncertain 
whether  the  substance,  which  it  describes  as  a  resin  or  extract 
(W)>  is  the  product  of  a  tree  or  of  a  smaller  plant.  The  sub- 
stance sold  under  this  name  is  met  with  in  irregular  pieces, 
about  one  inch  in  thickness,  of  a  coal-black  color,  slightly 
porous  and  marked  with  brilliant  crystals  on  the  broken 
surface.     One  surface  is  usually  marked  with  the  impression 


of  a  gramineous  leaf.  The  taste  is  bitterish  and  cooling,  and 
it  is  not  regarded  as  being  poisonous.  Althelmintic,  stomach- 
ic, and  laxative  properties  are  referred  to  this  drug,  which 
would  seem  to  have  been  formerly  much  used  in  the  worm- 
fever  and  convulsions  of  children.  It  is  now  used  mainly  as 
a  wash  for  eczematous  skin  affections,  being  combined  with 
licorice  for  that  purpose.  Since  in  the  treatment  of  worm 
affections  it  is  always  combined  with  the  fruit  of  Qtiisqualis 
hidica^  it  is  very  improbable  that  in  itself  there  are  any  anthel- 
mintic properties. 

ALPINIA  GLOBOSUM.— S  ^  (Tou-k'ou),  1314,  %  S 
^  (Ts'ao-tou-k'ou).  This  is  the  Amomwn  globosum  of  Lou- 
reiro,  and  described  by  Hanbury  as  the  large  7'ound  Chi?iese 
cardamom.  The  cardamoms  are  well  known  in  commerce, 
but  the  plant  from  which  they  are  derived,  does  not  seem  as 
yet  to  have  been  carefully  identified  by  botanists.  Hanbury 
says  that  it  is  a  native  of  the  south  of  China  and  of  Cochin 
China.  The  Phitsao  refers  its  origin  to  Hainan,  which  name 
in  this  w^ork  often  refers  to  any  country  in  the  seas  south  of 
China.  At  present  it  is  said  to  be  found  in  all  parts  of  Kuang- 
tung  and  Kuangsi,  as  well  as  in  parts  of  Yunnan  and  Fukien. 
The  plant  is  said  to  resemble  the  Myristica  in  appearance,  and 
bears  a  red,  changing  to  yellow,  flower  in  the  axils  of  the 
leaves,  which  has  some  likeness  to  the  Hibiscus.  The  leaves 
resemble  those  of  the  wild  ginger  ( jl]  ^,  Shan-chiang),  and 
are  sometimes  gathered  in  the  immature  state  in  a  similar 
manner  to  tea  buds.  The  large  globular  capsules  furnish  the 
large  round  cardamom  of  commerce,  and  also  the  small  round 
Chinese  carda?nom  described  by  Guibourt.  This  latter  is 
simply  the  unripe  capsule,  and  therefore  devoid  of  much  flavor, 
but  used  as  a  salted  condiment  by  the  Chinese.  Guibourt 
describes  it  as  follows:  '*  Capsules  nearly  spherical,  from 
seven  to  eight  lines  in  diameter,  slightly  striated  longitudinally 
and  much  wrinkled  in  all  directions  by  drying ;  it  is  probable, 
however,  that  the  fruit  was  smooth  when  recent.  The  capsule 
is  thin,  light,  easily  torn,  yellowish  externally,  white  within. 
The  seeds  form  a  globular  coherent  mass.  They  are  rather 
large   and    few    in    number,    somewhat    wedge-shaped,    of  an 


ashey-grey,  a  little  granular  on  the  surface,  and  present  on  the 
outer  face  a  bifurcate  furrow,  shaped  like  a  Y. "  To  this  Han- 
bury  adds:  "Compared  to  the  large  cardamom,  the  capsules 
in  question  are  more  wrinkled  in  a  net  work  manner,  more 
fragile  and  thin,  and  much  less  adherent  to  the  mass  of  seeds  ; 
they  are  more  globose,  not  triangular  at  the  base,  but  flat,  or 
even  depressed  like  an  apple.  Their  color,  in  all  of  the 
specimens  I  have  seen,  is  a  brownish  yellow."  The  large 
capsules  are  oval,  or  globular,  pointed  at  either  extremity, 
with  a  tendency  to  a  triangular  outline,  especially  at  the  base. 
They  are  sometimes  attached  to  a  long  pedicle.  The  pericarp 
closely  invests  the  mass  of  seeds,  is  brown,  and  strongly 
marked  by  interrupted  longitudinal  ridges.  In  taste,  it  is  very 
slightly  aromatic.  The  seeds  are  found  in  a  coherent  three- 
lobed  mass,  light  greyish-brown  in  color,  somewhat  oblong 
and  angular,  with  a  deep  furrow  on  one  side.  They  have  a 
slightly  aromatic  odor  and  taste,  somewhat  resembling  that 
of  thyme,  although  very  much  weaker.  In  size,  these  capsules 
vary  from  three-fifths  of  an  inch  to  over  an  inch  in  length. 
In  the  Chinese  shops  the  cardamom  is  usually  found  deprived 
of  its  husk. 

The  cardamoms  and  the  flowers  are  used  in  Chinese  medi- 
cine. The  latter  are  employed  as  a  carminative  and  stomachic 
remedy,  and  are  reputed  to  counteract  the  effects  of  wine  on  the 
system.  The  seeds,  in  addition  to  the  properties  possessed  by 
the  flowers,  are  used  to  correct  offensive  breath,  in  the  treat- 
ment of  malarial  disorders  and  fluxes,  to  counteract  acidity  of 
the  stomach,  in  disordered  menstruation,  and  in  the  treatment 
of  various  kinds  of  poisoning. 

ALPINIAOFFICINARUM.— ^HM(Kao-liang-chiang). 
Faber  gives  [[]  ^  (Shan-chiang),  but  this  is  probably  a  variety 
known  as  Alpinia  japonica^  or  wild  ginger.  The  plant  under 
consideration  produces  the  ^'-  lesser  galangal  r-oof''  of  commerce, 
and  it  is  from  the  Chinese  name  for  this  plant  that  the 
commercial  term  '''' galangaP"*  is  derived.  Owing  to  the  fact 
that  Wildenow  gave  the  name  of  Alpinia  galanga  to  the  plant 
which  produces  greater  or  Java  galangal,  botanical  terminology 
in  this  case  became  separated  from  its  point  of  origin.     The 


Cliinese  name  is  derived  from  ^  g,  which  was  formerly 
the  name  of  j^  >}]]  }(f  Kao-chon-fu  in  Knangtung  province. 
The  plant  is  sometimes  called  ^  ^  (Mau-chiang),  or  the 
*' ginger  of  the  Man-tzu,"  aborigines  of  the  southwestern  part 
of  China.  The  Phitsao  says  that  the  plant  is  now  found  in 
every  part  of  Southern  China,  and  extending  into  Szechuan. 
Galangal  root  is  about  two  inches  long,  less  than  half  an  inch 
in  diameter,  externally  of  a  rust  brown  color,  longitudinally 
striated  and  transversely  marked  with  the  remnants  of  the  leaf 
sheaths.  Internally  it  is  greyish-brown,  and  breaks  with  a 
fibrous  fracture.  It  has  an  agreeable  aromatic  odor  and  a  warm 
aromatic  taste,  resembling  that  of  mingled  ginger  and  pepper. 
Stomachic,  carminative,  sialagogue,  tonic,  and  antiperiodic 
properties  are  the  most  important  of  the  effects  ascribed  to  this 
drug,  which  has  from  ancient  times,  as  at  the  present  time, 
been  held  in  much  esteem  by  Chinese  physicians. 

The  seeds  of  this  plant,  ^  H  K  •?  (Kao-liang-chiang-tzu), 
3&!  S  ^  (Hung-tou-k'ou\  537,  1091,  are  the  '•'•  Galanga  Carda- 
viovi  "  described  by  Hanbury.  The  capsule  is  about  half  an 
inch  in  length,  oblong  or  pear-shaped  in  form,  and  prominently 
crowned  with  the  remains  of  the  calyx.  Some  are  shriveled 
on  the  outside  and  some  are  smooth,  apparently  depending 
upon  their  maturity  at  the  time  of  gathering.  The  pericarp 
also  varies  as  to  thickness  and  color,  in  proportion  to  the 
maturity  of  the  fruit ;  in  the  less  mature  being  pale  and  thick, 
and  in  the  more  mature  of. a  reddish-brown  and  thin.  The  seeds 
are  in  a  three  lobed  mass  ;  each  lobe  containing  two  seeds,  placed 
one  above  the  other.  The  seeds  are  ash-colored,  flattish,  and 
somewhat  three-cornered,  and  have  a  large  hilum.  They 
have  a  pungent,  aromatic  taste,  and  an  odor  resembling  that 
of  the  root. 

The  seeds  have  much  the  same  properties  as  the  root, 
being  given  in  pyrosis,  cholera,  diarrhoea,  toothache,  ague,  and 
diseases  arising  from  damp  and  chills.  They  seem  to  have  the 
virtues  of  cardamoms  and  ginger  combined,  and  may  be 
suggested  for  more  general  useas  a  stomachic  and  general  tonic. 

In  the  Customs  List  there  seems  to  be  considerable 
uncertainty  as  to  terms  and  classification.  In  713,  "%  ^ 
(Liang-chiang;  is  used  for  Alpinia  officinorum.      It  is  probable 


that  this  term  is  sometimes  so  employed,  but  it  is  also  employed 
for  the  Liliaceous  Polygonatum  sibiricuni.  In  1091,  other 
characters  approximating  ^  in  sound  are  used  for  this 
character.  It  is  probable  that  these  are  wrongly  written.  In 
several  other  places  there  are  variations,  unimportant  in 
themselves,  but  which  evidently  need  correction. 

ALTH^A  ROSEA.—  ^  ^  (Shu-k'uei).  This  name 
means  "mallow  from  Szechuan."  Another  name,  formerly 
used,  is  ^  ^  (Jung-k'uei),  which  means  "mallow  of  the 
wild  tribes  of  the  west."  These  two  names  are  probably 
identical  with  each  other.  Tlie  term  used  in  the  classics  is  ^ 
(Chien).  It  is  the  common  hollyhock^  which  may  have 
been  originally  introduced  into  China  from  some  Western 
country.  It  is  cultivated  plentifully  in  Chinese  gardens;  its 
flowers  somewhat  resembling  Hibiscus  syriaais  (7^  j;^,  Mu- 
chin).  The  parts  of  the  plants  used  are  the  shoots,  root-stalk, 
and  seeds.  The  properties  ascribed  to  the  shoots  are  stomachic, 
regulative,  and  constructive.  They  are  used  in  fevers, 
dysentery,  and  to  render  labor  easy.  The  root-stalk  is  con- 
sidered to  be  diuretic,  and  when  bruised,  is  applied  to  all  sorts 
of  ulcers.     The  seeds  are  put  to  similar  uses. 

Under  this  head  the  Phitsao  mentions  another  plant, 
which  it  calls  ^  ^  ^  (Wu-k'uei-hwa),  and  which,  while  it 
is  identified  as  the  same  as  the  sJm-lcHtci^  is  made  out  to  have 
medical  properties  sufficiently  distinct  from  those  of  the  latter 
to  render  it  probable  that  this  is  at  least  a  different  variety. 
Its  taste  is  said  to  be  "saltish  and  cold"  (|g),  while  that  of  the 
shu-k^tcei\s  "sweet  and  cooling  "  (j^).  Its  action  is  tonic  to 
the  heart  and  antiperiodic.  It  is  used  in  the  eruptive  and 
intermittent  fevers  of  children,  in  dysmenorrhoea,  difficult  labor, 
and  the  bites  of  poisonous  insects. 

AMARANTUS.— ^  (Hsien).  This  term  seems  to  be  a 
general  name  for  Amarantus.  With  qualifiers,  it  is  also  by 
some  applied  to  Chenopodium  and  Euxolus.  At  Peking 
Amarantus  blitum  is  so  called,  and  Faber  calls  this  ^  |g 
(Hsien-ts'ai).  The  Phitsao  says  that  there  are  six  varieties  of 
this  plant,  viz.,  #  Er  6  E,  A  M,  ^  M,  £  ^  E  and  .^  1;. 


These  terms,  together  with  §f  "^  and  ^  -^  ^,  are  applied  to 
dififerent  plants  in  different  parts  of  China,  as  well  as  in  Japan  ; 
so  it  is  almost  impossible  to  fix  identifications  in  any  of  these 
cases.  Faber  gives  J^]]  ^  (Chih-hsien)  for  A7naj'a7iius 
spinostis^  which  is  probably  correct.  Han  Pao-sheng  says  that 
the  fruits  of  only  the  |^  ^  and  the  A  M  ^^^  "^^^  ^°  medicine. 
They  are  said  to  have  great  cooling  properties.  They  are  also 
considered  to  have  the  property  of  brightening  the  intellect, 
assisting  in  the  excretory  processes,  and  benefiting  the  virile 
powers.  The  use  of  the  plant  itself  is  considered  beneficial  in 
fluxes,  while  the  root  is  used  in  '*cold  indigestion"  and  in 
toothache.  The  ^  ^  is  said  to  be  a  small  variety,  also  called 
|g  ^  and  ^-  ^,  and  is  good  for  feeding  pigs.  Some  varieties 
of  this  plant  are  much  cultivated  and  eaten  as  pot-herbs. 

AMBER— ^  JQ  (Hu-p'o),  488,  ^  H  (Chiang-chu). 
According  to  an  old  saying,  when  a  tiger  dies,  its  spirit  enters 
the  earth  and  becomes  transformed  into  stone  of  the  form  of 
this  substance.  Therefore  it  is  called  Jf^  ^  (Hu-p'o),  "tiger's 
soul."  The  last  character  was  afterwards  changed  to  J^  i.P'o) 
to  distinguish  this  substance  as  a  gem.  It  is  supposed  to  be  the 
resin  of  an  extinct  species  of  Pimts^  for  this  reason  given  the 
name  of  Pittites  succinifcr.  As  it  is  closely  allied  to  ordinary 
resins,  such  an  origin  is  very  probable.  It  is  worthy  of  note 
that,  equally  with  Pliny  and  many  modern  observers  upon  the 
subject,  the  Chinese  say  it  to  be  the  resin  of  a  pine  which  has 
"laid  in  the  earth  for  a  thousand  years."  An  inferior 
quality  is  found  in  Yunnan,  especially  near  Yungchangfu. 
Burmah,  Cambodia,  Korea,  and  Japan  are  said  to  yield 
supplies  of  the  substance.  But  the  market,  formerly  supplied 
by  the  overland  trade  routes  from  Asia  Minor,  is  now  supplied 
from  the  south,  coming  by  the  way  of  the  Indian  Archipelago, 
and,  according  to  Dr.  Williams,  from  Africa.  The  Sanscrit 
name  is  given  in  the  Penisao  as  p^  f^  jp  J^  ^  (A-shih-mo- 
chieh-p'o).  Pieces  containing  insects  and  other  bodies  are  held 
to  be  specially  valuable.  The  best  pieces  are  made  into  beads 
and  ornaments,  which  are  worn  by  persons  of  rank.  Much. of 
what  is  oflfered  for  sale  is  fictitious,  being  made  from  colophony 
and   copal.     Its    reputed   medical   properties   are   very   much 


mixed  up  with  certain  transcendental  powers  wliich  it  is  sup- 
posed to  possess.  But  in  addition  to  the  many  fanciful  ones, 
it  is  credited  with  being  useful  in  the  treatment  of  catarrh  of 
the  bowels  or  the  bladder,  the  convulsive  disorders  of  children^ 
and  as  a  tonic  and  alterative. 

Another  form  of  amber,  darker  in  color  and  more  like 
jade,  is  called  ^  (Hsi).  It  is  said  to  have  been  brought  from 
Turfan,  where  it  was  found  among  the  black  rocks.  It  is 
considered  to  be  an  older  form  of  the  amber,  having  laid  in  the 
ground  for  two  thousand  years,  instead  of  one  thousand.  Like 
the  Hii-p''o^  the  Phitsao  suggests  that  it  may  have  originated 
from  the  {^  ;^,  Fu-ling  {Pachyma  cocos\  found  growing  like  a 
fungus  from  the  roots  of  fir  trees,  or  from  |^  '^^  Chu-ling,  a 
tuberiform  fungus  found  growing  on  liquidamber  roots  above 
ground.  Its  medicinal  virtues  are  regarded  as  correspondingly 
higher  than  those  of  amber. 

Two  special  formulae  are  given  in  the  Phitsao  in  which 
amber  is  considered  to  be  the  chief  ingredient.  One,  called 
Jj^  Jfl  ^  (Hu-p'o-san),  is  composed  of  amber,  the  shell  of 
Trionyx  sine^isis,  the  roots  of  Cyperus  rotiuidus^  the  tubers  of 
Corydalis  ambigiia^  rhubarb,  and  myrrh.  Its  use  is  considered 
to  be  beneficial  in  all  of  the  vital  functions  and  to  promote 
nutrition.  It  is  specially  prescribed  in  circulatory  disorders 
after  labor.  Other  formulae  are  for  urinary  disorders,  injuries, 
and  certain  nervous  diseases  of  uterine  fetal  life. 

AMOMUM  AMARUM.— g  ^  ^  (I-chih-tzu),  543.  This 
is  the  bitter-seeded  cardamom^  the  origin  of  which  has  not  yet 
been  fully  studied.  The  classification  is  therefore  still  doubtful. 
It  has  been  referred  to  Zingiber  nigrum^  which  is  identical 
with  Alpinia  allughas^  but  is  considered  by  Pereira  and  Han- 
bury  to  be  a  totally  different  species.  The  term  was  introduced 
by  Porter  Smith,  who  is  followed  by  Faber.  The  Chinese 
term  is  also  referred  to,  Nephelitim  longan^  but  later  writers  re- 
strict it  to  the  bitter-seeded  cardamom.  The  Phitsao  says  that 
the  fruits  come  from  Kunlun  and  Lingnan  (Thibet  and  Cochin 
China).  They  are  also  said  to  come  from  the  island  of  Hainan 
and  from  Kuangtung.  According  to  Hanbury's  description, 
"  the  capsules  are  mostly  oval;  some  ovate-oblong  and  a  few 

36  -W—         CHINESE    MATERIA    MEDICA. 

nearly  sphetibal",  t)oint&d'at  the  extremities,  6  to  10  lines  long. 
The  pericarp  is  of  a^l  deep  dusky-brown,  coriaceous,  devoid  of 
hairs,  beset  longitudinally  with  interrupted  ridges  usually  about 
18  in  number  ;  it  has  an  agreeable  aromatic  smell  and  taste. 
The  seeds  are  obtusely  angular  and  adhere  firmly  together  ;  they 
are  distinguished  by  an  aromatic,  bitter,  myrrh-like  taste." 

^^he  drug  is  considered  by  the  Chinese  to  benefit  the 
KOitiaQl:^nd>spleen,j&nd  therefore  to  "increase  knowledge;" 
tBe  disposition  and  wits  of  the  individual  being  considered  to 
largely  reside  in  these  organs.  Tonic,  stomachic,  cordial, 
pectoral,  and  astringent  properties  are  ascribed  to  these  fruits 
in  the  Phitsao^  but  the  principal  use  to  which  they  are  applied 
at  the  present  time  is  in  the  treatment  of  incontinence  of  urine, 
nocturnal  emissions,  and  flooding  after  labor. 

AMOMUM  CARDAMOMUM.— ^  S  ^  (Pai-tou-k'ou), 
964.  This  is  the  ro2ind^  or  chistei^^  cardamom^  and  is  a  native 
of  the  East  Indies.  It  was  evidently  imported  into  China  about 
the  eighth  century,  as  it  is  first  mentioned  by  writers  of  that 
time.  It  is  said  to  have  been  produced  in  a  country  called 
•ftll  1&  !^  (Ch'ieh-ku-lo),  evidently  a  Buddhist  country,  where 
the  drug  is  called  %  ^  (To-ku).  It  is  also  known  under  the 
name  of  ^  Jg  g.  ^  (Tung-p'o-tou-k'ou),  after  the  celebrated 
poet  Su  Tung-p'o,  who,  towards  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century, 
lived  for  some  years  in  the  island  of  Hainan  and  wrote  notices 
of  useful  plants.  The  Afalabar  cardamom^  which  is  sold  to  some 
extent  in  China,  and  which  is  similar  in  odor  and  taste  to  this 
cluster  cardamom,  also  goes  by  the  name  of  |^  ^  ^  (Pai-tou- 
k'ou).  The  Thibetans  call  it  sukmil^  which  resembles  the 
Sanscrit  ^  ^  5^  ^  JlPI  (Su-chi-mi-lo-si). 

This  evergreen  plant,  said  to  resemble  the  banana,  now 
■  grows  in  Kuangtung  province.  The  capsules  are  round, 
globular,  smooth,  ribbed,  obscurely  triangular,  and  of  a  brown- 
ish-white color.  The  seeds  are  packed  together  in  a  globular 
mass,  easily  broken  into  three  portions,  and  have  an  aromatic, 
terebinthinate  flavor.  The  seeds  are  used  in  pyrosis,  vomiting 
and  dyspepsia,  in  pulmonary  diseases  and  in  general  debility. 
It  is  said  to  be  serviceable  in  ague,  in  cases  of  films  over  the 
eye,  and  in  disorders  arising  from  drunken  dissipation. 


AMOMUM  MEDIUM. ^:f:||  (Ts'ao-kuo), '  1347.  This 
is  the  ovoid  China  cardamoii  of  Haubury,  as  was  first  described 
by  Loureiro.  It  is  described  in  the  Phitsao  together  with 
Alpinia  globosiim^  from  which  it  is  with  difficulty  distin- 
guished. It  comes  from  Kuangsi  and  Yunnan.  The  elongated, 
oval  capsules  are  compared  by  the  Chinese  to  the  fruits  of 
Ter7ninalia  chcbida  (M  ^  ^).  They  vary  from  sometjiing 
less  than  an  inch  to  an  inch-and-three-quarters  in  length,  and 
exhibit  externally  some  indication  of  the  three-celled  character 
of  the  fruit.  Long  coarse  pedicels  are  frequently  attached  to 
the  capsules.  The  pericarp  is  of  a  reddish  or  greyish-brown 
color,  closely  corrugated,  moderately  thick  and  brittle,  with  a 
whitish  bloom  on  the  surface  in  many  instances.  The  taste 
is  woody,  or  but  very  faintly  aromatic.  The  mass  of  large, 
hard,  angular,  reddish  seeds  is  but  loosely  attached  to  the 
internal  surface  of  the  pericarp  by  membranous  adhesions. 
The  seeds  have  a  warm,  terebinthinate  flavor,  and  the  odor, 
when  fresh,  is  said  to  be  strong,  like  that  of  the  Telini-fly 
(Mylabris  cichorii).  The  small  unripe  fruit  is  called  f,|  ^  ^ 
(Ying-ko-she),  or  "parrot's  tongue."  The  drug  is  used  in 
much  the  same  cases  as  the  Amominn  globosum^  to  which  it  is 
preferred  in  the  treatment  of  the  various  forms  of  dyspepsia. 
The  seeds  only  are  used,  and  are  given  in  the  form  of  a 
decoction  for  affections  of  the  stomach,  or  as  a  tincture  in  ague, 
catarrh,  or  other  systemic  diseases.  It  is  said  to  have  been 
formerly  much  used  as  a  condiment  or  spice. 

AMOMUM  MELEGUETA.  —  As  is  well  known,  this 
plant,  together  with  Amomum  granutn-paradisi  furnish  the 
^■^  grains  of  paradise^''''  or  "  Guinea  grains  ^''^  of  commerce. 
These  plants  are  native  of  Africa,  and  have  been  transplanted 
in  the  West  Indies.  So  far  as  known,  neither  are  found  in 
Asia.  Notwithstanding,  Porter  Smith  has  the  following  to 
say  about  these  "grains:"  "These  are  the  aromatic  seeds 
of  the  Amomum  xanthoides  and  the  similar  fruit  of  the 
Elettaria  cardamojnum^  or  at  least,  according  to  Dr.  Waring, 
of  the  Ceylon  variety  of  the  Malabar  cardamon.  Dr.  Wil- 
liams gives  their  Chinese  name  as  f0  ^j;  ^  (Hsi-sha-tou) 
and  their  botanical  source  as  Amomum  grana-paradisa.^''     The 

38  chinksf:  materia  medica. 

name  given  is  g'f^  ^^  fz  (So-sha-jen),  in  which  tliere  is  a  pal- 
pable mistake  made  in  writing  the  first  character.  It  is  possible 
that  under  certain  conditions  the  seeds  of  Ainojnwn  xanthoides 
are  used  as  a  substitute  for  those  of  Amo^innn  melegzieta^  but 
they  are  not  the  true  ''grains  of  paradise." 

AMOMUM  VIIXOSUM.  — 11  ^  ^}  (Yang-ch'un-sha). 
This  seems  to  be  a  Cochin-Chinese  species  of  Amo7mim^ 
which  has  been  introduced  into  China,  and  is  largely  grown 
in  the  district  of  Yang-ch'nn,  in  the  western  part  of  Kuang- 
tung  province.  From  this  latter  fact,  and  because  the  Chinese 
regard  this  drug  as  identical  with  Amomuni  xanthoides^  it 
receives  its  Chinese  name.  It  is  not  described  in  the  Pentsao. 
According  to  Hanbury's  description,  the  scape,  which  wheu 
perfect,  is  about  three  inches  long  and  reclinate,  bears  as  many 
as  eight  capsules  on  its  superior  extremity.  The  capsules  are 
from  six  to  eight  lines  in  length.  In  the  dried  state  they  are 
oval,  occa-^ionally  nearly  spherical,  more  or  less  three-sided, 
bluntly  pointed,  with  a  scar  at  the  summit,  rounded  at  the  base, 
and  attached  by  a  pedicel  one  to  two  lines  long.  The  pericarp 
is  externally  dark  brown,  marked  with  obscure  longitudinal 
striae  and  covered  with  asperities,  which,  after  soaking  with 
water,  are  seen  to  be  short,  thick,  fleshy,  closely-crowded  spines. 
The  pericarp  and  seeds  have  a  warm,  bitter,  aromatic  flavor, 
tarry  or  camphoraceous  in  character.  They  are  usually  found 
on  the  market  admixed  with  the  seeds  oi  Aniomian  xanthoides^ 
which  latter  are  easily  distinguished  by  their  plump  and 
bloomy-white  appearance.  The  same  tonic  and  stomachic 
properties  are  ascribed  to  the  seeds  of  this  plant  as  to  those  of 
cardamoms  in  general.  A  product  found  in  the  Customs  Lists, 
276,  known  as  .§  .|lj;  1^  (Ch'un-sha-hua)  and  #  tl  ^  (Sha- 
jen-hua),  is  considered  to  be  the  product  of  this  plant. 

AMOMUM  XANTHOIDES.  —^  ^p  ^  (So-sha-mi). 
This  is  the  so-called  '-'•  Bastard  cai'damow.''^  It  is  a  native  of 
Burma,  where  it  was  discovered  by  Wallich  in  1827.  It  was 
afterwards  found  by  Schomburgh  in  Siam,  and  is  said  by  Han- 
bury  to  occur  in  Cambodia  and  the  Laos  country.  The  Pen- 
tsao  says  that  it  originally  came  from  Persia  and  Asia  Minor, 


but  that  it  is  now  found  in  the  marshes  of  Lingnan.  The 
product  appears  in  the  Chinese  medicine  shops  in  two  distinct 
portions,  which  are  prescribed  in  different  affections.  The 
one  most  commonly  appearing   in   commerce  is  the  capsules, 

#  t  ^  (Sha-jen-k'o),  1076,  which  Hanbury  describes  as 
follows:  "These  empty  capsules  are  mostly  attached  to  a 
common  stalk,  which,  when  perfect,  is  about  five  inches  long 
and  beset  with  remains  of  sheathing  bracts.  The  superior 
portion,  which  is  much  stouter  than  the  rest,  bears  the  fruits 
closely  crowded  together  on  short  bracted  pedicels.  The 
capsules,  having  been  deprived  of  seeds,  are  shrunken  and 
compressed,  but  after  soaking  in  boiling  water  they  acquire 
their  proper  volume,  becoming  nearly  spherical  and  about 
three-quarters-of-an-inch  in  diameter."  These  capsules  are 
parched,  pulverized,  and  prescribed  in  ulcerous  affections  of 
the  throat  and  mouth.  As  they  are  practically  odorless  and 
tasteless,  and  the  process  of  parching  would  probably  drive 
away  any  volatile  substances  they  might  contain,  it  is  likely 
that  any  other  kind  of  charcoal  would  serve  in  these  affections 
equally  well. 

The  oblong,  triangular,    compact  masses  of  the  seeds  of 
these  capsular  fruits  are  sold  as  |f^  ^j;  tl  (So-sha-jen),  or  simply 

#  t  (Sha-jen),  1075.  They  vary  from  four  to  six  lines  in 
length,  and  are  covered  with  a  white  membrane,  which  when 
removed  discovers  the  small  black  seeds.  They  have  nearly 
the  same  flavor  as  that  of  the  Amo^niim  villosiwi^  and  are  said 
by  Hanbury  to  be  substituted  in  the  London  market  for  those 
of  the  officinal  Elettaria  (or  Malabar)  cardamom.  The  Chinese 
consider  the  Amomimi  cardaDwmiim^  Amovium  villosinn^  and 
Amom7C7n  xajithoides  to  be  similar  in  composition  and  virtues, 
and  this  is  probably  the  case.  But  as  they  almost  invariably 
prescribe  the  drug  in  the  form  of  a  decoction,  and  as  its 
medicinal  virtues  depend  upon  a  volatile  oil  and  a  resin,  it  is 
doubtful  if  this  substance  plays  any  very  imporant  part.iu  their 
prescriptions.  Tonic,  stomachic,  astringent,  carminative,  seda- 
tive, and  tussic  properties  are  referred  to  the  seeds.  They  are 
used  as  a  preserve  or  condiment,  in  flavoring  spirit,  and  are  said 
to  hasten  the  solution  of  copper  or  iron  cash,  fish  bones,  or 
any  other  metalic  or  foreign  substance  accidentally  swallowed. 


AINIYGDALUS  COMMUNUS.— It  is  pretty  certain  that 
this  plant  does  not  occur  in  China.  Porter  Smith  and  the 
Customs  Reports  erroneously  identify  this  as  ^  (Hsing),  but 
this  is  the  apricot,  the  kernels  of  which,  together  with  those 
of  the  peach  and  other  such  fruits,  are  used  in  China  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  almonds.  The  true  almond,  brought  into  China 
from  the  West,  goes  by  the  name  of  2»  ^  ^  (Pa-tan-hsing)  ; 
the  E,  0.  referring  to  some  country  in  Asia  Minor,  possibly 
another  name  for  Persia.      (See  Pru7ius.) 

417.  This,  as  identified  by  Loureiro,  is  a  fragrant  grass  used 
in  baths.  It  grows  in  Fukien,  and  is  also  called  ^  ||jji,  (Hsiang- 
ma)  ;  its  common  name  being  ^  ^[1  \^  (j\Iao-ju-ma),  "hemp- 
like grass."  The  grass  is  dark  in  color,  and  bears  a  white 
flower.  It  is  also  said  to  be  found  in  Shensi  and  Kuangtung. 
There  is  an  Anamese  variety,  called  ^  ^  ^  (Pai-mao-hsiang), 
which  is  used  for  the  same  purposes  as  the  other.  Besides  its 
use  in  scenting  baths,  in  which  it  is  considered  to  have  a  bene- 
ficial influence  in  curing  eruptions  of  the  skin,  it  is  used 
internally  in  digestive  troubles,  being  regarded  as  a  bland, 
stimulating,  and  carminative  remedy. 

mu).  This  is  a  liliaceous  plant  found  growing  plentifully  in 
the  Peking  mountains.  The  rhizome  is  the  part  used.  This 
is  said  to  resemble  the  rhizome  of  Aconis.  It  has  but  little 
taste  or  smell.  The  flowers  resemble  those  of  the  Allhun 
odorjim.  The  plant  is  found  in  nearly  all  of  the  provinces  north 
of  the  Yangtse  ;  but  the  Customs  lists  (136)  give  Chihli  as  the 
source  of  supply  for  commerce.  The  drug  occurs  in  irrregular, 
flattened,  twisted,  shriveled  pieces,  from  two  to  three  inches  in 
length,  and  generally  covered  with  reddish  or  yellowish-brown 
hairs,  which  become  scaly  at  the  distal  extremity.  The  smaller 
pieces  are  usually  much  wrinkled,  scarred,  and  nearly  free 
from  hairs.  The  interior  is  yellow,  spongy,  or  mealy,  and  the 
whole  drug  has  a  slightly  bitter  taste  and  an  agreeable  odor. 
Cooling,  lenitive,  expectorant,  and  diuretic  properties  belong 
to  this  rhizome,  which  is  used  in  precisely  the  same  cases  for 


which  squills  is  commonly  prescribed,   and    for  which  drug  it 
would  make  a  very  good  substitute. 

Other  names  given  by  the  Pe.ntsao  for  this  drug  are  4l§  ^ 
(Ch'ih-mu),  M  #  (Huo-mu),  j^^  ^  (Ti-shen),  ^  #  (Lien-mu>, 
=g=  id,  (K'u-hsin),  %  %  (Erh-ts'ao),  and  tJc  ^  (Shui-shen). 
The  term  j^  ^  (Chih-mu)  is  also  used  as  a  synonym  of  ^  ^ 
(Sha-shen)  for  Adenophora  verticillata.  In  the  Japanese  lists 
it  is  also  used  for  Chclidoiimm  mahis^  but  we  cannot  find  that 
it  is  so  used  in  China. 

ANEMONE  CERNUA.— 1^  ilfi  ^  (Pai-t'ou-wgng).  Such 
is  the  classification  in  the  Japanese  lists,  and  the  Phttsao 
description  answers  pretty  well  to  this  identification.  But 
Bretschneider  says  that  at  Peking  this  is  Eupatormm  kirillowii. 
The  Customs  lists  {965)  say  that  the  supply  comes  from  Hupeh 
and  Kuangtung.      The  root  and  flowers  are  used  in  medicine. 

Judging  from  the  variety  of  affections  for  which  this 
substance  is  recommended,  one  would  feel  assured  that  it  must 
be  Pulsatilla^  and  that  Chinese  physicians  had  gotten  their 
estimate  of  this  drug  from  Galen.  The  following  is  a  partial 
list  of  the  diseases  for  which  it  is  held  in  repute.  Fever, 
insanity,  ague,  obstruction  of  the  bowels,  swelling  of  the  neck 
from  anger,  to  promote  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  abdominal 
pain,  wounds  from  cutting  or  stabbing,  nasal  polypus,  virulent 
dysentery,  "red"  dysentery,  toothache,  all  of  the  forms  of 
rheumatic  pain,  scrofulous  glands,  all  forms  of  miasmatic 
poisoning,  hemorrhoids,  and  favus. 

ANGELICA  ANOMALA.— ^  12  (Pai-chih).  Porter 
Smith  has  identified  this  erroneously  with  Iris  florenti7ia  and 
with  Opopayiax.  Other  terms  given  by  the  Pentsao  are  j^  ^ 
(Tse-fen),  ^  -^  ^  (Pai-chih-hsiang),  ^  ^  (Pai-ch'ih),  ^  § 
(Fang-hsiang),  and  ^-  g|  (Fu-li).  The  Customs  lists  (940)  give 
Szechuan,  Hupeh,  and  Chekiang  as  the  sources  of  supply. 
The  roots  vary  in  size,  are  brownish  externally,  marked  with 
wrinkles  and  ridges  and  with  resin  dots  in  the  bark.  In- 
ternally it  is  yellowish-white,  and  contains  small  points  of 
resinous  or  oily  secretion.  The  odor  is  aromatic  and  the  taste 
somewhat  pungent  and  bitter.     It  has   long   been   a   favorite 


drug  with  the  Chinese.  In  ancient  times  they  wore  it,  to- 
gether with  other  fragrant  drugs,  in  their  girdles.  It  is  specially 
considered  to  be  a  woman's  drug,  and  is  therefore  prescribed 
in  a  number  of  female  affections,  as  well  as  being  a  favorite 
cosmetic  substance.  In  addition  to  menstrual  and  other  female 
complaints,  it  is  prescribed  in  a  large  number  of  other  disorders, 
such  as  urinary  difficulties,  nasal  polypus,  various  skin 
affections,  cuts  and  wounds,  and  certain  catarrhal  conditions. 
It  is  used  as  a  sternutatory,  and  of  the  leaves  of  the  plant  a 
wash  is  made  for  the  relief  of  pimples  and  prickly  heat. 

ANGELICA  DECURSIVA.~-t  ^  (Ch'ien-hu).  This  is 
a  common  plrnt,  growing  in  damp  soil  in  Central  and  North 
China.  The  fragrant  young  sprouts  and  the  leaves  are  eaten 
as  a  vegetable.  The  drug  is  met  with  in  brittle,  branching, 
irregular,  tapering  pieces  of  a  root,  resembling  that  of  Angelica 
qfficuialis.  The  external  surface  is  brown,  much  wrinkled, 
with  hairy  rootlets  at  the  growing  top  of  the  root-stock,  to 
which  a  portion  of  the  stem  is  sometimes  attached.  The 
interior  is  of  a  dirty  white  color,  the  taste  being  bitterish  and 
aromatic,  and  the  odor  agreeable,  but  not  very  strong.  The 
root  is  compared  in  the  Phitsao  to  that  of  the  Bupleiirtwi 
falcatum.  The  drug  entering  foreign  commerce  comes  from 
Szechuan,  Chekiang,  and  Kuangsi,  ii8.  Shensi,  Hupeh,  Hunan, 
Honan  and  Anhui  are  also  sources  of  supply  for  the  native  shops. 
The  drug  is  said  to  be  tonic,  stomachic,  expectorant,  carmina- 
tive, and  lenitive.  It  is  used  to  quiet  nervous  irritability,  as  in 
asthmatic  attacks,  fretfulness  of  children,  and  irritable  uterus. 

APIUM  GRAVEOLENS.— ^  ~^  (Han-ch'in),  or  simply 
J^-  (Ch'in  ,  or  j^  1^  (Ch'in-ts'ai).  The  character  '^  is  variously 
written  ^  and  f^.  This  character  is  also  applied  to  cress  and 
parsley.  Unfortunately  it  is  also  used  for  certain  Umbellif- 
erous plants  allied  to  water  hemlock.  In  Japan  7K  1^  (Shui- 
ch'in)  is  CEanthe  stolomfera.  But  the  plant  referred  to  under 
this  name  in  the  Phiisao  is  certainly  not  considered  to  be  at 
all  poisonous.  The  only  poisonous  variety  there  given  is  the 
^  ll  (Tzti-chin)  or  :^,  '^  (Ch'ih-ch'in),  which  is  the  Corydalis 
incisa  (which  see).    That  7IC  ^  (Shui-ying)  is  used  as  a  synonym 


for  Shui-ch'in  may  indicate  that  under  some  conditions  or  in 
some  places  the  Ch'in  may  be  considered  to  be  deleterious,  as 
^  is  usually  referred  to  the  Solanacese.  At  any  rate,  the  red 
varieties  of  celery  offered  for  sale  by  the  Chinese  ought  to  be 
eaten  with  great  caution.  There  is  the  greatest  difficulty  in 
harmonising  the  statements  of  the  Phitsao  in  regard  to  the  use 
of  the  above  characters.  After  the  Shui-ch'in,  which  is  also 
called  ^  If  (K'u-ch'in),  the  plant  g  (chin)  is  treated  of,  and 
^.  "^  (Han-ch'in)  given  as  a  synonym.  But  in  the  Erh-ya 
and  classics,  as  well  as  in  Japan,  this  cliaracter  refers  to  a  Viola^ 
and  judging  by  the  uses  to  which  it  is  recommended  in  the 
Phitsao^  this  is  its  proper  classification.     (See  Viola. ) 

Celery  is  a  common  vegetable  with  the  Chinese.  They 
sometimes  eat  it  raw,  but  they  usually  take  it  about  half  cooked, 
which  certainly  would  be  a  hygienic  safeguard,  when  we 
consider  their  manner  of  using  fertilizers  in  gardening.  Its 
properties  are  considered  to  be  digestive,  cooling,  quieting, 
alterative,  and  tonic.  It  is  recommended  in  menstrual  !■  :xes 
and  in  digestive  troubles  of  children.  The  expressed  juice  of 
the  bleached  stalk  is  the  form  much  used  medicinally. 

APLOTAXIS  AURICULATA.  ^  7fc  #  (Kuang-mu- 
hsiang),  860.  This  is  identical  with  Aplotaxis  lappa  and 
Aucklandia  costus.  It  is  sometimes  carelessly  written  /fc  ^ 
(Mu-hsiang),  as  is  also  Aristolochia.,  but  the  true  viu-hsiaiig  is 
Rosa  banksia  (which  see).  Enormous  quantities  of  this  root 
are  collected  in  the  highlands  of  Cashmere,  whence  it  is 
conveyed  to  Calcutta  and  Bombay,  from  where  it  is  shipped  to 
China.  As  it  probably  originally  entered  at  the  port  of  Canton, 
it  was  given  the  name  it  now  bears.  It  is  said  that  there  is  a 
root  produced  in  Kansuh  and  Honan  called  Kuang-hsiang, 
which  may  be  this  same  drug.  Other  parts  of  India  and 
Syria  also  produce  this  drug,  which  in  Sanscrit  is  called  kiishta^ 
in  Arabic  and  Persian  knst  and  in  Bengal  patchak.  This  last 
name  is  imitated  in  Cantonese.  The  drug  is  met  with  in  dry, 
brown,  broken  pieces,  having  much  the  same  appearance  as  so 
many  old  broken  pieces  of  bone.  The  smell  is  very  fragrant, 
resembling  that  of  orris  root,  and  the  taste  bitter,  pungent, 
aromatic,   and  slightly  mucilaginous.     It  is   used   in   making 

^4  chinesp:  materia  mkdica. 

incense  in  the  south,  or  to  preserve  clothes  from  the  attacks  of 
moths  and  other  insects.  It  is  said  to  have  the  power  of 
turning  gray  hair  black.  Carminative,  stimulant,  antiseptic, 
prophylactic,  astringent,  sedative,  and  insecticidal  properties 
are  referred  to  this  remedy.  Indian  experience  seems  to 
suggest  the  desirability  of  trying  this  root  when  powdered  as  a 
substitute  for  opium  in  obstinate  cases  of  opium  smoking. 
The  Chinese  apply  it  with  musk,  which  it  resembles  in  odor 
and  properties,  to  aching  teeth. 

APOCYNUM  VENETUM.— ^  ^  (Tse-ch'i).  Such  is 
Faber's  classification.  The  Japanese  call  this  Euphorbia 
helioscopia^  and  the  figure  given  in  the  Phitsao  looks  like 
Euphorbia.  On  the  other  hand,  the  figure  given  in  the 
Imperial  Encyclopedia  is  that  of  Apocynum.  Evidently 
Chinese  observers  have  confounded  two  diflferent  plants  under 
this  name;  for  some  say  that  it  is  "not  poisonous,"  while 
others  say  "slightly  poisonous  ;  "  some  say  that  the  leaves  are 
edible,  while  others  deny  the  edibility  of  the  plant.  It  is  also 
confounded  with  ^  ^  (Ta-chi),  which  is  certainly  Euphorbia. 
So,  for  the  purposes  of  this  work,  j^  ^  will  also  be  considered 
under  Euphorbia  (which  see). 

AQUILARIA  AGALLOCHA.  —  ?^  ^  (Ch'en-hsiang). 
This  is  the  substance  which  is  variously  called  agallochum,  agila 
wood,  eagle  wood,  calambac,  garoo  wood,  aloes  wood,  lign- 
aloes,  and  is  supposed  to  be  the  "aloes"  of  the  Bible.  The 
tree  belongs  to  the  natural  order  of  Aquilaracecs.  According 
to  Loureiro,  the  substance  is  also  derived  from  the  central  part 
of  the  trunk  of  Aloexylon  agallochum^  of  the  natural  order  of 
Leg7i7ninosccs^  sub-order  Ccssalpina.  An  equivalent  term  given 
in  the  Pentsao  is  ^  %  (Mi-hsiang),  and  the  substance  is 
described  under  two  different  headings  ;  the  reason  for  so  doing 
not  being  very  apparent.  The  tree  is  described  as  being  like 
the  Cedrela^  and  is  found  in  Hainan,  Kuantung,  Cochin  China, 
Cambodia,  Assam,  the  Laos  country,  India,  and  Persia.  The 
Persian  name,  ayalur  chec^  is  represented  by  the  Chinese  ^pj  |^ 
(A-chieh  i  ;  while  the  Sanscrit  agjiru  is  represented  by  |5pJ  5^  pg 
(A-chia-luj.     The  wood  of  the  sound  tree  is  light,   pale,  and 


very  slightly  odorous,  being  used  to  scent  clothes.  Various 
names  are  given  to  the  drug,  which  seem  to  refer  to  its  form 
or  the  part  of  the  tree  from  which  it  is  taken.  These  are 
M  5f  f=  iMa-t'i-hsiang),  H  #  ^  (Chi-ku-hsiang),  ^  M  ^ 
(Ch'ing-kuei-hsiang),  and  ^  %-  (Chan-hsiang).  The  product 
of  the  root  is  called  %^  ^  :^  (Huang-shu-hsiang).  After  the 
tree  has  been  felled  for  some  months  or  years,  a  dark,  resinous, 
aromatic  juice  is  met  with  in  the  wood,  mainly  deposited  in 
certain  portions  of  the  vascular  tissue,  more  especially  of  the 
heart  of  the  tree.  This  valuable  heavy  wood  is  called  ao-?ir,  a 
name  also  applied  to  the  drug  in  Bengali.  The  trees  are  some- 
times buried  in  order  to  increase,  or  to  facilitate  the  removal  of 
the  prized  oleoresin.  The  coarse,  reddish-brown  wood,  sold 
under  the  name  of  j^L  ^  ;^  (Ch'eu-hsiang-mu),  and  used  in  the 
making  of  incense,  has  an  odor  similar  to  that  of  sandal-wood, 
and  a  faintly  bitter  taste.  It  is  very  hard,  and  being  capable 
of  a  very  high  polish,  is  carved  into  ornamental  articles,  as  well 
as  being  burned  in  the  form  of  incense  sticks.  Paper  is  said  to 
have  been  formerly  made  of  the  bark  of  this  tree.  The  drug  is 
placed  by  Dr.  Williams  among  Chinese  imports,  but  it  is  not 
noted  in  the  Customs  lists.  Much  interesting  information  in 
regard  to  this  substance  can  readily  be  found  in  Hanbury's 
"Notes"  and  Royle's  Illustrations.  Tonic,  stimulant,  carmin- 
ative, aphrodisiac,  and  diuretic  properties  are  ascribed  to  the 
drug,  besides  which  it  is  supposed  to  possess  certain  occult 
virtues,  making  it  useful  in  getting  rid  of  evil  spirits. 

ARAIvIA  CORDATA.—i  l"  If  (T'u-tang-kuei ).  Such 
is  the  identification  of  Faber  and  the  Japanese.  Siebold  says 
that  this  is  the  same  as  Aralia  edulis.  It  may  be  an  Angelica. 
Its  uses  in  medicine  are  not  great  ;  it  being  considered  carmin- 
ative and  slightly  stimulating.  The  young  stalks  are  used 
as  a  vegetable.  According  to  the  Customs  Reports,  the  root 
of  this  plant  is  imported  into  Shanghai  from  Japan  under  the 
name  of  '^  |f  (Tang-kuei),  1250. 

ARCTIUM  LAPPA.— ^  ^  (Wu-shih).  Other  common 
names  are  -^  ^  -^p  (Niu-p'ang-tzu),  906,  and  :h  ^  ^  (Ta-li- 
tzii),  1226.     This  is  the  common  burdock  which  grows  plenti- 


fully  in  North  and  Central  China.  It  has  a  large  number  of 
vulgar  names,  of  which  the  Phitsao  gives  the  following  :  ^  ^ 
(Niu-ts'ai),  -^  ^  ^  (Pien-clvlen-niu),  ^S  ^  HI  (Ye-ch'a-t'ou), 
U^XkM  'Pien-fu-tz'u),  ^  Wi  %  (P'ang-weng-ts'ai),  and  %^%^ 
(Shu-nien).  The  seeds,  stem,  and  root  are  used  in  medicine. 
It  is  said  that  in  former  times  the  leaves  were  eaten  as  a  vege- 
table. The  taste  of  the  seeds  is  said  to  be  slightly  pungent, 
while  that  of  the  root  and  stem  is  bitter  and  cooling.  The 
drug  is  considered  to  be  alterative,  depurative,  diaphoretic,  and 
diuretic.  The  seeds  are  usually  taken  in  decoction,  or  with 
honey  and  wine  ;  the  root  and  stalk  in  decoction  or  tincture. 

ARECA  CATECHU.—^  %  (Ping-lang).  This  is  the 
Araca  Palm  which  bears  the  so-called  Betel  Nut  used  by  the 
Malays  in  betel  chewing.  (See  Chavica  betel.)  The  Malayan 
name  is  Pinang.,  and  the  Chinese  name  is  suppc^ed  to  be  a 
transference  of  the  sounds  of  this  word.  But  Li  Shih  Chen  says 
that  ^  ^1)  means  "an  honored  guest,"  and  these  characters 
are  used  because  of  the  practice  of  setting  the  betel  box  before 
guests.  Both  explanations  are  ingenious,  to  say  the  least.  The 
Areca  Palm  is  indigenous  to  the  East  Indies,  where  it  is 
extensively  cultivated,  as  also  in  the  Philippine  Islands, 
Hainan,  and  the  south  of  China.  Mr.  Sampson  reports  that 
the  best  nuts  are  produced  in  the  south  of  the  island  of  Hainan. 
According  to  the  Phitsao  there  are  several  sorts,  varying 
according  to  the  height  of  the  tree  and  the  size  of  the  fruit. 
The  nuts  vary  a  good  deal  in  size  and  quality,  being  from  three 
quarters  of  an  inch  to  an  inch  in  length.  They  are  brown  in 
color,  conical  at  one  end  and  truncated  at  the  other,  which  is 
marked  by  a  depressed,  whitish  scar.  The  taste  is  bitter  and 
rough,  varying  in  different  specimens.  According  to  the 
analysis  of  Morin,  these  nuts  contain  a  large  proportion  of 
tannic  and  gallic  acids.  In  India,  a  kind  of  Catechu  is  pre- 
pared from  them,  which  is  known  as  catta-carnbii.  It  does  not 
appear  in  commerce  ;  and,  unless  ;j^  %  ^  (Ping-lang-hsin)  or 
^  %  W  (Ping-lang-kaoi,  1026  and  1027,  are  this  article,  it  is 
not  known  in  China.  Waring  says  that  it  is  as  good  as  the 
Black  Catechu  obtained  from  the  Acacia  catechu;  but,  inas- 
much as  the   Areca   nut  does  not  contain  any   Catechin,  this 


catechu  is  usually  regarded  iu  the  West  as  inferior.  Tonic, 
stomachic,  astringent,  antiperiodic,  detergent,  and  anthelmintic 
properties  are  assigned  to  the  fruit,  which,  as  a  tea,  was  lormer- 
ly  used  in  the  south  as  a  prophylactic  against  malarious  and 
mephitic  vapors.  One  of  the  synonyms  used  in  the  Phitsao  is 
^  iS  ^  (Hsi-chang-tan),  "  antimalarious  panacea,"  and 
indicates  its  repute  in  this  direction.  The  powdered  nut  has 
long  been  in  use  in  China  as  an  anthelmintic,  and  the  expul- 
sion of  tape  worms  is  its  chief  use  in  the  West.  An  alternative 
way  of  writing  the  first  character  in  the  Chinese  name  for  the 
plant  is  ;^.  One  of  the  varieties  of  Areca  catecJm  is  known  as 
:^  ^  ^  (Ta-fu-tzu)  and  |t  ^f\  ^^li  (Chu-ping-lang).  The  bark 
of  this  tree  enters  commerce  under  the  name  of  ;^  ^  ^  (Ta- 
fu-p'i),  342.  It  is  a  rough,  dirty,  tow-like  substance,  which  is 
used  for  very  much  the  same  purposes  as  the  Areca  nut,  such 
as  choleraic  affections,  and  for  flatulent,  dropsical,  and  obstruct- 
ive diseases  of  the  digestive  tract.  An  ointment  and  a  wash 
are  prepared  for  use  as  detergent  applications  to  fistulous  sores 
and  to  scabious,  impetiginous,  and  other  eruptions. 

ARGEMONE  MEXICANA.— ^M^(Ivao-shu-le).  This 
spinous  plant,  belonging  to  the  PapaveracecB^  is  met  with  in 
the  south  of  China.  The  seeds  are  said  to  be  expectorant  and 
sedative.  They  yield  a  fixed  oil,  which  has  long  been  in  use  in 
the  West  Indies  as  a  purgative,  and  has  since  been  recommended 
by  Dr.  Waring  as  a  mild,  painless  purge  in  constipation  and 
colic.  The  oil  is  said  to  allay  the  irritation  of  herpes  and  many 
other  eruptions  of  the  skin.  The  name  is  applied  to  Spinifex 
squarosis  and  to  Acanthus  ilicifolius. 

ARIS^MA  JAPONICUM.— 5c  ft  M  rT'ien-nan-hsing), 
1297.  This  was  identified  by  Loureiro  and  Tatarinov  as  Arum 
pentaphylhivi^  and  by  Kaempfer  as  Arum  t7'iphilum.  The 
Chinese  have  not  distinguished  between  this  and  Ariscsma 
thunbergii.  As  the  Pentsao  discusses  this  drug  under  the  latter 
heading,  we  will  refer  to  that  article  for  the  medicinal  virtues 
and  uses  oi  AriscBtna  japonicu77i. 

ARIS^MA  RINGENS.— i  111  (Yu-po).  This  is  said 
to  grow  in  forests.     By  some  it  is  considered  to  be  the  young 


root  of  Ariscsma  tJmnbergii.  The  tendency  of  the  Chinese  is 
to  refer  the  less  frequently  used  species  of  a  genus  to  the  one 
most  frequently  employed,  especially  if  the  medicinal  virtues 
coincide.  In  this  way  most  of  these  aroid  plants  are  consid- 
ered to  hold  some  relationohip  to  either  AriscBjna  tJmnbergii  or 
Pineilia  tiiberifera^  which  bear  the  highest  reputation  medici- 
nally of  this  class  of  plants.  This  drug  is  considered  to  be 
alterative  and  febrifuge.      It  is  not  much  used. 

ARIS3MA  THUNBERGIL— ;^  %  (Hu-chang).  This 
plant  is  found  in  different  parts  of  the  central  and  northern 
provinces  of  China.  Tho  supply  comes  for  the  most  part  from 
Shensi,  Szechuan,  Hupeh,  and  Anhui.  The  tubers  are  the 
part  used,  which  from  their  shape  slightly  resembling  the  paw 
of  an  animal,  receive  the  name  of  "tiger's  paws."  They 
resemble  those  of  the  allied  species  Pineilia  tziberifera^  Ariscs- 
ma  japojiicujUy  Ariscsma  ringens^  and  Conophyhis  konjak. 
Indeed  the  distinction  between  some  of  these  tubers  is  difficult 
to  make,  and  is  probably  not  made  by  the  Chinese  druggists. 
So  the  description  of  the  drug  as  found  in  the  sliops  must  have 
an  element  of  uncertainty  about  it.  In  general,  however,  they 
are  hard,  yellowish-brown,  or  whitish,  flattened,  round,  general- 
ly divided  into  small  branching  tubers  grouped  around  the 
central  portion,  which  is  umbilicated  and  marked  with  pits  and 
tubercles.  The  cicatricial  remnant  of  the  stalk  is  often  seen  in 
the  umbilicus  of  the  tubers.  The  interior  firm,  starchy,  white 
substance  has  a  considerable  of  acridity  when  chewed  for  some 
time.  The  drug  is  considered  to  be  exceedingly  poisonous. 
Alterative,  deobstruent,  expectorant,  diuretic,  discutient,  and 
vulnerary  properties  are  attributed  to  it.  It  is  recommended  in 
Chinese  medical  practice  for  apoplexy,  hemiplegia,  epilepsy, 
and  many  other  diseases  supposed  to  depend  upon  the  presence 
of  phlegm.  It  is  pounded  and  mixed  with  vinegar  or  oil,  and 
applied  to  small  tumors  or  swellings.  Having  a  somewhat 
benumbing  influence,  similar  to  that  of  aconite,  it  is  sometimes 
used  as  an  ingredient  in  certain  local  ansesthetic  compounds, 
which  are  applied  to  painful  growths,  or  to  abscesses  previous 
to  being  opened  by  those  who  are  bold  enough  to  venture  upon 
such  a  surgical  procedure. 


ARISTOLOCHIA    CONTORTA.  —  ±   ^   :^  fs   (T'u- 

cli'ing-inu-hsiaug).  This  plant  is  found  at  Peking  and  north- 
ward. It  is  described  in  the  Phitsao  under  Aristolochia 
kcempferi.  Whetlier  the  drug  met  with  in  coninierce  is  tlie 
product  of  this  plant,  of  Aristolochia  ko^nipfcri^  or  of  Aristolo- 
chia recnrvilabra^  is  uncertain,  with  a  probability  in  favor  of 
the  last  named. 

ARISTOLOCHIA  KCEMPFERI.—,^  ^  ^  (Ma-tou- 
ling),  813.  Called  by  Faber  %  |^  (Ton-ling),  Aristolochia 
ichilis.  The  drug  conies  principally  from  the  northern  prov- 
inces; some  being  exported  (possibly  re-exported)  from  Foochow. 
It  consists  of  dry,  oval,  pediculated  fruits  of  one  to  one-and- 
three-quarters  inch  in  length  when  whole.  But  thev  are 
usually  broken,  showing  a  division  into  six  thin,  papery  valves, 
inclosing  flat,  obtusely-triangular,  winged  seeds.  Some  say  that 
the  Chinese  name  of  this  plant,  "horse  bell,"  refers  to  the 
shape  of  the  leaf.  As  the  open,  cellular  structure  of  these  fruits 
is  considered  by  the  Chinese  to  resemble  the  human  lung, 
they  are  strongly  recommended  in  all  forms  of  pulmonary 
affections.  They  have  very  little  taste  or  smell  and  are  not 
poisonous.  Other  diseases  for  which  they  are  prescribed  are 
hemorrhoids  and  ascites.  One  of  the  fruits  burued  over  a  lamp, 
and  the  charred  remains  taken  with  wine,  is  considered  a  sure 
cure  for  heartburn. 

mu-hsiang),  192,  [|j  jf^  (Pai-shu),  961.  These  are  the  identifica- 
tions of  Hance.  The  latter  is  cultivated  in  Shaohsing  prefecture, 
.Chekiaug  province,  and  large  quantities  are  therefore  exported 
from  Ningpo.  The  plant  resembles  the  birthwort,  and  evident- 
ly belougs  to  this  genus.  It  is  said  to  sometimes  be  substituted 
for  Indian  putchuk.  The  various  kinds  of  the  drug  are  known 
as  2j5  ;|f;  (P'ing-shu),  /^  )\c  (SUieng-shu),  ^  ;[t  (Tung-shu),  ±  H 
(T'u-shu),  %  -)\c  (Wu-shu),  7^  )\l  (Yiian-shu),  >],  %  )%  (Hsiao- 
yiian-shu),  and  ^  %  (Yiin-shu).  Besides  the  province  of  Che- 
kiang,  Kiangsi,  Anhui,  and  Yunnan  are  sources  of  supply  for 
the  drug.  The  best  kind  is  said  to  be  produced  at  %\  iff  (Yii- 
chien)  in  Hangchow  prefecture.     Of  the  former,   the  sources 


of  origin  are  Szechuan,  Hupeh,  Chekiatig,  and  Kuangtung. 
The  root  of  the  Pai-shu  is  said  to  resemble  old  ginger  root, 
dark  colored  without  and  white  inside.  It  is  considered  to  be 
constructive,  alterative,  tonic,  and  diuretic.  It  is  a  highly 
valued  remedy,  being  prescribed  in  combination  with  such  drugs 
as  ginseng  and  China  root.  It  is  used  in  digestive  disorders 
and  chronic  fluxes,  especially  those  of  women  and  children. 
It  is  regarded  as  being  especially  useful  in  summer  diarrhoea 
and  in  chronic  diarrhoea  and  dysentery.  Under  the  designation 
^^  M  ^  ^  (Tu-hsing-kenX  the  root  of  the  Ch'ing-mu-hsiang 
is  prescribed  in  similar  cases.  But  in  addition,  this  is 
regarded  to  be  especially  efficacious  in  expelling  the  ^  (Ku) 
poison.  So  highly  is  it  valued  for  this  purpose  by  the  in- 
habitants of  Lingnan  that  they  have  given  it  the  name  of 
H  "5  M  f^  1^  (San-pai-liang-yin-yao\  "  three-hundred-taels-of- 
silver-drug."  It  is  also  considered  to  be  a  good  remedy  for 

ARTEMISIA  ANNUA. —f;  :j^  ^  (Huang-hua-hao). 
Also  called  ^  ]^  (Ch'ou-hao,  "stinking  herbage,"  and  "^  ^ 
(Ts'ao-haoy,  "  grassy  herbage."  It  is  not  eaten  on  account  of 
its  unpleasant  odor.  The  leaves  and  the  seeds  are  prescribed, 
the  former  for  children's  fevers,  and  the  latter  for  consumption, 
flatulence,  dyspepsia,  night  sweats,  and  to  destroy  noxious  vapors. 

ARTEMISIA  APIACEA.—f^f^-(Ch'ing-hao),  i86.  This 
is  probably  identical  with  Artemisia  abrotamim^  or  southern- 
wood. Other  classifications  have  been  Arte^nisia  draainculus 
and  Artevtisia  desertorimi.  This  plant,  when  coiled  into  ropes 
to  be  burned  to  drive  away  mosquitos,,  is  called  ^  ^  (Hsiang- 
hao).  This  is  also  the  term  by  which  it  is  known, at  Peking. 
In  the  spring,  when  the  leaves  are  very  tender,  they  are  eaten 
as  a  vegetable.  Very  early  in  the  spring  the  shoots  are  used 
medicinally.  The  leaves,  stalk,  root,  and  seeds  are  all  used  in 
medicine.  It  is  prescribed  in  a  large  number  of  affections, 
among  which  may  be  mentioned  consumption,  chronic  dysen- 
try,  malaria,  nasal  polypus,  hemorrhoids,  wasp  stings,  etc. 

ARTEMISIA  CAPILLARIS.— "^  H  %  (Yin-ch'en-hao), 
r532.     Lotireiro- calls  this  Artemisia  abvotamim^  but  the  plant 


he  describes  is  not  this  species.  This  is  a  perennial  artemisia, 
coming  up  year  after  year  from  the  same  roots  and  preserving 
its  foliage  green  during  the  winter.  Hence  the  name  ^  ^ 
(Yin-ch'en).  It  is  a  mountain  plant  in  its  natural  habitat  ;  that 
coming  from  the  peaks  near  Hochou,  in  Auhui  province  being 
called  ^  ■©  ii^  Shih-yin-ch'en),  or  "stone  artemisia."  The 
best  quality  is  thought  to  come  from  the  sacred  Tai  mountain, 
in  Shantung.  There  is  also  a  cultivated  variety,  which  the 
Phitsao  distinguishes  both  as  to  appearance  and  medical  uses. 
Under  the  common  method  of  preparation,  the  substance  of 
the  plant  is  converted  into  a  downy  mass,  which  is  called 
|(t)  "!§  liH  (Mien-yin-ch'en).  The  leaves  and  stalk  are  used  as 
a  febrifuge,  a  diuretic,  an  antispasmodic,  aud  an  antiperiodic. 
It  is  recommended  in  the  treatment  of  jaundice,  dysmenorrhoea, 
ague  and  ephemeral  fevers. 

ARTEMISIA  JAPONICA.  —  {fi  %  (Mou-hao).  Also 
called  ^  Hg  -^  (Ch'i-t'ou-hao).  Classical  name,  j^  (Wei).  It 
grows  in  fields  and  waste  lands.  Li  Shih-chen  says:  "Its 
leaves  are  flat,  narrow  at  the  base,  broad  and  lobed  at  the  end. 
The  young  leaves  can  be  eaten.  Deer  are  fond  of  the  plant. 
In  autumn  it  bears  small,  yellow  flowers.  The  fruit  is  as  large 
as  that  of  the  Plantago  major^  and  contains  minute  seeds, 
hardly  distinguishable  ;  wherefore  the  ancients  asserted  that 
the  plant  had  no  seeds,  and  called  it  the  male  southernwood." 
It  is  reputed  to  promote  the  digestion  of  fat,  and  is  therefore 
used  to  produce  plumpness  of  figure.  But  it  is  advised  not  to 
use  it  very  long  at  a  time,  as  its  prolonged  use  is  deleterious. 
The  expressed  juice  is  employed  as  a  local  application  in 
vaginitis.  In  combination  with  elecampane,  it  is  considered  a 
sure  cure  for  ague. 

ARTEMISIA  KEISKIANA.— H  j^  (An-lii).  Also  called 
^  ^  (Fu-lii).  These  names  come  from  the  fact  that  the 
stalks  of  this  plant  are  useful  for  thatching  village  cottages. 
The  seeds  are  the  part  employed  in  medicine.  Their  use  is 
supposed  to  prolong  life,  and  they  are  administered  in  cases 
of  impotence,  amenorrhoea,  post-partum  pain,  and  to  remove 
extravasated  blood  aud  prevent  the  formation  of  abscess. 


(Pai-hao),  Classical  names,  ^  (Fan)  and  i^  (Lii).  It  is 
considered  by  some  ancient  authors  to  be  amphil)ions  in  its 
habits,  but  it  is  probable  that  there  are  two  distinct  but 
closely  related  species.  Indeed  Su  Sung  (nth  century )  says  : 
"  In  ancient  times  the  people  used  the  leaves  of  the  Pai-hao  for 
food.  Now  they  employ  for  this  purpose  the  ^  j:^'  (Lii-hao), 
which  some  authors  have  erroneously  identified  with  the 
Pai-hao."  Faber  calls  this  Lii-hao  A7'teniisia giloescens.  It 
shoots  up  in  the  second  month,  and  the  very  tender  leaves  and 
the  crisp  white  or  reddish  roots  are  used  as  food  by  the  people, 
being  eaten  raw  or  cooked.  This  plant  is  regarded  as  useful 
in  flatulence,  colds,  as  a  stomachic,  to  promote  the  growth  of 
hair,  and  as  a  nervine  and  promoter  of  the  mental  faculties. 
Externally,  a  decoction  is  used  as  a  wash  in  ulcerous  skin 
a£fections.  It  is  probably  indigenous  to  China,  being  found 
in  most  parts  of  the  empire,  and  it  may  be  the  same  as  the 
Arabic  Artemisia  Jierba-alba.  That  form  which  grows  on 
uplands  is  not  used  as  food,  and  but  rarely  in  medicine. 

ARTEMISIA  VULGARIS.— 3^  %  (Ai-hao),  or  simply  ^ 
(Ai).  Also  called  Ariejuisia  indica^  Ai'teinisia  cJiincnsis^  zxi^ 
Artemisia  moxa.  This  plant  is  tlie  common  mugzvort^  and 
is  found  in  most  parts  of  China  ;  the  trade  supply  of  the  drug 
coming  from  Hupeh,  Anhui,  and  Fukien.  The  best  quality, 
known  ^s  ^  ^  (Ch'i-ai),  comes  from  Ch'i-chou  (^  ]\\\  in 
Huang-chou-fu  ',w  jij  ifj^),  in  Plupeh.  Bretschneider  says  that 
this  is  the  same  as  ^  ^  >^  (Ch'ien-nien-ai),  and  is  Tanacctinn 
chinense.  Faber  calls  the  Ch'ien-nien-ai  Artemisia  viclgarisy 
and  Ai  (^)  he  calls  Artemisia  indica.  But  from  a  medical  stand- 
point, these  distinctions  are  unimportant.  Another  variety,^ 
known  as  ^  ^^  (Tzu-ai),  reddish  in  color,  comes  from  L'ung- 
yang-fu,  in  Anhui.  Common  names  by  which  the  Artemisia  is 
known  are  ^  '^  (I-ts'ao,  "  vulnerary  herb  "),  ^  ]^  (Chih-ts'ao, 
"  burning  herb  "),  and  i^  I^  (Chiu-ts^ao,  "  cauterizing  herb  "). 
In  commerce  thi?  article  appears  principally  in  four  forms. 
Ai-yeh  C^  ^),  7,  is  the  dried  leaves  of  the  plant,  while  Ai- 
t'iao  C^c  ^,^).,  6,  is  the  dried  twigs  done  up  in  bundles.  Ai- 
jung  (>c  Wi'h  3)  is  made  by  taking  the  best  leaves  and  grinding 


them  up  in  a  stone  mortar  with  water,  separating  out  the 
coarsest  particles  and  refuse  and  drying  what  remains.  Ai- 
mien  (^  |^),  4,  is  the  Ai-jung  picked  to  pieces  by  hand.  This 
latter  is  principally  used  as  a  stamping-ink  pad  for  seals,  being 
mixed  with  vermillion  and  castor  oil  for  that  purpose. 

The  Ai-jung  is  used  as  a  moxa  (^  >X\  ^otli  for  cauterizing 
purposes  and  as  a  counterirritant.  A  small  portion  is  rolled 
into  a  pellet  the  size  of  a  pea,  placed  upon  the  ulcer  or  place 
to  be  cauterized  and  ignited.  The  preferred  method  of  igniting 
the  moxa  is  with  a  burning  glass  or  mirror.  The  number 
of  pellets  used  depends  upon  the  effect  desired.  If  it  is  used 
for  the  relief  of  pain,  the  process  is  continued  until  the  pain  is 
relieved,  or  until  more  than  ten  pellets  have  been  used.  If  for 
the  cauterization  of  an  ulcer,  or  for  the  loss  of  sensation  in  a 
part,  its  application  should  be  continued  until  acute  pain  is 
produced,  or  ten  or  more  pellets  have  been  used.  This  treat- 
ment is  recommended  and  practiced  indiscriminately  by  native 
doctors  for  nearly  all  of  the  ills  to  which  flesh  is  heir — from  itch 
to  sterility.  It  is  reported  to  have  fallen  somewhat  into  disuse 
in  some  parts  of  tlie  empire,  but  in  Kiangnan  it  seems  to  be 
as  much  employed  by  the  native  faculty  as  it  ever  was. 

The  number  of  diseases  for  which  Artemisia  vulgaris  is 
prescribed,  is  very  large.  It  is  regarded  as  having  haemostatic, 
antiseptic,  and  carminative  virtues.  Therefore  it  is  prescribed  in 
decoction  in  haemoptysis,  dysentery,  menorrhagia,  post-partura 
hsemorrhaoe,  snake  and  insect  bites,  as  a  wash  for  all  sorts  of 
wounds  and  ulcers,  and  to  allay  the  griping  pains  of  indigestion, 
diarrhoea,  or  dysentery.  The  expressed  juice  of  the  fresh  plant 
is  employed  as  a  haemostatic,  for  tape  worm,  and  as  a  carmin- 
ative. A  tincture,  made  up  in  native  spirits,  is  used  as  a 
nerve  sedative  in  abdominal  j^ain  and  in  labor.  The  leaves  are 
also  steamed  and  used  as  a  poultice  for  the  relief  of  pain.  This 
is  called  Ai-pa  (^  ^). 

As  this  plant  is  so  frequently  used  as  a  charm,  and  is  held 
in  a  measure  of  superstitious  veneration  by  the  people,  it  is  a 
little  difficult  to  determine  just  where  its  remedial  use  in  native 
therapeutics  begins.  At  the  time  of  the  Dragon  Festival  (fifth 
day  of  the  fifth  moon)  the  Artemisia  is  hung  up  to  ward  off 
noxious  influences.     This  is  done  either  together  with  a  Taoist 


charm,  in  which  case  it  is  called  ;^  ^  (Ai-fu),  and  is  hung 
at  the  head  of  the  principal  room  of  the  house,  or  together  with 
the  Acorns  calamus  (g"  f[ff,  Ch'ang-p'u)  at  the  door ;  the  leaves 
of  the  latter  being  formed  in  the  shape  of  a  sword  (called  fjjj  ^, 
P'u-chienj  and  placed  over  the  door,  while  a  stalk  of  the 
Artemisia  is  hung  on  each  door  post.  That  this  was  efficacious 
in  at  least  one  instance  is  attested  by  the  fact  that  the  famous 
rebel,  Huang  Ch'ao  (g  ^),  gave  orders  to  his  soldiers  to  spare 
any  family  that  had  Artemisia  hung  up  at  the  door.  The 
moxa  is  employed  by  Buddhist  priests  in  initiating  neophytes; 
three  rows  of  three,  four,  or  five  scars  each  being  burned  on 
the  crown  of  the  head  with  this  substance.  Many  also  use  the 
moxa  on  a  three  days'  old  child,  burning  one  or  more  scars  on 
the  face;  this  being  supposed  to  insure  the  child's  living  through 
infancy.  The  places  for  burning  are  between  the  brows,  on 
each  cheek  a  little  distance  beneath  the  eyes,  and  at  the  root 
of  the  nose  on  the  upper  lip. 

ARTOCARPUS  INTEGERIFOLIA.— jjjc  ^  ^- (Po-lo- 
mi).  This  is  the  Jack,  Jak,  or  Jaca  fruit.  The  Annamese  name 
is  ^  (ijil  ^  (Nang-chieh-ch'ieh) ;  the  last  two  characters  being 
pronounced  "chiaket"  in  Annamese.  The  first  name  givea 
above  is  the  Sanscrit  name,  represented  in  Chinese  characters. 
In  Persian  it  is  ^  ^j)  '^  (P'o-na-sha),  and  in  the  language  of 
the  Nestorian  country  of  ^  i^  (Fu-lin),  it  was  called  1^  ^  3I| 
(A-sa-t'o).  It  is  a  member  of  that  very  interesting  natural 
order  of  Dicotyledonous  plants,  the  ArtocarpacecB^  which  fur- 
nishes the  bread-fruit,  caoutchouc,  the  cow-tree,  the  deadly 
Upas,  the  sack-tree,  the  Trumpetwood  which  is  used  for  cordage 
and  for  musical  wind-instrumeats,  and  the  valuable  Snakewood 
of  Demerara.  The  Jack-fruit  is  said  to  grow  in  several  parts 
of  Southern  Asia,  being  found  in  China  in  Lingnan  and  Yun- 
nan. The  pulp  and  seeds  are  considered  by  the  Chinese  to  be 
cooling,  tonic,  and  nutritious,  and  to  be  useful  in  overcoming 
the  influence  of  alcohol  on  the  system. 

AS  ARUM  FORBESI.— ;^  %  (Tu-hengV  Other  names, 
±  IB  $  (T'u-hsi-hsin),  j^  |^  (Tu-k'uei),  and  the  T'ang  Phi- 
tsao  calls  it  ,E|  J^  ^  (Ma-t'i-hsiang),  on  account  of  the  shape 


of  its  leaves.  It  is  found  in  rocky  ravines  anywhere  between 
the  Huai  and  the  Yangtsze,  and  probably  any  place  else  in 
Central  China.  Its  continued  use  will  give  a  fragrant  odor  to 
the  body.  The  root  is  the  part  used,  and  it  is  prescribed  for 
fevers,  coughs,  goitre,  and  for  intestinal  worms.  A  caution  is 
offered  in  regard  to  a  plant  called  Tfc  i^.g  ^  (Mu-hsi-hsin),  which 
is  considered  to  be  poisonous,  and  the  similarity  of  names  to 
the  i  i|0  -^  (T'u-hsi-hsin)  might  lead  to  error. 

ASARUM  SIEBOLDI.  —  $m  5^  (Hsi-hsin),  388.  This 
drug  seems  to  be  confused  with  the  last  in  commerce.  It, 
however,  is  a  northern  plant,  being  found  principally  in  Korea, 
Manchuria,  and  the  extreme  northern  provinces  of  China. 
The  Chinese  name  refers  to  the  fibrous  character  of  the  roots 
and  their  extreme  acridity.  The  dried  root  appears  in  the 
shops  in  the  form  of  fibrous  radicles,  having  a  strong,  aromatic 
smell  and  a  subacrid  taste,  having  lost  some  of  the  acridity  of 
the  fresh  root  in  the  process  of  drying.  The  Pentsao  assigns 
to  this  drug  emetic,  expectorant,  diaphoretic,  diuretic,  and 
purgative  properties.  It  is  prescribed  in  rheumatic  affections, 
and  in  epilepsy.  It  is  used  in  powder  in  the  treatment  of  nasal 
polypus  and  in  deafness,  and  in  strong  decoction  or  powder  ia 
the  treatment  of  ulcers  of  the  mouth. 

ASCLEPIAS.— ^  %  %  (Pai-t'u-huo).  This  seems  to  be 
a  Sarsa-like  plant,  both  as  to  its  form  and  as  to  its  reputed 
medicinal  virtues.  It  is  said  to  grow  in  various  parts  of  China, 
such  as  Kuangtung,  Hupeh,  and  Shensi.  Its  species  is  not 
determined.  It  is  considered  to  be  a  counterpoison,  and  is 
recommended  in  the  treatment  of  insect  and  animal  stings  and 
bites,  to  counteract  the  ^  (Ku)  poison,-  and  to  destroy  the 
eflfects  of  poisons  that  may  have  been  swallowed. 

ASPARAGUS  IvUCIDUS.— 5;  P^  %  (T'ien-men-tung), 
1301,  1302.  Other  names,  ^  %  (Men-tuug),  %^  1^  (Tien-le), 
and  M  ^M  (Wan-sui-t'eng).  This  is  said  by  the  Pentsao  to 
be  a  creeping  plant  with  prickly  leaves.  In  the  region  of 
Taishan,  in  Shantung,  is  the  mkDst  famous  place  of  its  production. 
But  it  is  cultivated  iu  and  around  Peking.     The  Customs  Lists 


give  Szecluian  as  the  source  of  the  commercial  supply.  It  is. 
doubtless  fnuud  in  other  parts  of  China.  The  tubers  are  the 
part  used,  and  they  are  described  as  being  spindle-shaped, 
fleshy,  translucent,  of  a  reddish  or  yellowish  color,  and  varying 
from  two  to  five  inches  in  length.  Some  are  much  older  and 
more  woody  in  structure.  They  are  flattened,  contorted, 
furrowed  longitudinally,  and  have  a  central  perforation  in 
many  cases,  showing  that  they  have  been  strung  on  a  cord  for 
purposes  of  drying.  They  have  no  decided  odor,  but  the  taste 
is  something  like  that  of  the  squill.  They  are  considered  to  be 
expectorant,  tonic,  stomachic,  and  nervous  stimulant.  Their 
prolonged  use  is  recommended  in  impotence.  The  root  is  pre- 
served in  sugar  as  a  sweet-meat. 

Ivoureiro  calls  this  plant  Melanthuini  cochinchinense^  and  in 
this  he  is  followed  by  Tatarinov,  Guager,  Hanbury,  and  Porter 
Smith.  But  Hance  and  Henry,  wdio  studied  the  plant  in  its 
natural  habitat,  identify  it  as  Asparagus  lucidiis^  as  do  also 
Miquel,   Faber,  Bretschneider,  and  the  Japanese. 

ASPIDIUM  FALCATUM.— 1;  ^  (Kuan-chung\  647. 
According  to  M.  Fauvel,  this  term  is  so  applied  in  Shantung. 
According  to  Henry,  in  Hupeh  Kuan-chung  is  IJ^oodzvardia 
radicans  (wAnchste),  and  ^  ;p[  ^  (Mao-kuan-chung)  is  Onoclea 
orientalis  and  A^cphrodiiiin  filix  mas.  In  Japan  these  charac- 
ters indicate  Loinaria  japojiica. 

ASTER  FASTIGIATUS.  —  -k  '^  (Nii-yiian).  Other 
names  are  ^  ^  (Pai-yuaii),  M  ^  $^  (Chien-nii-yiian\  and 
25c  \%.  (Nil-fu).  This  plant  grows  in  the  north  of  China.  In 
the  Peking  mountains  this  name  is  applied  to  Plectranthiis 
glaucocalyx.  The  root  is  the  part  used  in  the  treatment  of 
fevers,  plague,  dysentery,  epileptoid  conditions,  and  it  is  espe- 
cially recommended  to  be  used  to  allay  the  results  of  overfeast- 
ing  and  wine  drinking. 

ASTER  TATARICUS.— ^  '^(Tzti-yiian),  1422.  This  is 
Faber's  identification.  The  plant  grows  plentifully  in  Northern 
and  Central  China,  and  resembles  the  last  so  much  that  they 
are  often  confounded.     Another  name  for  it  is  :j^  ^  -^  (Ye- 


ch'ien-niu).  The  root  is  the  part  used,  is  fibrous,  of  a  reddish- 
brown  color,  has  a  fragrant  odor  and  but  little  taste.  It  is 
used  in  the  treatment  of  pulmonary  affections,  in  hoetnoptysis, 
hematuria,  puerperal  hemorrhage,  and  dysuria.  It  is  also 
considered  to  be  quieting  to  the  nervous  system,  and  is  there- 
fore used  in  the  restless  crying  of  children.  It  is  also  regarded 
to  have  some  tonic  virtues. 

ASTER  TRINERVIUS.— .B|  ^  (Ma-lan),  803.  Also 
called  ^  ^  iTzu-chii),  "purple  chrysanthemum."  It  grows 
almost  everywhere  in  marshy  places  and  on  the  borders  of 
lakes.  The  flower  has  an  unpleasant  odor.  The  root  and 
leaves  are  used,  and  are  recommended  for  the  treatment  of 
hemorrhages,  all  forms  of  animal  poisoning,  and  in  malaria. 
It  is  especially  recommended  in  that  mysterious  disorder  called 
by  the  Chinese  0  (Sha). 

ASTRAGALUS  HOANGTCHY.  —  ^  ^  (Huang-ch*i), 
510.  Name  also  written  ^  ^  (Huang-ch'i).  The  first  name 
is  sometimes  written  ^  ^  (Huang-shih),  but  this  is  incorrect. 
Large  quantities  of  this  drug  pass  between  the  ports  of  China  ; 
it  being  produced  in  Manchuria,  Chihli,  Shantung,  Szechuan, 
and  Shensi.  Several  varieties  are  distinguished,  being  named 
for  the  places  from  which  they  come.  It  is  possible  that  the 
root  of  a  Sophora  is  included  among  these.  The  roots  are 
flexible  and  long,  as  large  as  a  finger,  and  covered  with  a 
tough,  wrinkled,  yellowish-brown  skin,  which  has  a  tendency 
to  break  up  into  wooly  fibers.  The  woody  interior  is  of  a 
yellowish-white  color,  and  the  whole  drug  has  a  faintly  sweetish 
taste,  somewhat  resembling  that  of  liquorice  root.  It  is  in 
great  repute  as  a  tonic,  pectoral,  and  diuretic  medicine.  The 
diseases  for  which  it  is  prescribed,  therefore,  are  almost  num- 
berless. Every  sort  of  wasting  or  exhausting  disease  is 
thought  to  be  benefited  by  it.  Like  most  of  the  tonic  and 
diuretic  remedies,  it  is  prescribed  in  malaria. 

ATRACTYLIS.— 7f[;  (Shu).  Hance  has  identified  the  j^ 
;7fL  (Pai-shu),  which  is  so  largely  grown  in  Chekiang  province 
and  exported  from  Ningpo,  as  Aristolochia  reairvilabra  (which 


,/ -oce).  It  is  doubtless  true,  however,  that  some  of  the  Pai-shu 
which  comes  from  other  parts  of  the  empire  is  Atractylis. 
According  to  Hoffman  and  Schultes,  ^  ~f^  (Ts'ang-shu)  repre- 
sents three  species  of  Atr-aetylodes,  namely,  Atractylodes  lyrata^ 
Atractylodes  lancea^  and  Atractylodes  ovaia.  Siebold,  as  if  it 
were  one  species,  calls  this  plant  Atractylis  chinc7isis.  The 
places  of  origin  of  this  drug  are  (1330)  Manchuria,  Chihli, 
Shantung,  Szechuan,  Hupeh,  Anhui,  and  Chekiang.  The 
roots  are  met  with  in  finger-shaped,  roughly-moniliform  pieces, 
occasionally  branching,  and  varying  from  one  to  three  inches 
In  length.  The  cuticle  is  rough,  brown,  or  blackish,  and 
sometimes  bristled  with  rootlets.  The  cut  surface  is  of  a  dirty 
white  color,  with  a  yellowish  cortical  layer.  The  structure  is 
very  open,  and  some  of  the* interstices  are  filled  with  an  orange- 
colored  resinous  substance,  which  dissolves  in  strong  spirit, 
making  a  yellow  tincture.  The  smell  is  somewhat  aromatic 
and  the  taste  warm  and  bitter.  The  drug  is  a  warm,  stomach- 
ic, stimulant,  arthritic,  tonic,  and  diuretic  remedy,  used  in 
fevers,  catarrh,  chronic  dysentery,  general  dropsy,  rheumatism, 
profuse  sweating,  and  apoplexy.  It  enters  into  the  composition 
of  several  of  the  most  famous  prescriptions  in  use  among  the 
native  faculty.  Among  these  may  be  mentioned  the  I^  M  ^J^J- 
(Ku-chen-tan),  "strengthening  virility  elixir;"  the  yf  "^  j^ 
(Pu-lao-tan),  "elixir  of  longevity  ;"  and  the  ^  -^  j^  (Ling- 
chih-tan),  "elixir  of  felicity."  To  enumerate  all  of  the 
diseases  for  which  the  drug  is  recommended,  would  require  a 
tolerably  complete  Chinese  nosology.  ^  Tft  (P*ing-shu)  is  a  less 
pungent  quality  of  the  drug,  but  whether  this  is  due  to  its 
being  a  different  species,  or  to  a  difiereut  mode  of  preparation, 
does  not  yet  appear.  The  whole  matter  of  classification  of 
these  substances  is  in  a  very  unsettled  state. 

ATROPA.  It  is  exceedingly  doubtful  whether  this  genus 
is  found  in  China.  It  is  introduced  here  simply  to  call  atten- 
tion to  two  substances  which  may  be  included  under  this 
classification  or  that  of  some  allied  genus.  The  first  is  ^  jjn 
(Tien-ch'ieh),  a  term  used  by  Dr.  Williams  in  his  Syllabic 
Dictionary  for  belladonna-like  plants  of  the  Solanaccse.  It  is 
also  said  to  be  written  5;  jjn  ■?  iT'ien  ch'ieh-tzii),  and  this  term 


is  assigned  to  Solamim  nigritm.     But  neither  of  these  terms  is 
given  in  the  Phitsao^  or  in  any  other  Chinese  work  examined. 

In  the  Pentsao^  under  the  head  of  an  unidentified  Solana- 
ceous  plant  called  ^^^  (Tso-na-ts'ao),  there  is  an  appended 
account  of  a  similar  drug  called  ^Ip  ;j;  ^  (Ya-pu-lu),  the  effects 
of  which  resemble  those  oi  Atropa  mandragora.  It  is  said  that 
after  the  administration  of  a  small  quantity  of  the  tincture,  a 
profound  anaesthesia  was  produced,  during  which  operations 
might  be  performed  witli  perfect  freedom  from  pain.  The 
effects  of  the  drug  lasted  for  three  days.  The  drug  is  said  to 
have  come  from  the  country  of  the  Mohammedan  tribes  north 
of  China,  and  is  thought  to  have  been  the  drug  used  by  the 
celebrated  surgeon,  Hua-t'o,  in  certain  operations  upon  wound- 
ed intestine.  There  is  no  description  of  the  plant,  so  its 
identification  awaits  investigation. 

AVENA  FATUA.  %  ^  (Ch'iao-mai),  ti  ^  (Yen-raai). 
Oats  is  seldom  cultivated  in  China,  although  this  wild  variety 
is  sometimes  collected  in  times  of  dearth  and  used  in  making 
bread.  The  grain  is  considered  to  be  nutritious  and  demulcent. 
A  decoction  of  the  shoots  of  growing  grain  is  given  to  parturient 
women  to  excite  uterine  contractions,  as  in  retained  placenta. 
This  action  may  be  due  to  the  growth  of  an  ergot  upon  the 
shoots.  In  Japan  the  above  terms  are  used  for  different 
gramineous  plants;  the  first  being  Bronnis japoniciis^  while  the 
second  is  Brachypodium  sylvatiaim.  The  Avena  fatua  is 
called  ^  ^  (Yen-mai),  but  in  China  this  first  character  is  only 
a  varied  way  of  writing  ^. 

AVERRHOA  CARAMBOLA.  35.  ^  ^  (Wu-han-tzu), 
56.  ft  •?  (Wu-leng-tzii),  p^  )(%  (Yang-t'ao),  The  second  charac- 
ter in  the  first  name  is  in  the  south  a  colloquial  substitute  for 
the  second  character  in  the  second  name.  The  meaning  of  this 
name  is  "five  ridges,"  and  refers  to  the  shape  of  the  fruit, 
which  is  compared  to  that  of  the  stone  roller  with  which  the 
Chinese  farmer  rolls  down  his  fields  after  sowing  grain.  This 
fruit  is  the  so-called  "Chinese  gooseberry,"  which  is  met  with 
in  the  southern  provinces  of  Fukien,  Kuangtung,  and  Kuangsi, 
but  is  scarcely  known  in  the  north.      In  its  natural  habitat  it  is 


also  known  as  p^  ^jfe  (Yang-t'ao),  variously  written  q^  ^ 
(Yang-t'ao).  On  this  account,  Legge  has  erroneously  identi- 
fied the  carambola  with  the  ^  ^  (Ch'ang-ch'u)  of  the  classics. 
This  latter  is  Actinidia^  and  Chinese  writers  have  not  con- 
founded the  two,  although  there  has  been  some  local  confound- 
ing of  the  colloquial  names.  The  fruit,  when  ripe,  is  three  or 
four  inches  long,  yellow,  marked  by  five  prominent  longitudinal 
ridges,  very  juicy,  and  rather  sharp  to  the  taste.  The  odor  is 
aromatic,  but  rather  disagreeable  to  some  persons.  Its  action 
is  to  quench  thirst,  to  increase  the  salivary  secretion,  and  hence 
to  allay  fever. 



BALANOPHERA.— II  ^  (So-yang),  1189.  Whether 
this  is  a  correct  identification,  or  whether  it  is  an  Orobaticha^ 
is  not  quite  certain.  The  Chinese  make  it  out  to  be  a  kind  of 
^  ^  (Ts'ung-yung),  which  is  Orobancha.  The  Pentsao  S2iys 
that  it  grows  in  the  country  of  the  Mongol  Tartars,  and  comes 
up  in  places  where  the  wild  horse  and  scaly  dragon  have 
dropped  semen,  which  sinks  into  the  ground  and  after  a  time 
springs  up  in  a  form  like  the  bamboo  shoot.  The  upper  part 
is  succulent  and  the  lower  dry.  It  is  covered  with  scales  and 
resembles  the  penis.  It  is  said  that  lecherous  women  among 
the  Tartars  use  it  for  the  purpose  of  masturbation,  and  that 
when  the  root  comes  in  contact  with  the  female  organ  it 
becomes  erect,  as  in  the  case  of  the  organ  it  is  said  to  resemble. 
It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  an  allied  species  in  America  goes 
by  the  vulgar  term  of  "squaw  root  ;  "  a  similar  reason  for  so 
calling  it  being  there  adduced.  The  drug  which  enters  the 
Chinese  markets  probably  largely  comes  from  Mongolia,  but 
the  Customs  Reports  credit  Szechuan  and  Hupeh  with  being 
its  places  of  production.  The  root  is  fleshy,  reddish-brown  in 
color,  having  a  more  or  less  wrinkled  surface.  In  accordance 
with  the  Chinese  ideas  as  to  the  origin  of  this  root,  it  is  con- 
sidered to  be  aphrodisiac  to  women  and  to  promote  the  secre- 
tion of  semen  in  men.  It  is  also  thought  to  be  stimulant  and 
tonic  to  the  intestinal  tract. 

879.  The  name  is  also  written  ^  |^ ;  the  first  character  in 
each  case  being  said  to  be  a  transliteration  of  the  Sanscrit  term. 
The  drug  originally  came  from  Persia,  and  was  said  to  resemble 
benzoin.  Its  mode  of  collection,  as  given  by  Li  Shih-chen,  is 
by  incision  of  the  bark  of  the  tree  and  collecting  the  exudation 
as  it  congeals.  It  is  reddish-black  in  color  and  more  or  less 
admixed  with  other  substances.  The  product,  as  found  in  the 
Chinese  drug  shops,  has  a  bitter  taste  and  but  little  of  the  smell 
of  genuine  myrrh.  It  is  said  now  to  be  produced  to  some 
extent  in  the  south  of  China.     Its  medical  uses  are  considered 


to  be  identical  with  those  of  olibanum.  It  is  regarded  as  an 
alterative  and  sedative,  and,  as  formerly  in  the  west,  is  used  in 
the  treatment  of  wounds  and  ulcers.  It  is  thought  to  be 
especially  useful  in  uterine  discharges  and  in  vicious  lochise  ; 
also  in  the  treatment  of  a  disease  resembling  hysterical  mania. 
Loureiro  mentions  a  j^  ^  fjlj  (Mu-yao-yu),  "oil  of  myrrh," 
which  is  used  in  Cochin  China  for  the  dressing  of  ulcers.  It 
is  reddish  in  color,  and  has  the  smell  of  myrrh.  It  does  not 
seem  to  be  known  in  China. 

There  is  also  found  in  the  drug  shops  of  China  a  substance 
called  f|?|  ^  ^  (Chia-mu-yao),  which  is  East  India  Bciellhim. 
This  is  supposed  to  be  the  product  of  Bahamodendron  iimkiil^ 
or  Bahaviodendroii  roxburgJin.  It  is  imported  into  China 
from  India,  and  Dr.  Williams  says  that  the  drug  appearing  in 
the  Chinese  market  is  much  adulterated.  According  to  Dr. 
Waring,  good  Bdelluun  occurs  in  roundish,  dark-red  pieces, 
softer  than  myrrh  and  much  less  agreeable  in  taste  and  smell. 
It  does  not  respond  to  the  tests  for  myrrh,  but  is  said  to  answer 
all  of  the  purposes  of  that  drug.  It  is  an  excellent  stimulant 
for  the  chronic  ulcers  so  commonly  found  throughout  the  east. 
Its  Indian  name  is  giigul. 

B  AMBUS  A. — The  number  of  species  of  bamboo  to  be 
found  in  China,  included  under  the  genera  Bambiisa^  Arundi- 
naria^  and  PJiyllostachys^  is  doubtless  very  large.  Riviere 
enumerates  twenty-three  coming  from  the  region  of  Hongkong 
and  Canton  alone.  The  largest  bamboos  are  found  in  Hupeh, 
Szechuan,  and  Chekiang.  Marco  Polo  made  mention  of  the 
large  ones  of  the  last  named  province.  An  interesting  bamboo 
is  the  Phyllostachys  nigra^  which  is  a  dwarf  and  has  a  black 
stem.  Attaining  to  not  more  than  the  height  of  a  man,  it  is 
cut  down  and  used  for  walking-sticks  and  parasol  handles. 

Owing  to  the  fact  that  the  bamboo  flowers  and  fruits  only 
once  in  from  thirty  to  sixty  years,  very  little  has  been  done  in 
China  as  yet  towards  its  systematic  classification.  Rather  more' 
has  been  done  in  Japan,  but  even  there  this  work  is  still  far 
from  complete.  The  fj"  |f  (Chu-p'u,  "Treatise  on  Bamboos"), 
which  was  published  in  the  3rd  or  4th  century,  is  an  interest- 
ing and  tolerably  complete  account  of  the  bamboo,  the  names 


by  wliicli  it  was  known  in  the  classics,  and  the  uses  to  which 
it  was  put  from  most  ancient  times.  Allowing  for  changes  in 
customs,  we  find  that  these  uses  were  very  much  the  same 
as  at  the  present  time.  Besides  the  purposes  for  which  the 
bamboo  is  employed  in  medicine  hereafter  to  be  mentioned, 
the  sprouts  are  eaten  for  food,  and  the  wood  is  made  into 
mats,  baskets,  hats,  musical  instruments,  bows  and  arrows, 
pillows,  chairs  and  stools,  tables  and  book-shelves,  fences  and 
screens,  house  frames,  cash  boxes,  tallies  and  token  money, 
as  a  substitute  for  paper,  and  the  thousand  and  one  varied  uses 
to  which  one  sees  it  put  at  every  turn  as  he  goes  about  the 
country.  The  bamboo  grows  as  far  north  as  the  Yangtsze  valley, 
from  which  point  it  is  for  the  most  part  replaced  by  Pragmites 
and  other  reeds.  Of  the  various  kinds  of  bamboo  mentioned 
in  the  Chinese  books  we  have  several  interesting  specimens. 
The  JJi  fj-  (Pau-chu),  or  "spotted  bamboo,"  said  to  be  mark- 
ed by  the  tears  of  Queen  Siang,  is  found  in  the  central  prov- 
inces. The  Spiny  Bamboo,  j^lj  ft  (Chih-chu),  attains  a  very 
large  size,  and  is  said  to  be  capable  of  resisting  the  onsets  of 
burglars,  pirates,  and  the  like,  when  formed  into  stockades. 
The  \%\^  (Tsung-chu),  or  "coir  bamboo,"  is  nearly  solid 
stemmed,  and  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  fans.  Bambusa 
amndi?tacea  is  called  ^  f^"  (Lu-chu)  by  the  Chinese. 

Of  the  many  varieties  of  bamboo  found  in  China,  but  a 
possible  six  are  mentioned  as  being  used  in  medicine.  These 
are  :  ^  ft  (Chin-chu  ),  \k  ft  (Tan-chu),  ^  ft  (K'u-chu),  "^  ft 
(Kan-chu),  ^  ft  (Kuei-chu),  and  ^  ft  (Tz'u-chu).  The  parts 
used  are  the  leaves,  222,  the  rhizome,  the  thin  outside  skin 
(ln>  jii)  properly  written  ^),  212,  and  the  sap  (i^,  li).  The 
leaves  of  the  Chin-chu,  which  is  a  large  southern  variety,  are 
said  to  be  tussic,  tonic,  anthelmintic,  stomachic,  and  car- 
minative, while  the  root  is  considered  as  cooling,  tonic  and 
alexipharmic.  The  sap  is  used  only  in  rheumatism.  Of  the 
Tan-chu  {Bambusa  piLbenda)  the  leaves  and  the  root  are  pre- 
scribed in  the  form  of  a  decoction  in  all  diseases  supposed  to  de- 
pend upon  a  collection  of  phlegm.  A  wash  is  also  directed  to 
be  used  in  cases  of  prolapsus  of  the  womb.  The  leaves  of  the 
K'u-chu  (,7/7///^//>/^?;7rty'^/)6'///h7)  are  considered  to  be  stimulant, 
tonic,  anthelmintic,  and  anti-vinous.     A  wash  is  used  in  favus  of 


children  and  other  eruptions.  The  root  is  cooling  and  is  nsed 
in  fevers.  The  Lark  is  used  in  decoction  for  the  cure  of  hem- 
orrhage from  the  bladder,  while  the  sap  is  used  in  ulcerated 
sore  mouth,  ophthalmia,  and  toothache.  The  Kan-chu  root 
(species  unknown)  is  said  to  quiet  the  uterus  and  to  be  useful 
in  post-partum  fever.  The  bark  of  the  Kuei-chu  is  the  only 
part  used,  and  this  only  in  decoction  as  a  febrifuge.  The  sap 
of  the  T'zu-chu  is  also  used  in  fevers  and  rheumatic  affections. 
The  sap  is  prepared  by  heating  short  pieces  of  bamboo,  when 
it  exudes  from  the  cut  ends  and  is  collected.  All  the  forms  of 
bamboo  shoot  are  considered  cooling  to  the  blood.  It  is  said 
that  if  they  are  eaten  together  with  sheep's  liver,  blindness  will 
result.  They  are  given  to  suckling  mothers  to  increase  the  flow 
of  milk,  and  some  kinds  are  thought  to  increase  all  of  the  secre- 
tions of  the  body.  The  shoots  from  two  kinds  of  bamboo,  the 
t^^  ft  (T'ao-chu,  "peach  bamboo")  and  the  ^J  ft  (Chih-chu, 
Banibtisa  spinosa\  are  considered  to  be  slightly  poisonous.  The 
first  is  used  as  a  wash  for  maggots  on  cattle  and  the  second  has 
no  medical  use,  but  when  eaten  it  is  thought  to  cause  the  hair 
to  fall  out. 

The  excrescences  which  grow  on  the  bamboo  are  mentioned 
in  the  Pentsao.  One  comes  upon  the  T'zii-chii  in  the  form  of 
a  deer  horn,  is  called  f^  ^  (Chu-ju),  and  is  edible.  The  other, 
which  grows  upon  the  K'u-chu,  is  called  fj*  j^  (Chu-ju),  and  is 
considered  to  be  very  poisonous.  This  latter  looks  like  a 
lichen,  and  is  anthelmintic.  The  former  is  used  in  dysentery. 
The  first  leaves  (called  ^,  t'o)  of  the  T'zu-chu  are  used  in 
decoction  as  a  wash  for  scald-head  and  other  ulcerous  eruptions 
of  children.  A  small  mountain  bamboo,  called  jlf  |^  fj 
(Shan-pai-chu),  is  incinerated  and  the  ash  used  as  an  escharotic 
in  cancer.  Exploding  bamboos  by  fire  is  used  to  drive  away 
evil  spirits  and  mountain  sprites.  The  fruits  of  the  bamboo 
enliven  the  animal  spirits  and  benefit  the  respiratory  organs. 

The  silicaceous  concretion  called  Tabasheer^  found  in  the 
joints  of  large  bamboos,  is  also  used  in  Chinese  medicine.  It 
is  called  ft  k  (Chu-huang)  and  5c  ^  M  (T'ien-chu-huang), 
211.  The  Chinese  did  not  probably  derive  the  substance 
originally  from  India,  but  it  is  possible  that  the  knowledge  of 
its  medicinal  uses  were  derived  from  that  country,  where  it  has 


been  held  in  high  esteem  from  very  early  times.  Hence  the 
second  name  given  above.  It  is  met  with  in  hard,  broken, 
angular  pieces,  usually  opaque,  as  smooth  as  porcelain,  of  a 
whitish  or  bluish  vitreous  color,  easily  broken,  and  usually 
scented  with  some  perfume.  It  absorbs  oil,  and  thereby  be- 
comes transparent.  When  the  oil  has  been  again  driven  away 
by  heat,  the  internal  structure  of  the  concretion  becomes 
apparent,  showing  it  to  be  most  beautifully  veined.  Tabasheer 
has  the  lowest  refractive  power  of  all  known  substances.  It  is 
made  up  almost  entirely  of  silica  ;  there  being  sometimes  a 
varying  amount  of  potash,  lime,  iron,  and  vegetable  matter. 
It  can  therefore  have  practically  no  medical  virtues.  But  the 
Chinese,  true  to  their  ideas  of  its  mysterious  origin,  prescribe 
it  in  acute  choreic,  convulsive,  and  epileptiform  diseases  of 
children,  as  well  as  in  apoplexy  and  paralysis.  In  India  it  is 
believed  to  have  stimulant  and  aphrodisiac  qualities.  The  drug 
is  usually  adulterated  in  China  with  bone  earth  and  other 
substances.    A  similar  substance  has  been  fouud  in  jungle  grass. 

BARKHAUSIA   REPENS.— ]^  %  5S  (Hu-huang-lien), 
482.     This  is  the  identification  of  De  Candolle,  Loureiro  calls 
it   Picris    rcpens.      It   is   a    foreign    drug,    coming    from    the 
country  of  ^  (Kiikonor),  where  it  is  called  %i^%\^  (Ko- 
ku-lu-tse).     As  is  usually  the  case  with   foreign   drugs,  T'ao 
Hung-ching  says  that  it  comes  from  Persia,  which  is  the  source 
of  many,   though  not  quite  all  of  the   drugs   introduced  into 
China  from  the  west.      Li  Shih-chen  says  that  the  best  quality 
of  the  root  has  a  top  resembling  the  bill  of  a  bird,  and  when 
cut,  the  cross  section  resembles  the  eye  of  the  niynah.      He 
also  says  that  the  shooting  plant  resembles  that  of  Brunella 
vulgaris.     The  dried  root,   as  met  with    in    the  shops,   is  ia 
irregular,  tapering,  contorted  pieces,  varying  from  one  to  two 
inches  in    length  and  about  the  size   of  a  lead  pencil.     The 
cuticle  is  dark  brown  or  blackish,  having  tubercles,  and  other- 
wise irregularly    wrinkled    and    marked.       It    has    a    hay-like 
odor  and  an  exceedingly  bitter  taste.     The  Pentsao  says  that 
if  the  drug  is  true,  a  smoke-like  dust  should  come  from  the 
interior  of  the  root  when  it  is  fractured.      The  drug  is  now  said 
to  be    produced    in  Nanhai,   and    also  in  Shensi  and    Kansu. 


Tonic,  astringent,  antiperiodic,  antifebrile,  alterative,  and 
resolvent  properties  are  attributed  to  this  drug,  and  it  is 
special})'  recommended  in  the  f^  (Kan)  disease  of  children, 
which  is  struma  or  marasmus  due  to  exhausting  discharges. 
As  an  external  application,  it  is  usually  mixed  with  goose  gall, 
in  which  form  it  is  applied  to  every  form  of  hemorrhoid,  as 
well  as  to  cancerous  sores.  It  has  a  great  reputation  in  the 
treatment  of  dysentery. 

BASELLA  RUBRA.— J^  ^  (Lo-k'uei)  and  ^  ^'  (Chung- 
k'uei).  It  is  also  called  ^  ^(T'eng-k'uei),  "  twining  mallow," 
and  its  common  name  is  ^  ^  JJ^  (Hu-yen-chih).  The  Bud- 
dhists call  it  :f^p  ^  (Yii-ts'ai).  In  the  Erhya  the  names  are 
^  ^  (Fau-lu)  and  ^  ^  (Ch'eng-lu).  Other  names  are  ^  ||  ^ 
(Jan-chiang-tzu)  and  ^@  ^  %  (Yen-chih-ts'ai).  At  Peking 
the  plant  is  cultivated  under  the  name  of  33  J3h  Jl  (Yen-chih- 
tou).  The  plant  is  largely  cultivated,  and  the  leaves,  which 
are  cooling  and  mucilaginous,  are  eaten  with  fish  and  other 
meats.  The  berries  are  purple  in  color,  and  have  a  red  juice, 
which  is  used  as  a  rouge  for  the  faces  and  lips  of  ladies,  and 
also  as  a  dye.  The  medicinal  virtues  are  not  great  ;  the  leaves 
beinjr  used  as  a  demulcent  in  intestinal  troubles,  and  the  berries 
as  au  emolient,  and  a  pigmentary  addition  to  facial  cosmetics. 

^%  %  (Ch'iu-hai-t'ang)  and  §  \%  %  ( Ch'un-hai-t'ang\ 
Another  name  given  is  ^  U|  ij^  (Tuan-ch'ang-ts'ao),  but  this 
is  more  especially  used  for  Gchemmni  elegans  (which  see). 
The  description  given  in  the  Pentsao  of  this  "  foliage  plant" 
is  a  fairly  good  one.  But  in  regard  to  its  medicinal  properties 
it  says  that  inasmuch  as  the  plant  grows  by  preference  in  cool 
shady  places,  therefore  its  nature  must  be  cooling,  and  it  is 
specially  recommended  for  fevers.  The  juice  extracted  from 
the  leaves  and  flowers  is  considered  emolient,  and  added  to 
honey  is  used  as  a  facial  cosmetic,  and  as  an  application  to 
ringworm  and  other  parasitic  diseases  of  the  skin.  The  juice 
expressed  from  the  stalk  is  used  in  sore  mouth  and  throat. 
Any  use  of  the  root  has  apparently  not  been  thought  of  by  the 
Chinese ;  they  having  had  their  interest  attracted  by  the  fleshy 


and  showy  leaves  and  flowers  ;  the  latter  being  equally  used 
with  the  former  in  the  preparation  of  pomades.  But  inas- 
much as  the  root  has  properties  similar  to  those  of  rhubarb^ 
it  has  been  suggested  that  it  may  be  used  as  a  substitute 
for  this  drug. 

BENINCASA  CERIFERA.—^  S  (Tung-kua).  Other 
names,  ^  jEL  (Pai-kua),  7j<  ;^"  (Shui-chih),  and  \%  ^  Ti-chih). 
This  is  the  large  White  Gourd  of  India,  which  is  much 
cultivated  throughout  China.  Its  surface  is  usually  covered 
with  a  waxy  exudation,  by  which  it  is  distinguished  in  name 
in  nearly  every  language.  The  flesh,  the  pulp,  the  seeds,  and 
the  rind  (1392)  are  all  used  in  medicine.  The  flesh  is  con- 
sidered to  be  sweet  and  slightly  cooling.  It  is  recommended 
tor  the  relief  of  thirst  and  as  a  diuretic.  It  is  considered  cool- 
ing in  fevers,  and  if  "prickly  heat"  is  rubbed  with  a  freshly 
cut  slice  of  this  substance,  it  is  a  sure  relief.  The  pulp  is 
regarded  as  demulcent  both  for  internal  and  external  use.  It 
is  added  to  baths  for  the  treatment  of  pimples  and  prickly  heat. 
It  is  also  regarded  as  diuretic,  and  is  used  in  the  treatment  of 
gravel.  The  seeds,  1391,  of  which  the  kernels  only  seem  to 
be  used,  are  regarded  as  demulcent,  and  under  prolonged  use 
are  thought  to  be  tonic,  preventing  hunger  and  prolonging 
life.  They  are  also  used  in  cosmetic  applications  to  the  skin 
in  simple  eruptions.  A  famous  prescription  is  the  use  of  these 
seeds  incinerated  and  taken  internally  for  the  treatment  of 
gonorrhoea  !  The  incinerated  rind  is  administered  in  case  of 
painful  wounds. 

BERBERIS  THUNBERGII.  — >J.  ^  (Hsiao-po).  It  is 
also  called  -^  ^  (Tza-po)  and  ^  ;^  |JiJ  (Shan-shih-liu), 
"mountain  pomegranate."  It  has  a  bitter  yellow  bark  and 
red  berries.  The  branches  are  used  for  dyeing  yellow.  The 
root  does  not  seem  to  be  used  for  this  purpose,  although 
doubtless  it  is  as  well  adapted  as  the  European  Berberis 
vulgaris.  The  bark  is  the  part  used.  It  is  regarded  as  very 
cooling,  and  is  therefore  prescribed  in  fevers.  Its  anthelmintic 
and  antiseptic  properties  are  also  highly  esteemed,  and  it  is 
prescribed  in  menorrhagia. 



BETA  VULGARIS.—^  ^  (T'ien-ts'ai),  ^  ^  ^  (Chiin- 
ta-ts'cii),  and  S^  %  (T'ic;i-ts'ai),  1340  (?i.  This  is  the  ordinary 
white  sugar  beet  which  grows  in  China.  It  is  not  mentioned 
in  the  Phitsao^  nor  does  its  medical  virtues  seem  to  have  been 
studied.  This  seems  surprising,  considering  the  fact  that  its 
saccharine  qualities  are  indicated  iu  the  name. 

BETULA  ALBA.— If  %  (Hua-mu)  or  \%  %  (Hua-mu), 
498.  This  is  the  White  Birch  tree  which  grows  commonly 
in  the  mountains  of  Northern  China.  The  bark  is  used  by 
Chinese  saddlers,  shoemakers,  cutlers,  and  candle-makers,  who 
turn  its  tanning  or  fatty  principles  to  account  in  their  several 
trades.  The  bark  may  also  be  used  for  torches.  The  drug  is 
used  iu  decoction  for  jaundice  and  bilious  fevers,  and  the 
incinerated  bark  is  used  as  an  application  in  mammary  cancer 
and  rodent  ulcer.  It  is  also  one  of  the  substances  used  to  dye 
the  whiskers,  which,  developing  late  in  life  iu  the  Chinese,  are 
apt  to  soon  turn  grey  or  reddish-brown. 

BIDENS  PARVIFLORA.— ^  1^  -$.  (Kuei-chen-ts'ao). 
This  "imp's  needle  grass"  is  a  species  of  '•''Spanish  needles.'''' 
In  the  south  it  is  called  %,  %X  (Kuei-ch'ai),  "  imp's  hairpin." 
The  only  purposes  for  which  this  is  prescribed,  are  in  bites  of 
spiders,  snakes,  and  scorpions,  and  in  the  unhealthy  granula- 
tions of  wounds.  The  juice  is  expressed  from  the  fresh  plant, 
and  both  administered  internally  and  applied  externally. 

BIDENS  TRIPARTITA.  —  H  ^  ^  (Lang-pa-ts'ao). 
The  characters  are  also  written  %  ^.  This  has  three-lobed 
leaves  and  a  two  awned  achene.  It  grows  in  the  marshes  of 
elevated  regions.  It  affords  a  black  dye,  which  is  used  for 
coloring  the  whiskers.  A  decoction  of  the  plant  is  specially 
recommended  in  the  treatment  of  chronic  dysentery,  aud  as  a 
wash  to  the  skin  in  the  treatment  of  chronic  eczema. 

BIGNONIA  GRANDIFLORA.— ^  ^  (Tzu-wei),  P^  ^ 
(Ling-t'iao\  and  ^  %  {^  (Ling-hsiao4ma).  This  is  a  beauti- 
ful climbing  plant,  which  is  much  cultivated  in  gardens 
throughout  China.     At  Peking  it  is  known  by  the  last  name. 


It  is  the  same  as  Teconia  grandiflora  and  Loureiro's  Camps  is 
adrepens.  The  flowers,  leaves,  stalk  and  root  are  all  used  medici- 
nally; the  first  named  having  the  preference.  It  is  most  largely 
prescribed  for  the  menstrual  diseases  of  women,  and  the  ansemia 
and  marasmus  which  often  attend  these.  Prolonged  post- 
partum discharge  also  conies  into  this  list.  It  is  also  used 
in  fevers,  and  in  combination  with  Gardenia  florida  for  the 
treatment  of  "  wine  nose." 

BLETIA  HYACINTHINA.— 1^  ^  (Pai-chi),  935.  This 
is  an  orchid  with  violet  flowers,  cultivated  at  Peking  under 
the  name  of  ^  f^  (Lan-hua).  The  bulb  is  quite  mucil- 
laginous,  and  a  thin  paste  made  of  it  is  sometimes  mixed  with 
India  iuk  to  give  a  gloss  to  writing  or  drawings  done  with  it. 
It  is  also  used  in  the  preparation  of  a  secret  ink ;  the  paper 
which  has  been  written  upon  being  afterwards  dipped  into 
water  and  held  up  to  the  light.  It  is  also  used  by  the  manu- 
facturers of  china  and  of  "cloisonnes."  The  rhizome  is 
met  with  in  the  shape  of  flattish,  irregularly  oval,  hollow 
disks,  umbilicated  on  one  surface,  and  having  projecting  rays  at 
the  circumference.  The  lower  convex  surface  is  pointed  by  a 
central  tubercle  and  marked  with  rings.  A  great  variety  of 
irregular,  tri-radiated,  and  other  shapes  of  these  tubers  are  met 
with  in  some  samples.  The  interior  is  amylaceous,  translucent, 
Lard,  and  white  in  color,  and  has  a  gummy,  bitterish  taste. 
It  is  considered  demulcent,  and  is  used  in  the  diseases  of  chil- 
dren, especially  those  of  a  dyspeptic  character,  as  well  as  in 
dysentery,  hemorrhoids,  and  ague.  It  has  much  repute  in  the 
treatment  of  burns,  wounds,  and  other  injuries,  and  also  in 
various  kinds  of  skin  diseases. 

BLUMEA  BALSAMIFERA.—^  i^  ^  (Ai-na-hsiang\ 
This  is  the  identification  of  Faber,  although  the  account  given 
in  the  P^nisao  is  not  clear  in  many  particulars.  The  plant  is 
not  described,  and  what  is  said  evidently  refers  to  the  steareop- 
ten.  It  is  recommended  in  the  treatment  of  fevers  and  as  a 
corrective  of  miasmatic  vapors.  Anthelmintic  qualities  are  also 
ascribed  to  it. 


Under  the  name  of  '"'•  Ngai-campJior^''''  a  steareopten, 
isomeric  with  Borneo  camphor,  is  said  to  be  extracted  from  this 
plant.  The  greater  part  of  this  snbstance  which  appears  in 
Chinese  commerce,  seems  to  come  from  the  island  of  Hainan. 
It  is  but  little  used  in  Northern  or  Central  China,  probably  on 
account  of  its  cost  ;  its  valuation  at  Tientsin  being  placed  at 
five  hundred  Haikuan  Taels  a  picul,  while  that  of  ordinary 
laurel  camphor  is  only  twelve  Taels.  It  comes  in  three  forms  : 
^  1^  (Ai-fen),  2,  which  is  the  crude  product  ;  '^  j=|^  (Ai-p'ien), 
5,  the  refined  substance  in  cakes  ;  and  '^  ^]  (Ai-yu),  8,  a  by- 
product of  distillation.  It  is  used  in  the  south-eastern  provinces 
as  a  febrifuge  and  carminative,  and  is  held  in  higher  repute 
than  laurel  camphor  for  all  purposes  for  which  the  latter  is 
used.  Hanbury  has  an  interesting  note  on  this  substance  in  his 
Science  Papers,  in  which  he  says  that  it  is  not  only  used  in 
medicine,  but  also  in  the  manufacture  of  the  scented  kinds  of 
Chinese  ink. 

BCEHMERIA  NIVEA.— ^  )g  (Ch'u-ma\  This  is  the 
plant  from  which  is  produced  the  "  grass  cloth,"  so  extensively 
worn  throughout  China,  the  finer  qualities  of  which  are  not 
despised  by  ladies  of  Western  lands.  In  the  classics  the  charac- 
ter is  written  f,f  Chu).  Prior  to  the  eleventh  century  there  is  no 
record  of  where  it  was  produced,  although  it  was  known  from 
ancient  times  as  a  textile  plant.  Su-sung,  who  wrote  in  the 
eleventh  century,  said  that  it  was  at  that  time  grown  in 
Fukien,  Szechuan,  Chekiang,  and  Kiangnan.  Lu-chi,  who 
lived  in  the  third  century,  and  wrote  a  book  describing  the 
plants  and  animals  mentioned  in  the  Book  of  Odes,  said  that 
the  government  then  raised  the  plant  in  gardens.  He  also 
described  the  manner  of  preparation  of  the  material.  An  iron 
or  bamboo  knife  was  used  to  strip  ofi"  the  bark.  After  the  thick 
outer  bark  was  removed,  the  soft,  tough  fibers  of  the  inner 
bark  were  taken  and  boiled,  after  which  they  were  twisted  into 
thread  and  this  manufactured  into  cloth.  At  present  the  fibers 
of  the  stalks  are  soaked  in  a  solution  of  native  soda,  beaten 
and  broken  up  with  a  rake-like  tool,  and  heated  in  a  dry 
boiler.  This  is  then  twisted  and  manufactured  into  cloth, 
which  the  Chinese  call  %  ^  (Hsia-pu),  "  summer  cloth."     In 


Canton,  silk  is  mixed  with  the  fiber  in  various  proportions, 
making  different  qualities  of  cloth.  Three  crops  of  the  fiber 
are  said  to  be  gathered  in  a  year. 

Medicinally,  the  root  and  leaves  are  used.  The  former  is 
reputed  as  quieting  to  the  uterus.  It  is  recommended  in 
threatened  miscarriage.  It  is  also  considered  to  be  cooling, 
demulcent,  diuretic,  and  resolvent.  It  is  used  in  wounds  from 
poisoned  arrows,  snake  and  insect  bites,  and  in  decoction  for  a 
local  application  in  rectal  diseases.  The  leaves  are  used  in 
wounds  aud  fluxes  as  an  astringent. 

BOMBAX  MALABARICUM.— Tf;  t,?j  ^I  (Mu-mien-shu). 
The  Pentsao  with  difficulty  distinguishes  between  this  tree  and 
the  cotton  plant,  for  the  reason  that  it  produces  its  cotton  in  a 
sort  of  boll.  But  it  is  a  large  tree,  with  a  red  flower  like  that 
of  the  Camellia.  The  fruit  has  a  white,  silky  down  covering 
the  seeds,  which  may  be  used  to  stuff  cushions,  and  is  said  to 
be  capable  of  being  worked  up  into  a  rough  cloth.  This  down 
is  called  %  ;|^,f,  f^  (Mu-mien-hua,  870.  The  root,  871,  and 
leaves  are  for  sale  in  the  Chinese  shops,  as  is  also  the  down. 
This  latter  is  burnt,  and  the  ashes  given  in  menorrhagia,  and 
used  to  staunch  the  blood  of  wounds.  What  the  other  parts 
are  used  for  does  not  appear.  The  Customs  Reports  say  that  the 
substance  known  as  \%  |[^  ^  (Hai-t'ung-p'i),  357,  and  |I^  ^ 
(T'ung-pi),  1402,  as  exported  from  Canton,  are  the  bark  of  this 
tree;  that  exported  from  Ningpo  being  probably  the  bark  of 
Acafithopanax  ricmifoliu77t  (which  see).  The  bark  of  the  cotton 
tree  is  said  to  be  emetic  and  astringent.  It  could  probably  be 
substituted  for  that  of  Aca7ithopanax. 

BOSWELLIA. — According  to  Hanbury,  the  olibanum 
produced  in  India,  which  is  probably  the  only  sort  that  finds  its 
way  to  China,  is  derived  from  Boswellia  glab^'a  and  Boswellia 
thtirifera.  The  Chinese  name  of  the  drug  is  ^  j^  ^  (Hsiin- 
lu-hsiang)  or  ^  ^  (Ju-hsiang),  563.  The  second  of  these 
names  either  refers  to  the  nipple-shaped  pieces  which  part  of 
the  product  assumes,  or  else  is  a  translation  of  the  Hebrew 
term  Icbonah^  signifying  "milk."  In  Buddhist  books  the 
olibanum  is  called    5c  ^   fr    (T'ien-tse-hsiang),   ^  ^  -^  ^ 


(To-chia-lo-hslang),  tt  f'f  ^  (Tu-hi-hsiang),  and  Jp  1^  ^ 
(Mo-le-lisiang).  The  second  of  the  above  terms  may  be  the 
Chinese  equivalent  of  the  Sanscrit  fog-ara,  meaning  "perfume," 
and  the  third  an  adaptation  of  the  Sanscrit  ktindtirti^  which  is 
the  term  by  which  olibanum  was  known  in  that  language. 
Li  Shih-chen  says  that  it  is  sometimes  adulterated  with  storax^ 
but  at  the  present  time  that  is  not  probable,  as  olibanum  is 
much  more  plentiful,  and  therefore  cheaper  than  formerly. 
That  it  has  sometimes  been  confounded  with,  and  possibly 
adulterated  with  sandarac^  is  well  known  to  Western  pharma- 
cists. The  drug,  as  it  appears  in  the  Chinese  market,  is  in  the 
usual  form  of  pale  yellow,  oval,  partly  opaque,  brittle  tears, 
having  the  bitter,  aromatic  taste,  and  balsamic  smell  character- 
istic of  this  substance.  Very  inferior  kinds  are  also  found  in 
the  shops.  It  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  some  sorts  of  in- 
cense. Carminative,  sedative,  tonic,  stimulant,  alterative,  astrin- 
gent, and  diuretic  properties  are  referred  to  this  drug,  which  is 
used  to  some  extent  in  making  plasters  and  salves  for  dressing 
carbuncles  and  foul  chronic  sores.  It  is  used  internally 
in  leprosy  and  struma.  Indian  practitioners  have  largely 
used  it  as  a  remedy  for  carbuncle,  as  an  internal  agent 
in  the  treatment  of  gonorrhoea,  and  as  a  fumigation  in  lung 
affections.  Some  of  the  older  writers  recommended  it  for 
spermatorrhoea,  and  for  certain  vesical  and  urinary  disorders, 
for  which  it  is  worth  a  trial. 

^  ^  Vi.  (Wu-chu-yu),  223.  This  is  a  small  tree  or  shrub, 
bearing  small,  purplish-red  flowers  and  a  fruit  which  at  first  is 
yellow,  but  when  it  is  ripe,  turns  to  a  dark  purple.  The  Pentsao 
says  that  formerly  the  tree  was  planted  at  the  side  of  a  well,  so 
that  the  leaves  might  fall  into  the  water.  To  drink  of  the  water 
was  considered  to  be  prophylactic  against  contagious  diseases. 
The  fruits  were  also  hung  up  in  the  house  to  ward  off  evil 
spirits.  The  fruits,  leaves,  branches,  and  root  with  the  white 
rind,  are  all  used  in  medicine.  In  the  case  of  the  fruits  as  found 
in  the  markets,  the  small  black  carpels  are  usually  separated 
from  their  pedicles,  are  five  in  number,  closely  connected  and 
mixed  with  the  scabrous  stalks  of  the  umbellate  inflorescence. 


They  have  a  warm,  bitter,  and  aromatic  flavor.  The  medical 
properties  attributed  to  these  are  almost  innumerable,  amon 
which  may  be  mentioned  their  use  as  stimulant,  carminative, 
stomachic,  deobstruent,  astringent,  and  anthelmintic  remedies. 
They  are  even  recommended  for  sterility  and  barrenness.  A 
piece  of  a  branch  is  used  as  a  suppository  in  obstipation.  The 
root  and  bark  are  used  as  astringent  and  anthelmintic  remedies, 
and  in  the  treatment  of  rheumatism. 

BRASENIA  PELTATA.— ^(Shun).  Called  ^|^  (Shun- 
ts'ai)  in  Kiangnan,  where  it  is  eaten  as  a  vegetable.  It  is  also 
called  7jc  ^  (Shui-k'uei),  *' water  mallow."  The  stem  is 
purple  and  mucilaginous,  aud  it  and  the  leaves  on  the  under 
surface  are  covered  with  a  viscid  jelly.  It  bears  yellow  flowers 
and  a  greenish  purple  fruit.  The  plant  is  good  for  feeding  to 
pigs,  and  is  therefore  also  called  |f  ^  (Chu-shun).  Although 
it  is  not  regarded  as  at  all  poisonous,  its  continued  use  is  thought 
to  be  deleterious,  injuring  the  stomach,  destroying  the  teeth  and 
hair,  and  producing  caries  in  the  bones.  If  eaten  in  the 
seventh  month,  when  it  is  liable  to  be  wormy,  it  is  thought  to 
produce  cholera.  As  the  Chinese  eat  it  raw,  or  but  slightly 
cooked,  and  as  it  grows  in  filthy  ponds  and  streams,  some  of 
these  evil  effects,  said  to  arise  from  its  ingestion,  can  easily  be 
accounted  for.  Its  medical  qualities  are  considered  to  be 
antithermic,  anthelmintic  and  vulnerary.  It  is  recommended 
as  a  local  application  in  cancer,  favus,  and  hemorrhoids. 

BRASSIC A.— Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  this  genus 
contains  some  of  the  best  known  and  commonest  garden  plants 
of  China,  the  identifications  and  nomenclature  are  in  a  very 
uncertain  state.  This  is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  cultiva- 
tion has  changed  the  species  in  many  particulars,  and  also  that 
many  of  the  varieties  found  in  China  are  distinct  from  those 
found  in  the  west.  Brassica  chinensis^  ^  H  (Pai-ts'ai),  called 
^  (Sung)  in  the  PentsaOy  is  a  most  common  variety  of  Brassica 
oleracea.  This  vegetable  is  considered  to  be  cooling  aud  anti- 
vinous.  Its  prolonged  and  excessive  use  is  thought  to  be 
slightly  deleterious,  causing  an  itching  eruption  and  retarding 
recovery  from  disease.     Ginq^er  is  antidotal  to  its  deleterious 


effects.  Its  medicinal  use  is  recommended  in  fevers  and  to 
quench  the  craving  for  wine.  It  is  also  considered  to  be 
laxative  and  diuretic.  The  seeds  are  used  to  arouse  a  "dead 
drunk/*  and  the  oil  expressed  from  them,  when  rubbed  on  the 
scalp,  is  thought  to  promote  the  growth  of  hair. 

^  ^  (Yiiu-t'ai),  otherwise  called  ^  ^  (Yu-ts'ai),  is 
undoubtedly  Brassica  ?-apa^  which  produces  the  ^"^  -^  (Yu- 
ts'ai-tzii,  "rape  seed"),  from  which  the  |^  \^  (Ts'ai-yu, 
"rape-seed  oil")  is  manufactured.  It  also  is  called  Brassica 
chinensis.,  possibly  on  account  of  its  economic  prominence  in 
this  country.  The  plant  is  thought  to  have  originally  been 
brought  from  Mongolia,  and  for  this  reason  is  also  called  ■^  '%, 
(Hu-ts'ai).  The  oil  and  its  manufacture  are  of  great  com- 
mercial importance  to  those  portions  of  China  in  which  this 
plant  is  cultivated.  Until  the  introduction  of  kerosene,  this 
oil  was  the  cheapest  and  best  illuminant  known  to  the  Chinese. 
Its  culinary  use  was  very  great,  being  considered  inferior, 
however,  to  sesamura  oil  for  this  purpose.  The  vegetable, 
eaten  in  the  spring,  was  regarded  as  acrid  and  cooling.  Under 
certain  conditions  its  use  was  said  to  be  slightly  deleterious. 
In  some  cases  it  produced  stiffness  of  the  knees,  and  those 
already  afflicted  with  difficulties  of  the  back  or  feet  were  made 
worse  by  its  use.  The  Taoists  count  it  as  first  among  the  five 
^  (Hun).  The  expressed  juice  of  the  stalk  and  leaves  is  the 
form  in  which  it  is  used  medicinally.  In  this  way,  and  also 
sometimes  as  a  decoction,  it  is  applied  to  foul  sores,  caked 
breast,  cancer,  and  such  like.  The  expressed  juice  is  also 
administered  in  dysentery  and  bloody  stools. 

^  W  (Wu-ching),  otherwise  known  as  g  ^  (Man-ching), 
is  Brassica  rapa-depressa^  the  rape-turnip.  In  the  classics  this 
is  called  ^  (Feng\  The  root,  leaves,  and  seed  of  this  plant 
are  all  eaten.  The  Chinese  have  not  improved  this  turnip 
much  by  cultivation,  as  both  root  and  leaves  remain  bitter  and 
pungent.  The  continued  use  of  this  vegetable  is  considered  to 
be  less  deleterious  than  the  yim-t'ai^  and  many  of  its  medicinal 
uses  are  identical  with  those  of  the  latter  plant.  Its  properties 
are  cooling  and  anti-vinous.  The  seeds  are  considered  to  be 
diuretic  and  constructive.  Women  are  especially  recommended 
to  use  them.     The  oil  expressed  from  them  is  added  to  cosmetic 

vegetable:  kingdom.  75 

applications  for  the  face,  and  applied  to  the  hair  restores  its 
color  and  vitality.  ^  ^-  (Man-ching)  in  North  China  is  the 
kohl-rabi,  Brassica  oleracca  caulorapa.  It  is  also  snggested 
that  ^  ^  #  (Chieh-man-ching)  ox  ')^'^  (Ta-chieh)  may  be  a 
Chinese  variety  of  the  rutabaga,  Brassica  canipestris  7'iitabaga. 
The  mustards,  although  of  identical  genus  with  the 
cabbages,  will  be  considered  under  the  alternative  term  Sinapis 
(which  see). 

BROUSSONETIA  PAPYRIFERA.— 1§  (Ch'u),  ^  i^ 
(Ku-shu).  This  is  the  paper-niulberiy ^  a  very  common  tree  in 
China  and  Japan.  It  is  of  quick  growth,  has  a  soft  wood,  which 
is  used  to  make  vessels  of  various  sorts,  and  bears  a  globular 
red  fruit,  which  is  sometimes  eaten  by  children.  The  acheues, 
which  are  small,  round,  seed-like  bodies  called  ^  ^  -^  (Ch'u- 
shih-tzii),  224,  are  of  a  bright  red  color,  and  as  found  in  the 
shops,  are  much  broken.  They  are  mucilaginous  to  the  taste, 
and  are  believed  to  be  tonic  and  invigorating.  They  are  also 
called  ^  ^  (Ku-shih)  and  ^  \%  (Ch'u-t'ao).  The  leaves  are 
regarded  as  diuretic  and  astringent.  They  are  recommended 
in  fluxes  and  in  gonorrhoea.  A  decoction  of  the  twigs  is  used 
in  eruptions,  and  the  juice  extracted  from  these  is  given  in 
anuria.  Decoctions  of  the  bark  are  used  in  ascites  and 
menorrhagia.  The  resinous  sap  found  in  the  bark  is  used  as  a 
vulnerary,  and  in  wounds  and  insect  bites.  Coarse  cloth  and 
paper  are  made  from  the  liber  of  this  tree. 

BRUNELLA    (PRUNELLA)    VULGARIS.  —  g  ;|§  ]|[ 

(Hsia-ku-ts*ao).  This  is  the  common  '-'- heal-alV  of  Europe 
and  America.  It  grows  in  swampy  and  wet  places,  has  a 
nearly  square  stalk,  grows  about  two  feet  high,  and  bears  a 
small,  pale-purple  flower  in  spikes.  The  stalk  and  leaves  are 
the  parts  used,  and  the  drug  is  considered  as  cooling.  It  is 
therefore  used  in  fevers,  and  also  as  an  anti-rheumatic,  altera- 
tive, and  tonic  remedy. 

BUDDLEIA  OFFICINALIS.—!^  ^  1^  (Mi-mgng-hua), 
843.  This  is  a  shrub  of  the  natural  order  ScropfmlarinecB^ 
which  bears  a  most  beautiful  flower,  called  by  the  Buddhists 


?ti  ll  ^  (Sliui-chin-hua),  or  "watered-satin-brocade-flower." 
It  may  be  that  this  is  identical  with  Biiddleia  neemda  of  India. 
It  is  said  to  grow  in  the  river  valleys  of  Szechuan,  and  the 
commercial  product  comes  from  Kansuh  and  Shensi.  The 
flowers  are  prepared  by  being  soaked  in  a  mixture  of  wine  and 
honey  for  three  days,  and  then  dried.  They  are  used  almost 
exclusively  for  the  treatment  of  diseases  of  the  eye,  especially 
opacities  of  the  cornea.  Whether  the  beauty  of  the  flower 
determines  this  use  or  not,  it  is  hard  to  say.  They  are  also 
thought  to  affect  the  liver. 

BUDDLEIA  CURVIFLORA.— P  .«  %  (Tsui-yii-ts«ao), 
1357.  Also  called  ^  ^J^  (Nao-yu-hua).  As  its  name  implies, 
it  is  used  for  stupifying  fish,  and  in  this  respect  resembles 
Daphne  geiikwa  (which  see).  The  flowers  and  leaves  are 
used  in  medicine  in  tbe  treatment  of  catarrhal  difficulties,  fish 
poisoning,  to  dissolve  fish  bones  in  the  throat,  and  for  chronic 
malarial  poisoning  with  enlarged  spleen. 

OCTORADIATUM.— '^^  ^  (Tz'u-hu)  or  ^  ]^  (Ch'ai-hu),  16. 
Both  species  have  yellow  flowers,  go  by  the  same  Chinese 
names,  and  are  not  distinguished  in  the  Chinese  books.  ]^  is 
said  to  be  an  ancient  way  of  writing  ^.  The  plant  is  found 
principally  in  the  northern  provinces.  Young  white  shoots, 
which  spring  up  in  the  spring  and  autumn,  may  be  eaten.  The 
old  plant  is  used  for  fire-wood.  The  root-stock  is  the  part 
used  in  medicine.  Its  medicinal  qualities  are  considered  to  be 
essentially  febrifuge,  deobstruent,  and  carminative.  It  is  used 
in  flatulence  and  indigestion,  in  colds  and  coughs,  muscular 
pains  and  cramps,  amenorrhoea,  thoracic  and  abdominal 
inflammations,  puerperal  fevers,  and  in  acute  diarrhoea. 

BUXUS  SEMPERVIRENS.— ^  ti  %  (Huang-yang- 
mu).  This  is  the  ordinary  boxwood^  which  is  used  for  making 
combs,  wooden  bowls,  and  printing  blocks.  The  tree  is  of 
very  slow  growth,  is  evergreen,  and  the  wood  is  so  fine  grained 
that  it  may  be  considered  as  almost  grainless.  It  is  said  not 
to  grow  during  the  intercalary  moon  of  the  Chinese  year.     A 


softer  kind  of  wood,  called  vimigo-zvood^  is  used  by  Ningpo 
carvers  for  the  fine  image  work  which  they  do.  It  may  be 
from  this  tree,  or  from  a  different  species.  The  original 
habitat  of  the  tree  is  not  recorded,  but  it  is  now  largely 
cultivated  both  for  commercial  purposes  and  for  ornamental 
use.  The  leaf  is  the  part  used  in  medicine.  As  the  plant 
is  said  to  be  free  from  the  element  of  fire,  the  leaves  are 
assumed  to  be  cooling  in  their  nature.  They  are  prescribed 
in  difficult  labors,  being  supposed  to  induce  expulsive  efforts. 
The  ordinary  toilet  combs  of  women,  being  made  of  this  wood, 
are  often  turned  to  account  as  a  ready  domestic  remedy  ;  the 
incinerated  wood  being  used  in  the  same  way  as  are  the  leaves. 
The  powdered  leaves  are  rubbed  on  prickly  heat  and  summer 

»— «OOOf<»- 



C^SALPINIA  MINAX.  —  ;5  jf  (Shih-lien\  This  is 
the  classification  of  Hance  and  Faber.  The  plant  has  not 
been  found  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao  or  any  other  Chinese 
work  consulted.  Its  seeds  appear  in  the  Customs  lists  (1153) 
as  an  article  of  commerce  ;  but  what  their  medical  uses  may 
be,  we  have  not  been  able  to  learn. 

C^SALPINIA  PULCHERRIMA.  —  1.  M.  %  (Feng- 
huang-ch'ang),  304,  ^  HI,  ^  (Chin-feng-hua).  The  first  term 
is  given  in  the  Customs  lists  for  a  root  that  is  produced  in 
Kuangtung.  The  second  term  is  a  Japanese  identification. 
The  plant  has  not  been  found  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao,  Its 
medical  uses  have  not  been  ascertained. 

C^S ALPINIA  SAPPAN.— ^  \-%  %  (Su-fang-mu).  This 
is  the  tree  which  furnishes  the  Sappan  wood,  Sappan  zvood^  or 
Bukkum  wood  to  commerce.  It  comes  largely  from  the  island 
of  Sumbawa,  which  belongs  to  the  East  Indies  lying  east  of 
Java.  The  island  also  produces  the  most  valuable  teak  tree, 
as  well  as  the  tamarind.  The  Chinese  name  of  the  wood 
under  consideration,  as  well  as  the  word  sappan,  are  doubtless 
derived  from  the  name  of  this  island.  The  wood  also  is 
imported  from  Siam,  Malaysia,  and  India,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  grown  in  Kuangtung  and  Kuangsi.  Its  common  name 
is  ^  /fv  (Su-mu).  It  contains  much  gallic  and  tannic  acids, 
and  is  an  excellent  substitute  for  logwood,  although  much 
weaker.  An  extract  may  be  made  from  it.  The  form  in  which 
the  substance  appears  in  the  Customs  list  is  that  of  a  coarse 
powder  or  saw  dust,  called  ^  7fC  ^1  (Su-mu-k'ang),  1201. 
Since  it  dyes  a  red  color,  the  Chinese  consider  that  it  has  a 
special  affinity  for  the  blood.  It  is  therefore  prescribed  in 
wounds,  hemorrhages,  and  disturbances  of  the  menstrual 
function.     It  is  also  recommended  as  a  sedative  and  in  fluxes. 

C^SALPINIA  SEPIARIA.— g  |f  (Yiin-shih).  This 
is   a    climbing   shrub,    and    the    Chinese    recognise    its    close 


relationship  to  other  Cacsalpinioc  by  calling  it  ^  (or  yfC)  %  ^, 
"wild  (or  water)  honey  locust."  Other  names  for  the  fruit 
are  5^  g  CT'ien-tou)  and  ^  M.  ( j\Ia-tou).  The  stem  is  hollow 
and  spiny  ;  it  bears  yellow  flowers  in  racemes  and  a  pod  about 
three  inches  long,  containing  five  cr  six  dark  colored  seeds, 
which  have  an  unpleasaut  odor.  The  seeds,  flowers,  and  root 
are  used  in  medicine.  Although  the  Pcntsao  discusses  this 
among  the  poisonous  drugs,  it  is  not  considered  to  be  poisonous. 
The  seeds  are  said  to  have  astringent,  anthelmintic,  antipvretic, 
and  anti-malarial  properties.  They  are  said  to  be  used  for  the 
most  part  in  the  treatment  of  ague.  To  the  flowers  are 
attributed  certain  occult  properties.  If  one  ingests  a  quantity 
of  them  and  then  sees  a  spirit,  he  is  driven  mad.  If  burned 
they  will  drive  away  evil  spirits.  In  former  times  their  use 
was  supposed  to  produce  somatic  Icvitation,  but  this  is  now 
denied  by  Li  Shih-chen.  The  expressed  juice  of  the  root  is 
used  to  assist  in  the  removal  of  a  bone  from  the  throat,  and  it 
is  also  thought  to  be  anodyne  in  such  cases. 

CAJANUS  INDICUS.— iJj  IX\  ^  (Shan-tou-kC-nV  This 
genus  seems  to  be  confined  to  Eastern  Asia.  The  common 
name  adopted  by  Europeans  is  "pigeon  pea."  The  East 
Indian  names  are  cajan  and  dahl ;  the  ]\Ialay  name,  clichang. 
In  the  Phitsao  it  is  also  called  JH  ^  (Chieh-tu)  ;  and  on 
another  page  an  almost  identical  description  is  given  under  the 
heading  of  ^  ^  -^  (Chieh-tu-tzii).  This  may  therefore  be 
regarded  as  identical  with,  or  very  closely  related  to,  the  Shan- 
iou-ktn.  In  both  cases  the  root  is  the  part  used  in  medicine 
(1104).  This  appears  in  the  Chinese  shops  as  a  woody  root, 
varying  from  the  size  of  the  little  finger  to  mere  rootlets  ;  the 
whole  being  connected  by  a  knotted  root-stock.  Rats  and 
mice  are  said  to  be  fond  of  this  root.  It  is  considered  to  be  the 
counter-poison  par  excellence.  Anthelmintic,  sedative,  ex- 
pectorant, and  vulnerary  properties  are  also  referred  to  it. 

CALAMUS  DRACO,  —lit  ^  %  (Ch'i-lin-chieh),  also 
called  j^  J^j  (Hsiieh-chieh),  477.  This  tree,  growing  in 
Sumatra,  Java,  and  other  countries  to  the  south  of  China,  is 
said    also  to  be   met    with    in    the    southern    provinces.     The 


names  given  for  it  in  the  Phitsao  are  ^  ^  (K'o-liu)  and  fg  ^ 
(K'o-ping),  which  are  probably  transliterations  of  some  foreign 
term.  The  tree  is  said  to  resemble  the  Balsanwdendron 
myrrha.  The  above  Chinese  names  refer  to  the  gum-like 
substance  derived  from  the  tree,  which  is  known  in  commerce 
as  "  dragon's  blood."  The  tree  is  said  to  be  chopped  to  yield 
the  gum,  but  the  most  common  form  is  that  which  covers  the 
fruits,  which  is  obtained  by  beating  and  shaking  these  in  little 
bags  or  baskets,  when  the  gum-tears  drop  off,  and  are  allowed 
to  conglomerate  into  masses  in  the  sun,  or  are  softened  by  hot 
water  and  formed  into  sticks.  Dr.  Williams  describes  the  drug 
as  "in  drops  of  a  bright  crimson  color  when  powdered,  and 
semi-transparent."  That  commonly  found  in  the  Chinese 
shops  is  in  large  dark-red,  friable  masses,  which  have  evidently 
been  packed  in  matting.  It  makes  a  deep  blood-red,  gritty, 
almost  tasteless  powder,  soluble  in  spirits  of  wine.  Since  the 
drug  produces  such  a  brilliant  red  color,  it  may  be  readily 
surmised  that  the  Chinese  would  use  it  in  the  treatment  of 
wounds  and  hemorrhages.  And  this  indeed  seems  to  be  the 
principal  purpose  for  which  it  is  used.  It  is  also  thought  to 
have  some  sedative  and  tonic  properties. 

Dr.  Williams  erroneously  identifies  H  ^  ^  (Lung-hsien- 
hsiang)  with  this  substance,  but  this  is  Ambergris. 

CALENDULA  OFFICINALIS.—:^  ^  1^  (Chin-chan- 
hua).  This  is  the  common  maHgold.  It  is  only  prescribed  in 
obstinate  bleeding  piles. 

CALYSTEGIA  SEPIUM.— :^  ^  (Hsuan-hua).  This  is 
a  Convolvulaceous  plant,  for  which  a  large  number  of  synony- 
mous names  are  given  in  the  Penisao.  Among  these  is  ^  ;^ 
Jff  J5*  (^Ch*an-chih-mu-tan),  which  is  Convolviihis  Japonicus. 
The  root,  which  from  the  shape  it  sometimes  assumes,  is  also 
called  ^]^  S§  i^  (Tun-ch'ang-ts'ao),  "  sucking-pig's  entrail,"  is 
edible,  and  is  said  to  have  a  pleasant  sweet  taste.  Tonic, 
nutrient,  demulcent,  and  diuretic  properties  are  attributed  to 
it,  and  it  is  also  said  to  have  the  power  of  cementing  bones  and 
tendons,  if  diligently  applied  as  a  poultice.  On  account  of 
this  last  named  reputation,  the  root  is  also  called  1^  nh  ^ 
(.Hsli-chiu-ken),  "healing  tendon  root." 


CAMETJA  JAPONICA.— :^-j^(Ch'a-hua),  12;  also  writ- 
ten ]^  |2  (Cha-bua),  10,  which  seems  to  be  a  palpable  mistake 
in  penmanship.  This  is  the  dried  petals  of  this  species,  and 
also  of  an  undetermined  species  of  Camelia  which  flowers  in 
the  spring.  The  Chinese  have,  from  very  early  times,  classed 
the  Camelias  with  the  tea  plant,  doing  so  under  the  generic 
name  of  ^(Ch'a).  Since  the  dried  petals  and  leaves  of  the 
Jap07iica  are  sometimes  brewed  as  tea  by  the  natives,  one  can 
see  how  they  stumbled  upon  this  classification.  The  tender, 
young,  needle-shaped  petals  of  the  spring  blooming  variety  are 
most  esteemed,  while  the  older  ones  of  the  same  variety  and 
those  of  the  Japonica  are  held  in  less  repute.  The  twigs  of 
the  latter  are  also  used  under  the  name  of  ^  ^  \^^  (Ch'a-chiu- 
t'iao);  the  leaves  also  furnishing  the  ]ljlj  ^  (Tz'ii-ch'a),  so 
called  on  account  of  the  spiny  leaf  of  this  variety. 

Therapeutically,  a  decoction  is  used  in  haemoptysis, 
hsematemesis,  and  intestinal  hemorrhage  ;  or  the  petals  are 
powdered  and  mixed  v/ith  ginger  juice,  child's  urine,  and  wine 
for  the  same  purpose.  The  petals,  powdered  and  mixed  with 
linseed  oil,  make  au  application  considered  excellent  for  scalds 
and  burns. 

Two  other  probably  identical  species,  Camelia  sasanqtia 
(^  ^  'j^>  Ch'a-mei-hua)  and  Camelia  oleifera  ({Ij  :^,  Shan- 
ch'a),  furnish  the  "  tea -seed-cakes  "  (^  -^  %^  Ch'a-tzu-ping) 
and  much  of  the  so-called  "tea-oil"  (:^  ^,  Ch'a-yu)  of 
commerce.  Large  quantities  of  these  products  come  from  the 
hilly  districts  of  Kiangsi  and  Hunan.  Of  the  two,  a  decoction 
of  the  former  is  sometimes  used  as  a  demulcent  and  expec- 
torant, and  it  is  said  to  take  the  place  of  soap  in  washing  oily 
clothes.  The  latter  is  used  as  a  food  and  in  lamps,  and  as  it 
is  a  bland,  non-irritating  oil,  it  might  be  used  as  a  substitute 
for  olive  oil  in  dispensary  practice.  Shen  Tsu-hsi,  in  his 
appendix  to  the  Pentsao^  says  that  the  '^  fffj  (Ch'a-yu)  of 
Fukien  and  Kuangtung  is  not  Camelia  oil  at  all,  but  a  product 
of  Corylus  nuts,  and  it  therefore  ought  to  be  called  "  filbert-oil." 

CAMELIA  THEA  or  Camelia  iheifera,—^  (Ming).  By 
many  botanists,  the  tea  plant  is  considered  to  belong  to  a  genus 
distinct  from  the  camelias,  to  which  they  give  the  designation 


Thea.  These  generic  terms  will  be  used  iiidiscriminatelv  in 
this  article.  It  was  formerly  supposed  that  black  and  green 
tea  were  derived  from  distinct  S[>ecies  of  the  tea  plant,  which 
were  then  known  as  Thea  bohca  and  Thca  viridis  respectively. 
But  it  is  now  known  that  both  kinds  are  made  from  the  same 
plant  ;  the  difference  being  in  the  process  of  manufacture. 
The  essential  difference  in  this  respect  is  that  black  tea  is 
allowed  to  ferment  before  firing,  while  the  green  is  rapidly 
dried  and  fired.  It  is  probable  that  there  were  originally 
only  two  distinct  species  of  the  tea  plant;  these  being 
Thea  sinensis  and  TJiea  assa?)iica^  or  the  Chinese  and  the  Indian 
species,  and  that  .the  other  varieties  are  due  either  to  hybrida- 
tion of  these,  or  to  changes  produced  by  adaptation  to 
environment,  and  to  cultivation.  The  Indian  species,  however, 
makes  the  better  quality  of  black  tea,  while  the  Chinese 
produces  a  better  green  tea.  The  Chinese  do  not  speak  of 
black  tea,  but  on  account  of  the  color  of  the  infusion  which 
this  kind  produces,  call  it  "red  tea"  (,fX  '^i  Hung  ch'a). 

Among  the  Chinese  terms  for  tea  J^  (Ch'a)  is  the  generic 
one  ;  but  in  the  colloquial  this  al\va\-s  refers  to  the  infusion, 
while  the  article  itself  is  spoken  of  as  :^  ^  (Ch'a-yeh).  The 
character  ^  (Ch'^a)  does  not  date  beyond  the  Han  dynasty. 
Before  that  time  the  character  used  for  tea  was  ^  (T'u); 
but  a  prince  of  that  dynasty  ordered  that  this  character 
should  be  no  longer  pronounced  /'?/•,  but  ch'-a.  Afterwards 
the  stroke  in  the  middle  part  of. the  character  was  left  out, 
thus  distinguishing  it  from  the  old  term.  We  have  a  relic  of 
this  old  word  in  the  Amoy  pronunciation  of  :^,  "t^, "  from 
which  we  have  our  present  English  word,  which  originally 
was  pronounced  "tay."  The  term  ^  (T'u)  is  now  used  for 
the  sow-thistle  {Sonchns  oleraceoiis).  In  proper  parlance,  the 
early  pickings  of  the  tea  leaf  are  called  :^(Ch'a),  w.hile  the  late 
should  be  designated  ^*  (Ming).  This  latter  is  the  term  for 
tea  used  in  the  Pentsao^  as  well  as  for  the  most  part  in  the 
classics,  and  it  may  frequently  be  found  on  tea  boxes.  The 
character  ^(Ch'uan)  is  used  for  the  old  leaves  of  the  tea  plant, 
which  are  made  into  an  inferior  quality  of  tea.  The  name 
-^  ^  K'u-t'u),  or  ^  :^  rK'u-ch'a)  properly  denotes  the 
chicory-leaf,  although  there  is  some  confusion  upon  this  point. 


Other  plants,  like  the  ||  (Chia)  and  the  |g  (She)  cannot  be 
confounded  with  tea.  For  while  infusions  of  the  leaves  of 
some  of  these  are  sometimes  used  as  a  beverage,  they  are  not 
regarded  by  the  natives  as  a  substitute  for  tea.  The  same  may 
be  said  of  the  willow  (-ffj  flij  Yang-liu),  except  that  the  leaves 
of  this  tree  and  those  of  the  white  poplar  are  sometimes  used  to 
adulterate  tea. 

Wild  tea,  ^  ^(Yeh-ch'a),  is  regarded  by  the  Chinese  as 
the  best,  especially  that  growing  among  the  disintegrated  stone 
of  the  hill  sides  ;  that  growing  on  clayey  soil  being  not  regarded 
so  highly.  Whether  tlie  tea  plant  is  indigenous  to  China,  or 
whether  these  are  "volunteers"  from  some  forgotten  tea 
plantation,  is  uncertain.  vSuffice  it  to  say  that  these  shrubs 
are  found  growing  plentifully  upon  the  hill  and  mountain 
waste  lands  of  the  tea  producing  districts. 

The  action  of  tea  upon  the  system  is  never  cousidered  bv 
the  Chinese  to  be  anything  but  beneficial.  In  the  words  of  the 
Psntsao^  "it  clears  the  voice,  gives  brilliancy  to  the  eye, 
invigorates  the  constitution,  improves  the  mental  faculties, 
opens  up  the  avenues  of  the  body,  promotes  digestion,  removes 
flatulence,  and  regulates  the  body  temperature."  Clear  water 
is  but  little  drunk  in  China,  the  common  beverage  being  tea. 
Yet,  although  the  Chinese  are  thus  drinking  tea  continuously 
and  in  large  quantities,  it  does  not  seem  to  have  the  deleterious 
effect  sometimes  observed,  especially  in  America.  This  may 
be  due  to  the  fact  that  the  Chinese  do  not  steep  their  tea,  but 
only  infuse  it,  preferably  in  a  covered  cup,  but  often  in  an 
earthenware  pot.  Or,  what  is  more  probable,  tea  in  China  is 
purer,  containing  no  salts  of  copper  and  other  such  deleterious 
substances  as  are  frequently  found  in  teas  imported  into  Amer- 

The  various  names  and  brands  of  tea  have  reference  to  the 
place  from  wdiich  it  conies,  to  the  time  of  picking,  to  the 
character  of  the  leaf,  and  some  are  merely  arbitrary  trade 
marks.  In  the  order  here  given  are  Ningchow,  from  I-nino-- 
chou  in  Kiangsi  ;  Hyson,  from  {IJf  ||^  (Yti-ch'ien)  "before  the 
rains";  Pekoe,  from  ^  ^  (Pai-hao),  "white  down", 
referring  to  the  white  down  on  the  young  leaves  of  which 
this  brand  is  made  ;  and  Oolong,  from  ,^  f |  (Wu-lung),  ' '  black 


dragon".  The  Chinese  pay  but  little  attention  to  these 
"chops"  and  brands.  Tea  stores  that  profess  to  sell  the  best 
quality  of  tea,  always  put  Kf  |^  (Yii-ch'ien)  on  their  sign  boards ; 
but  its  use  in  this  case  does  not  indicate  any  special  brand,  but 
only  that  the  best  qualities  are  offered  for  sale  ;  that  is,  what 
the  people  like  best,  the  early  or  first  picking  before  the 
summer  rains  have  set  in.  These  teas  are  all  green,  as  com- 
paratively little  black  tea  is  used  by  the  Chinese  themselves. 
Among  the  few  who  distinguish  between  brands,  that  known 
as  11  ^  (Lung-ching)  is  considered  to  be  the  finest  among  plain 
teas.  Scented  teas  are  made  by  mixing  the  petals  of  certain 
flowers,  notably  the  J;^  "^  (Chu-lan)  or  Chloranthus^  and  the 
^  ^^  (Mo-li),  or  white  jasmine  {Jasniiniim  sainbac)^  of  which  the 
former  is  the  one  preferred,  with  the  tea  leaves  until  these 
have  acquired  the  aroma  of  the  flowers,  then  sifting  out  the 
petals  and  quickly  packing  the  tea  in  air  tight  boxes  to 
preserve  the  flavor.  These  teas  are  not  so  popular  with  the 
Chinese  as  has  been  commonly  supposed. 

Brick  tea  is  made  in  China,  at  present  principally  by 
the  Russian  tea  packers,  for  the  trade  of  Central  Asia.  It  is 
usually  the  older  leaves,  stems,  and  broken  tea  that  are 
o-round,  steamed  and  compressed  by  machinery  into  bricks  of 
various  sizes.  These  are  wrapped  in  paper,  packed  in  boxes, 
and  shipped  to  the  northern  ports,  thence  to  be  sent  by  camel 
or  mule  train  across  the  mountains  and  plains  to  their  destina- 
tion in  the  heart  of  the  continent.  By  the  tribes  inhabiting 
this  large  tract  of  country,  including  much  of  Siberia,  it  is 
consumed  leaf  and  all,  being  by  some  dressed  with  milk,  salt, 
and  butter,  and  eaten  as  a  vegetable.  Inasmuch  as  tea  con- 
tains a  large  amount  of  soluble  nitrogen,  it  would  seem  that 
the  use  of  the  leaf  as  a  food  would  be  a  rational  procedure. 
Whether  caffeine  and  theine  are  physiologically  identical,  is  still 
undecided.  To  say  the  least,  the  much  feared  deleterious 
effects  of  theine  are  not  very  apparent,  either  upon  the  Chinese 
tea  drinker  or  the  Central  Asian  tea  eater. 

While  but  little  attention  is  paid  by  the  Chinese  to  the 
brand  of  tea  used  for  ordinary  consumption,  it  is  quite  other- 
wise when  it  comes  to  the  domain  of  native  therapeutics. 
Here,    the  place  of  origin,    the    time  of   picking,    the    mode 


of  preparation,  or  the  condition  of  the  substance  is  important 
in  determining  its  efficacy  in  the  treatment  of  disease.  Without 
doubt,  in  some  instances  the  difference  in  the  species  of  the 
plant  from  which  the  leaf  is  obtained,  will  explain  the  apparent 
difference  in  physiological  action,  but  often  the  distinction 
made  by  the  native  doctor  is  merely  empirical  or  imaginary. 
Some  of  the  more  important  of  these  "  medicinal  teas "  are 
here  given. 

^  i'5  ^  (P'n-erh-ch'a),  1052,  comes  from  P'uerhfu  in 
Yunnan.  The  genuine  article  is  in  the  form  of  a  ball,  about 
the  size  of  a  man's  head,  containing  approximately  five  catties. 
On  account  of  its  shape  and  size,  it  is  also  known  as  "man 
head  tea"  (A  Bl  ^)-  I'he  commonest  kind  of  so  called  P'u- 
erh  tea,  however,  is  in  the  form  of  a  cake  about  the  size  of  a 
breakfast  plate,  and  comes  from  Southern  Szechuan  near  the 
borders  of  Yunnan.  There  is  little  difference  in  the  quality 
of  these,  although  that  in  the  ball  form  is  the  more  highly 
esteemed  by  the  Chinese.  This  tea  is  regarded  as  an  excellent 
digestive,  assisting  in  dissolving  fats,  neutralizing  poisons  in 
the  digestive  tract,  besides  being  deobstruent  and  promoting 
secretion.  Marvelous  stories  are  told  in  regard  to  the  solvent 
action  of  this  article  ;  it  being  said  to  dissolve  even  metals,  like 
gold  and  iron.  If  to  a  pot  in  which  a  fowl  or  piece  of  meat 
is  being  cooked,  is  added  a  portion  of  this  tea,  flesh,  bones,  and 
stock  are  converted  into  a  most  nourishing  broth.  It  is  pre- 
sumed that  the  pot  must  be  of  earthenware,  else  an  undue 
proportion  of  iron  would  be  added  to  the  mixture. 

11  ^  ^  (Lung-chi-ch'a)  comes  from  the  province  of 
Kwangsi,  and  is  sometimes  made  into  brick  tea.  It  is  reputed 
to  be  good  for  the  treatment  of  malaria  and  all  forms  of  toxae- 
mia.     It  is  also  used  in  dysentery  and  diarrhoea. 

^  fij  ;^  (An-hua-ch'a)  is  from  Hunan.  The  leaves  pro- 
duce a  tea  rather  dark  in  color,  and  of  a  sweetish  bitter  taste. 
Its  use  is  that  of  ordinary  tea,  but  as  its  tonic  and  strengthen- 
ing properties  are  considered  to  exceed  those  of  the  common 
article,  it  is  held  in  high  esteem  in  sickness,  fatigue,  or  bodily 
weakness.  One  brand  of  this  tea,  known  as  ffg  ^^  i^ 
(Hsiang-tan-ch'a)  is  all  sent  to  the  imperial  capital  for  the  use 
of  the  emperor,  princes,  and  high  officials. 


^  :^  (Hsiieh-ch'a)  is  the  leaves  from  a  rare  plant  growing 
on  the  mountains  of  Lingchiangfn  in  Yunnan  province.  It  is 
said  to  be  found  within  the  snow  limit  ;  hence  the  name, 
"snow  tea."  It  is  very  difficult  to  procure  samples  of  it,  and 
it  commands  a  high  price.  The  plant  is  said  to  resemble  the 
tea  plant  in  appearance,  and  if  of  the  same  genus,  shows  the 
great  range  of  adaptability  of  this  plant  to  wide  differences  of 
climate.  The  method  of  preparation  is  similar  to  that  used 
in  preparing  ordinary  tea.  This  tea  is  considered  to  be  warming  ; 
it  being  said  that  if  a  cupful  is  drunk  on  a  cold  day  the 
internal  organs  are  pervaded  by  a  sense  of  warmth,  "  as  if  a  fire 
had  been  kindled  therein."  Therefore  it  is  regarded  as  most 
excellent  for  colds.  By  those  who  spit  blood,  who  sometimes 
do  not  relish  ordinary  tea,  this  is  considered  to  be  a  grateful 
drink.      It  is  also  used  for  the  cure  of  dysentery. 

^  ti^  ^  (Lo-chieh-ch'a)  is  named  for  a  man  of  ancient 
times,  who  at  Changhsinghsien,  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Wutung  mountain,  at  the  rear  of  a  wayside  shrine,  raised 
most  excellent  tea.  The  leaves  of  this  variety  are  at  their  best 
at  the  time  of  the  summer  solstice,  and  as  the  plant  grows  only 
in  mountainous  districts,  it  is  therefore  held  in  high  esteem. 
Medicinally,  it  is  valued  most  highly  in  the  treatment  of 
pulmonary  troubles  and  dropsy.  That  which  comes  from  the 
province  of  Kiangsi  is  considered  to  be  inferior  in  quality,  and 
is  only  used  as  an  aid  to  digestion. 

^  Pb  ^  (P'u-t'o-ch'a),  so  called  because  it  conies  from 
the  small  island  of  Pootoo  in  the  Chusan  archipelago,  is 
quite  scarce,  for  the  reason  that  a  very  small  amount  is 
gathered.  In  the  mountains  of  Tinghaihsien  on  the  large 
island  adjoining  Pootoo,  quantities  of  it  grow  ;  but  the  natives 
do  not  gather  it,  possibly  because  the  demand  for  it  is  small. 
It  is  said  to  be  useful  in  hemorrhages,  as  in  haemoptysis  or 

^^'^  (Wu-i-ch'a)  is  from  the  Wu-i  hills  of  Fukien,  from 
the  name  of  which  is  derived  the  foreign  term  Bohea.  This  tea, 
when  brewed,  is  rather  dark  in  color,  and  the  taste  is  described 
in  the  Ch'a  ching("tea  classic")  as  sour  (f^).  It  is  said  to 
be  peptic,  carminative,  and  to  counteract  the  effects  of  wine 
drinking.     It  is  also  used  to  check  dysentery. 


^  fP  j&  ^  (Sluii-slia-lien-ch'a)  is  said  to  grow  in  the 
forests  of  Formosa,  amidst  the  dense  undergrowth,  where  its 
leaves  never  see  the  sun.  It  is  considered  to  be  cooling,  and 
is  adminstered  in  fevers.  It  is  also  given  to  bring  out  the 
eruption  of  small-pox. 

Tea  leaves  that  have  been  brewed,  are  sometimes  put  into 
an  eathenware  jar  and  allowed  to  stand  until  decomposed,  and 
then  used  as  a  medicine.  The  older  and  more  decomposed 
they  are,  the  more  highly  are  they  esteemed  in  the  treatment 
of  all  sorts  of  ulcers  and  swellings,  dog  bites,  old  burns,  and 
bruises,  They  are  applied  as  a  poultice.  The  old  leaves  of 
the  tea  plant  which  have  been  frost-bitten  are  regarded  as 
highly  efficacious  in  the  treatment  of  epilepsy.  They  are 
powdered  and  mixed  in  equal  parts  with  crystal  alum,  and 
administered  in  doses  of  three  mace.  Infusion  of  the  root  of 
the  tea  plant  is  also  sometimes  used  as  a  beverage,  and  in 
strong  decoction  in  the  treatment  of  sore  mouth.  Ordinary 
tea  is  constantly  employed  instead  of  water  for  washing 
wounds  and  sores  of  all  descriptions,  and  as  an  eye  wash  in 

A  few  other  things  used  by  native  doctors  under  the  name 
of  "^//'rt',"  but  which  are  derived  from  plants  other  than  the 
tea  plant,  may  be  mentioned  at  this  point.  Some  so  designated, 
will  also  appear  under  other  articles.  ^  jjjij  :^  (Chio-tz'ii-ch'a) 
is  the  leaves  of  Argenione  viexicana.  The  supply  comes 
from  Huichou  in  x'Ynhui.  It  is  carminative  and  stimulant, 
and  it  is  said  that  by  its  use  conception  is  prevented.  ^  '^ 
(Lnan-ch'a)  is  derived  from  the  Ko'elrenteria  patiiculata. 
Others  say  from  a  species  of  Rhododcndroji.  It  is  used  for 
headaches.  ^  '^c  '^  (Ylin-chih-ch'a)  is  made  from  a  lichen 
which  grows  on  the  rocks  in  Shantung,  principally  in  Meng- 
yin-hsien.  It  is  regarded  as  universally  applicable  in  the 
treatment  of  all  diseases.  ,^0I  ft  ^  (Hung-hua-ch'a)  comes 
from  Kiangsi,  and  consists  of  the  tender  sprouts  of  the  Hibiscus 
rosa-sifiejisis.  It  is  regarded  as  a  fitting  present  for  a  friend. 
Medicinally  it  is  used  as  a  digestive  and  anti-miasmatic. 

CAMPHORA  OFFICINARUM.  —  Z^?/r//5  camphora, 
Lin.      Cinnamomum     ca7nphora.      Nees. — ^     (Chang).     The 


Chinese  name  is  said  to  be  derived  from  j^  j^  (Yli-cliang),  an 
ancient  name  for  Kiangsi,  because  the  tree  grows  large  and 
abundant  there.  But  it  may  as  well  have  come  from  Chang- 
chou-fu  (f^  jj\  J^)  in  Fukien,  as  large  quantities  of  camphor  are 
produced  in  that  prefecture.  The  parts  of  the  tree  entering 
into  commerce  are  the  twigs  (Chang-ch'ai,  ^^  ^),  22,  the  bark 
(Chang-mu-p'i,  f^  /f;  j^),  23,  an-d  the  seeds  (Chang-mu- 
tzu,  f$  Tf;  ^ ),  24. 

The  part  most  largely  used  in  Chinese  medicine,  as  else- 
where, is  the  steareopten,  called  ^^  fjj|^  (Chang-nao)  when  crude 
and  in  flakes,  or  ^  |j^)  )|:  (Chang-nao-p'ien)  when  refined  and 
in  cakes.  Other  names  for  this  substance  are  j^  1)^  (Ch'ao-nao) 
and  §3  U^  ( Shao-nao);  these  two  terms  being  used  in  the  north, 
because  the  product  came  from  Chaochoufu  and  Shaochoufu 
in  Kuangtung.  It  is  produced  by  chipping  the  trunk,  root, 
and  branches  of  the  tree  and  boiling  the  chips  in  a  covered 
vessel  lined  with  straw.  The  sublimed  camphor  condenses  on 
the  straw,  and  is  gathered  in  these  impure  flakes.  Most  of 
what  is  found  on  the  market  in  China  is  of  this  impure  kind. 
The  Japanese  camphor  is  purer  than  the  Chinese,  and  is  usually 
packed  in  tubs  for  the  foreign  market,  while  the  Chinese 
article  is  packed  in  lead-lined  chests.  This  latter  is  met  with 
on  the  market  in  granular  lumps  or  grains  of  the  color  of  dirty 
snow,  and  having  a  strong  terebinthinate  odor,  and  a  warm, 
bitter,  aromatic  taste,  with  a  somewhat  cooling  after  taste. 
It  is  not  so  strong  as  the  foreign-prepared  drug,  but  is  more 
volatile.  It  is  employed  by  the  Chinese  as  a  diaphoretic, 
carminative,  sedative,  anthelmintic,  and  anti-rheumatic  remedy. 
It  is  used  on  decayed  and  aching  teeth,  and  is  put  into  the 
shoes  to  cure  perspiring  feet.  Mixed  with  a  species  of 
Za7ithoxybim  called  1^  \)^  (Hua-chiao),  and  made  into  an 
ointment  with  sesamum  oil,  it  is  used  in  the  treatinent  of  favus 
in  children.  It  is  also  used  in  the  manufacture  of  fire-works, 
and  to  preserve  clothing  from  the  attacks  of  insects.  However, 
for  this  last  named  purpose  it  is  not  altogether  in  favor,  as  the 
Chinese  think  that  it  injures  the  texture  of  fabrics,  rendering 
them  more  liable  to  tear.  For  Borneo  or  Baroos  camphor, 
see  Dryobalanops  camphora  ;  for  ' '  Ngai ' '  camphor,  see  Bliimea 

vegetable;  kingdom.  89 

CANARIUM.— :^  If  (Kan-Ian),  578,  ^;  ^  (Ch'ing-kuo), 
.H  Si  (Wu-lan).  This  is  the  so-called  "Chinese  olive," 
which  has,  however,  no  affinity  with  the  true  olive,  belong- 
ing to  the  natural  order  BiirscracecB^  instead  of  to  that  of 
the  Olcacccc^  as  does  the  latter.  The  first  two  Chinese  names 
given  above  apply  to  Canai'ium  album  {Pimcla  alba)^  while 
the  last  is  Canariinn  pimela  (Pinicia  nigra).  The  first  is 
also  distinguished  in  the  Pentsao  as  |^  |^  (Lu-lan),  "green 
pimela."  These  fruits  grow  upon  a  small  tree  or  shrub  in  the 
south-eastern  provinces  of  China  and  in  Cochinchina.  The 
tree  is  said  to  be  something  above  ten  feet  in  height,  and  to 
yield  good  timber.  The  fruits  are  oblong  and  pointed,  either 
green  or  shriveled,  being  often  preserved  in  salt,  or  added  to 
wine  to  medicate  it,  or  to  counteract  its  effects.  They  vary 
from  one  inch  and  a  quarter  to  an  inch  and  a  half  in  length. 
When  the  pulp  of  the  drupe  is  removed,  there  remains  the  large, 
dark,  pointed,  polygonal,  or  triangular  stones,  having  three 
apertures  at  the  upper  end,  where  they  often  show  a  tendency  to 
split  into  three  portions,  disclosing  the  three  celled  interior. 
These  hard  stones  are  frequently  beautifully  carved  into  beads 
and  other  ornaments.  The  fruits  are  said  to  be  stomachic, 
sialagogue,  antiphlogistic,  alexipharmic,  anti-vinous,  and  astrin- 
gent. The  pits,  incinerated  and  reduced  to  powder,  are  thought 
to  have  the  power  of  dissolving  fish  bones  accidentally  swal- 
lowed, and  are  used  in  a  similar  way  in  the  treatment  of  fluxes 
and  the  e^ruptive  diseases  of  children.  The  bruised  kernels  are 
used  as  a  poultice  in  herpes  labialis.  This  latter  appears  in  com- 
merce (692),  as  do  also  the  leaves  of  Cafiarium  pimela  (1462). 
The  appendix  of  the  Pentsao  also  speaks  of  the  kernels  of  this 
species,  assigning  to  them  stimulant,  tonic,  and  corrective 
properties.  Two  other  kinds  of  Chinese  olive  are  mentioned 
in  the  Pentsao  under  the  names  of  ^  ^|f  |^  ^  (P', 
"Persian  pimela,"  and  'jz  f^  (Fang-Ian),  "square  pimela." 
What  these  are  is  uncertain.  The  former  may  indeed  be  the 
Syrian  olive.  It  is  not  native  of  China,  but  is  said  to  now  be 
grown  in  Kuangsi. 

A  soft,  sticky,  dark,  resinous  mass,  compared  to  cow-glue, 
and  having  a  strong  aromatic  odor,  is  prepared  from  the 
Canarium  pimcla.     It   is  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao.,   but    no 


uses  are  given  for  it.  It  resembles,  and  is  probably  identical 
with  Manila  Elcmi^  which  is  thought  to  be  the  product  of 
Cajiarhnn  commune.  The  Chinese  product  is  called  ^  § 
(Lan-hsiang).  It  may  be  used  as  a  substitute  for  black 
dammar.  When  heated  with  the  leaves  and  bark  of  the  tree, 
it  produces  a  tarry  mass,  called  ;^  |J|  (Lan-t'ang),  which  is 
used  in  caulking  boats. 

CANAVALLIA  ENSIFORMIS.— 7J  S  (Tao-tou),  1256. 
This  legume  is  said  to  be  native  of  the  province  of  Kuangtung, 
but  is  now  extensively  cultivated  throughout  the  empire.  It 
is  generally  known  among  foreigners  as  the  "  broad  bean  ; " 
the  pod  being  one  and  a  half  to  two  inches  broad  and  nearly  a 
foot  long.  They  are  much  relished  as  an  article  of  diet  by  the 
Chinese  ;  the  pods,  while  still  tender,  being  fried  and  eaten 
with  soy  or  honey,  and  the  beans,  when  riper,  being  cooked 
with  pork  or  chicken.  They  are  thought  to  benefit  digestion, 
to  strengthen  the  kidneys,  and  to  be  constructive  and  tonic. 
They  are  especially  reconamended  in  cases  of  weak  digestion 
during  convalescence  from  acute  disease. 

CANNABIS  SATIVA.— i;  |^  (Ta-ma).  Also  called 
^  %  (Huo-ma),  541  ;  %  %  (Huang-ma);  ^  %  (Han-ma), 
''Chinese  hemp,"  to  distinguish  it  from  ^  ti  (Hu-ma), 
"Scythian  hemp;"  the  staminate  plant,  ^  ^  (I-ma),  and 
the  pistillate  ^  %,  (Chii-ma).  The  flowers  at  the  time  of 
pollenization  are  called  Ijil  ^  (Ma-p'o),  and  j^  ^  (Ma-fen)  is 
used  for  both  the  flowers  and  the  seeds,  although  it  probably 
should  be  restricted  to  tlie  laiier. 

Hemp  has  be'^n  known  from  most  ancient  times  in  China  ; 
there  being  a  tradition  that  the  Emperor  Shen-nung  (28th 
century  B.  C.)  taught  the  people  to  cultivate  it,  as  he  did  also 
the  mulberry  tree  for  raising  silk  worms.  On  the  other  hand, 
flax  was  unknown  to  the  ancient  Chinese,  and  even  at  the 
present  day  the  plant  is  only  cultivated  for  its  oil.  At  Peking 
the  hemp  plant  is  called  >J^  ^  (Hsiao-ma),  while  ;^  lie  is 
incorrectly  applied  to  the  castor  oil  plant. 

Every  part  of  the  hemp  plant  is  used  in  medicine  ;  the 
dried  flowers  (^),  the  ach'enia  (^).,  the  seeds  {%\,  ^\  the  oil 


(lH  '^^  the  leaves,  the  stalk,  the  root,  and  the  juice.  The 
flowers  are  recommended  in  the  120  different  forms  of  J|L  (Feng) 
disease,  in  menstrual  disorders,  and  in  wounds.  The  achenia, 
which  are  considered  to  be  poisonous,  stimulate  the  nervous 
system,  and  if  used  in  excess,  Vv'ill  produce  hallucinations  and 
staggering  gait.  They  are  prescribed  in  nervous  disorders, 
especially  those  marked  by  local  anaesthesias.  The  seeds,  by 
which  is  meant  the  white  kernels  of  the  achenia,  are  used  for 
a  great  variety  of  affections,  and  are  considered  to  be  tonic, 
demulcent,  alterative,  laxative,  emmenagogue,  diuretic,  an- 
thelmintic, and  corrective.  They  are  made  into  a  congee  by 
boiling  with  water,  mixed  with  wine  by  a  particular  process, 
made  into  pills,  and  beaten  into  a  paste.  A  very  common 
mode  of  exhibition,  however,  is  by  simply  eating  the  kernels. 
It  is  said  that  their  continued  use  renders  the  flesh  firm  and 
prevents  old  age.  They  are  prescribed  internally  in  fluxes, 
post-partum  difficulties,  aconite  poisoning,  vermillion  poison- 
ing, constipation,  and  obstinate  vomiting.  Externally  they 
are  used  for  eruptions,  ulcers,  favus,  wounds,  and  falling  of 
the  hair.  The  oil  is  used  for  falling  hair,  sulphur  poisoning, 
and  dryness  of  the  throat.  The  leaves  are  considered  to  be 
poisonous,  and  the  freshly  expressed  juice  is  used  as  an  anthel- 
mintic, in  scorpion  stings,  to  stop  the  hair  from  falling  out  and 
to  prevent  it  from  turning  grey.  They  are  especially  thought 
to  have  antiperiodic  properties.  The  stalk,  or  its  bark,  is 
considered  to  be  diuretic,  and  is  used  with  other  drugs  in 
gravel.  The  juice  of  the  root  is  used  for  similar  purposes, 
and  is  also  thought  to  have  a  beneficial  action  in  retained 
placenta  and  post-partum  hemorrhage.  An  infusion  of  hemp 
(for  the  preparation  of  which  no  directions  are  given)  is 
used  as  a  demulcent  drink  for  quenching  thirst  and  relieving 

Another  Tiliaceous  plant,  the  CorcJionis  capsularis^  is 
identified  by  the  Japanese  as  ^  %l^  (Huang-ma),  which  is  one 
of  the  terms  at  the  head  of  this  article.  It  is  cultivated  for  its 
fibre  (ji'tc)  in  South  China  and  other  parts  of  tropical  Asia. 
It  is  not  known  to  be  used  in  medicine.  It  may  be  that  in  the 
Pentsao  and  other  Chinese  medical  works  it  is  regarded  as 
identical  with  ^^  |j^. 


CAPSELLA  BURSA  PASTORIS.— ^  ^(Chl-ts'ai).  A 
common  name  is  ;J.^  ^fv  ^  (Ti-mi-ts'ai).  Its  frnit  is  called 
^f  (Ts'o-shih).  This  is  the  common  "shepherd's  purse," 
which  is  eaten  as  food  by  many  of  the  poor  people  of  China. 
It  is  both  wild  and  cultivated.  The  explanation  of  the  first 
character  in  the  Chinese  name  is  given  as  |tt  ^  I^  (Hu-sheng- 
ts'ao),  "  protecting  life  plant,"  because  it  is  said  to  drive  away 
mosquitos  and  other  nocturnal  insects.  The  root  and  leaves 
are  used  in  medicine,  and  the  plant  is  thought  to  have  a 
specially  beneficial  influence  upon  the  liver  and  stomach. 
Incinerated,  they  are  prescribed  in  fluxes,  and  pulverized,  are 
used  in  the  treatment  of  sore  eyes  !  The  fruits  are  used  for 
similar  purposes,  and  if  used  for  a  long  time  are  thought  to 
clear  the  vision.  The  flowers  are  said  to  destroy  certain  kinds 
of  parasitic  worms,  and  to  be  useful  in  dysentery. 

CAPSICUM  ANNUUM.— II  ^^  (La-chiao\  685.  Several 
species  of  this  Solanaceous  plant  are  met  with  in  China.  In 
addition  to  the  one  above  named,  Capsiaini  fnttescens^ 
Capsicum  baccatinn^  Capsia^m  fastigiatuni^  and  Capsiciini 
sinense  are  mentioned.  They  are  largely  cultivated  in  all  of 
the  central  provinces  of  China,  and  are  eaten  green,  ripe,  and 
after  having  been  dried.  They  are  used  as  a  condiment  or 
relish  with  other  food,  and  at  the  season  when  they  are  ripe 
and  in  market  are  seldom  absent  from  the  table.  The  less 
acrid  kinds  are  used  as  a  vegetable,  and  if  deprived  of  their 
seeds  they  do  not  purge.  The  smaller  and  more  acrid  varie- 
ties are  sometimes  dried  and  pulverized,  making  a  sort  of 
cayenne  pepper.  They  are  not  mentioned  in  the  Phitsao^  but 
the  Chinese  rightly  consider  them  to  be  stimulant  to  the 
digestion  and  derivative.  They  are  sometimes  used  to  j)roduce 

CARDUUS  CRISPUS.— fl  It  (Fei-lien).  This  com- 
posite plant  (Cynaroid  division)  is  found  growing  plentifully  in 
Manchuria  and  the  provinces  of  North  China,  including 
Szechuan.  It  has  incised  leaves  w'ith  winged  petioles.  The 
root  is  straight,  with  dark  colored  skin,  and  white  flesh  marked 
with  black  veins.     The  root  aud  flowers  are  used  in  medicine. 


The  root  is  first  prepared  by  decortication,  and  tlien  soaking  in 
wine  over  night.  After  this,  it  is  dried  and  pnlverized  for  use. 
It  is  said  by  some  to  be  slightly  poisonous,  and  by  others  to  not 
be  so.  The  effectiveness  of  the  twelve  hours'  soaking  in 
wine  would  probably  explain  the  difference  in  these  observa- 
tions. It  is  considered  to  be  alterative  and  anodyne.  It  is 
used  in  the  treatment  of  rheumatism,  both  articular  and 
muscular,  and  is  thought  to  have  special  curative  properties  in 
the  kan  disease  of  children.  Epithelioma  and  rodent  ulcer  are 
amongf  the  thing:s  for  which  it  is  recommended. 

CAREX  MACROCEPHALA.  —  |^-  [f  (Shih-ts«ao). 
Called  also  |£j  ¥^  "^  (Tz'u-jan-ku),  "  sponlaneous  grain,  "  and 
•3i  ^  'fl  (Yii-yii-liang. )  It  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  the 
so-called  eagle  stonc^  which  bears  the  latter  name.  It  is  an 
edible  grain-fruit,  growing  in  the  eastern  islands,  but  not  found 
in  China.  It  ripens  in  the  seventh  month,  and  is  gathered  by 
the  people  until  winter.  It  is  considered  to  be  very  nutritions, 
and  is  recommended  as  a  constructive  food  in  malnutrition.  It 
is  said  to  prevent  nausea,  and  is  recommended  in  anorexia.  Its 
prolonged  use  produces  great  bodily  strength. 

CARICA  PAPAYA.— This,  the  papazv  or  tree  melon, 
which  is  native  of  tropical  America,  has  been  introduced  and 
is  now  cultivated  in  South  China  and  other  tropical  parts  of 
the  Far  East.  The  name  by  which  it  has  been  called  at 
Canton  is  /fc  JIS.  (Mu-kua),  which  is  a  translation  of  "tree 
melon."  But  this  is  the  name  which  is  used  in  the  Pentsao 
and  classics  for  the  quince  (Cydonia  sinensis).  lyoureiro  found 
that  the  papaw  was  also  called  ;^  ^  |^  (Wan-shou-kuo), 
"longevity  fruit."  Another  name  by  which  it  is  sometimes 
known  in  the  south  is  :g^  JR  (Fan-kua),  "foreign  melon". 
Still  another  name  is  ;^  /£  (Shu-kna),  which  is  an  alternative 
way  of  saying  "tree  melon."  Certainly  7l^  J^  cannot  be  used 
for  it  in  the  north,  where  the  quince,  which  has  no  other 
designation,  is  so  extensively  grown.  Although  so  recently 
introduced  into  China,  the  Chinese,  where  the  papaw  is  grown, 
have  learned  to  appreciate  its  property  of  rendering  meat 
tender,  as  well  as  its  alimentary  and  medicinal  qualities. 


CARPESIUM  ABROTANOIDES.— 5c  ^  ^|  (T'len- 
ming-ching).  The  seeds  are  called  'j^i  ji]^  (Ho-sliih),  "crane's 
louse,"  375.  Other  names  are  M  -g-  (Shih-shou)  and  ^g  M 
(Chi-ki),  both  meaning  "pig's  head,"  ^  rff^  #i  (Chan-chu- 
lan),  and  the  people  in  the  south  call  it  jiji  ^  (Ti-sung', 
"  ground  cabbage,"  and  Ji^  ^-^T'ien-man-ch'ing),  "heavenly 
rape,"  for  the  leaves  resemble  cabbage  or  rape  leaves,  and  are 
of  a  sweet  pungent  taste.  The  seed  has  a  bitter,  pungent  taste, 
is  slightly  poisonous,  and  is  reputed  to  destroy  insects.  The 
plant  is  added  to  the  water  in  which  silk  cocoons  are  boiled, 
presumably  to  kill  the  pupa.  The  plant  bears  small  yellow 
flowers,  and  is  quite  common  in  South  and  j\Iid-China.  The 
achenia  which  bear  the  seeds  are  awned,  causing  them  to 
adhere  to  the  clothing  of  persons  and  the  fur  of  animals  in  a 
manner  similar  to  the  beggar  tick.  The  leaves,  root,  and  seed 
are  the  parts  used  in  medicine.  The  two  former  are  regarded 
as  non-poisonous  and  as  being  identical  in  medical  properties 
and  uses.  They  are  employed  as  astringent,  alterative,  anti- 
scorbutic, diuretic,  expectorant,  anthelmintic,  vulnerary,  and 
discutient  remedies,  in  conjunction  wnth  the  young  shoots. 
They  are  specially  recommended  in  bronchorhcea,  haemoptysis, 
and  ague.  The  seeds,  which  are  regarded  as  being  slightly 
poisonous,  are  principally  used  as  an  anthelmintic.  They  are 
also  highly  recommended  in  ague. 

CARTHAMUS  TINCTORIUS.— J^I  ^  :^  (Hung-lan- 
hna).  Other  names,  ^X  ^  (Hung-hua)  and  ^  ^  *  Huang-Ian), 
although  this  latter  is  possibl}'  a  confounding  this  with  Crocus 
sativus.  The  commercial  designations  are  ^X  ^  (Hung-hua), 
-X^^^o,  and  ^  4^  (Yao-hua),  1510  ;  the  former  being  the  best 
quality  usecJ^  for  dyeing,  and  the  latter  an  inferior  kind  used  as 
a  drug.  The  natural  habitat  of  this  plant,  which  is  safflower^ 
was  regarded  by  the  Chinese  as  Thibet.  It  is  now  extensively 
cultivated  throughout  China.  The  famous  traveler  and  general, 
Chano'  Chien,  brought  the  seeds  from  Turkestan.  The  flowers 
are  extensively  used  for  dyeing  purposes  and  in  the  making  of 
rouo-e.  Medicinally,  they  are  regarded  as  having  stimulant, 
sedative,  alterative,  emmenagogue,  and  discutient  properties. 
On  account   of   their  red  color,  they  are  thought  to  have  an 


especial  value  in  affections  connected  with  the  blood.  They 
are  also  used  to  cause  abortion  and  to  expel  a  retained  placenta. 
The  shoots  of  the  young  plant  are  eaten  in  times  of  scarcity. 
The  seeds  are  given  as  a  lenitive  or  purgative  in  apoplexy  and 
dropsy.  An  oil  obtained  from  the  seeds  is  used  as  a  lubricant. 
It  is  also  used  in  candle-making. 

CARYOPHYLLUS  AR0MATlCUS.-7t  iTing-hsiang), 
T  "?  ^  (Ting-tza-hsiang).  The  Chinese  say  that  the  clove 
tree  is  dioecious,  and  that  the  pistillate  plant  is  called  |,f)  -g-  ^ 
(Chi-she-hsiang),  the  "chicken  tongue"  referring  to  the  shape 
of  the  dried  immature  flowers  of  this  variety.  As  this  tree  is 
not  indigenous  to,  nor  is  it  much  grown  in  China,  the  distinction 
here  given  was  probably  a  shrewd  guess  based  upon  different 
qualities  of  the  drug  appearing  in  the  market.  These  "  chicken 
tongue  spice"  cannot  be  the  so-called  "mother  cloves,"  since 
the  Chinese  know  of  these  also,  and  call  them  -^  f  ^  (Mu- 
ting-hsiang\  which  is  an  exact  translation  of  the  common 
English  and  German  terms.  The  properties  of  this  variety 
are  considered  to  be  similar  to  those  of  the  ordinary  cloves, 
but  are  especially  recommended  in  combination  with  ginger 
juice  as  an  application  to  prevent  the  hair  from  turning  gray. 

The  place  of  origin  of  this  drug,  as  given  by  the  Pentsao^ 
is  the  islands  and  countries  of  the  East  Indian  Archipelago, 
Cochin  China,  and  Polo  Condor.  The  cloves  found  on  the 
Chinese  market  do  not  differ  in  any  material  respect  from  those 
found  in  the  shops  of  the  West.  They  are  regarded  as  having 
warm,  stimulating,  carminative,  corrective,  stomachic,  tonic, 
anthelmintic,  and  derivative  prop^rtie^  They  are  prescribed  in 
cases  of  offensive  breath,  diarrhoea,  cholera,  intestinal  disorders 
of  infants,  uterine  fluxes,  sterility,  and  many  other  diseases. 
They  are  held  to  be  especially  efficacious  in  nausea  and 
vomiting.  The  drug  is  also  used  in  various  ways  in  the 
treatment  of  nasal  polypus,  ulcers,  cracked  nipple,  carious 
teeth,  scorpion  stings,  and  to  prevent  or  render  pleasant 
offensive  perspiration.  The  bark,  somewhat  thicker  than 
cassia  bark,  is  used  in  toothache  and  as  a  substitute  for  the 
cloves.  The  twigs  and  root,  although  regarded  as  inferior,  are 
also  used  for  similar  purposes.     In  the  Appendix  to  the  Pentsao^ 


the  clove  oil  is  mentioned  as  a  foreign  product,  and  traders  of 
Macao  are  credited  with  having  introduced  it  into  China.  It  is 
now  manufactured  in  the  south,  and  has  become  an  article  of 
export.  Its  use  as  a  substitute  for  the  crude  drug,  and  especially 
its  application  to  aching  teeth,  is  well  known  and  appreciated 
by  the  Chinese  at  the  present  time. 

CASSIA  FISTULA.— Du  Halde,  who  never  was  in  China, 
but  who  wrote  his  work  on  things  Chinese,  drawing  all  of  his 
information  from  letters  of  the  Jesuit  missionaries,  says  that 
this  tree  was  found  in  the  province  of  Yunnan,  and  was  called 
^  ^  -^f  3^  (Ch'atig-kuo-tzu-shn,.  It  is  said  that  the  pods  are 
collected  in  Kuangsi  and  exported.  Dr.  Williams  gives 
^itt  tt  W  (Huai-hua-ch'ing)  as  the  name  of  the  fruit.  He 
describes  the  pulp  as  "reddish  and  sweet,  and  not  so  drastic 
as  the  American  sort  ;  if  gathered  before  the  seeds  are  ripe,  its 
taste  is  somewhat  sharp."  No  other  authorities  are  found  for 
this  plant  occurring  in  China,  and  it  is  not  mentioned  in  the 
Peiifsao.  The  Customs  Lists  do  not  mention  it  ;  so,  if  exported 
as  Williams  claims,  it  must  be  by  land  routes.  The  subject  is 
worthy  of  investigation.  Waring,  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of 
India,  quotes  Dr.  Irvine  as  stating  that  the  root  of  this  tree 
acts  as  a  very  strong  purgative. 

CASSIA  MIMOSOIDES.  —  llj  H  S  (Shan-pien-tou^  ; 
Cassia  occidcntalis,  g?  ^  ft  (Wang-chiang-nan)  and  ;5"  ^  BjJ 
(Shih-chlieh-ming);  Cassia  sophcra  and  Cassia  tora^  ^  0^ 
■  Chiieh-ming)  and  :^  ^  0J3  (Ts'ao-chlieh-ming),  1341.  With 
slioht  exceptions,  the  Chinese  make  no  distinction  between 
these  species.  The  Pentsao  uses  Ts'^ao-cJiiich-viing  for  Cclosia 
argentea.  At  Peking,  Wang-chiang-nan  is  a  common  name 
for  Cassia  sophera.  Another  name  for  the  Cassia  viiniosoides 
is  |£  -^  •%  0J  (Chiang-mang-chiieh-ming. )  The  proper  way  of 
writing  the  character  Chileh  is  as  above,  although  it  is  most 
frequently  written  \^.  Kanghsi's  Dictionary  also  uses  ^  % 
(Chiieh-kuang),  a  synonym  of  ^  BJ-  ^  ^  "J  is  also  used  for 
the  shell  of  Haliotis  funebris,  1144. 

Hupeh  and  Kuangtung  are  given  by  the  Customs  Lists  as 
the  sources  of  the  drug,     Shensi,  Kansuh,  and  Hunan  are  also 


said  to  yield  it.  The  long,  reddish  pods  contain  very  many 
dark  brown,  shining  seeds  called  ^  B^  -^  (Chiieh-ming-tzu), 
1341,  of  an  irregularly  compressed,  cylindrical  shape,  about 
three  lines  in  length,  and  marked  with  two  light  stripes  on 
opposite  sides.  They  are  pointed  at  one  end,  and  truncated 
or  rounded  at  the  other,  and  have  a  bitterish,  mucilaginous 
taste.  It  is  said  that  if  eaten  on  an  empty  stomach  during  the 
day,  on  the  succeeding  night  articles  will  appear  as  if 
illuminated.  The  drug  is  therefore  considered  to  be  of  especial 
use  in  diseases  of  the  eye,  being  used  both  internally  and 
locally  in  their  treatment.  It  is  also  recommended  in  herpes 
and  furunculoid  sores.  The  Phitsao  says  that  the  leaves 
can  be  eaten  as  a  vegetable.  This  must  refer  to  the  Chiang- 
mang^  which  may  be  Cassia  aicriailata^  an  edible  species 
of  India.  The  leaves  of  Cassia  tora  are  said  to  be  used  by 
Indian  physicians  as  a  substitute  for  senna.  Another  name 
for  the  Chiieh-ming  is  ,^  Sijj  ^  ^  (Ma-ti-chlieh-ming),  so 
called  from  the  shape  of  the  seeds.  The  Pentsao  also  speaks 
of  another  plant,  apparently  of  this  genus,  which  it  calls 
«^  fljj  ;^  (Ho-ming-ts'ao).  It  is  as  yet  unidentified.  In 
addition  to  its  other  virtues,  it  is  considered  to  be  diuretic.  In 
China,  as  in  India,  a  spirituous  liquor  and  a  leaven  are  made  of 
the  Cassia  tora^  by  the  addition  of  some  starchy  or  saccharine 

CASTANEA  VULGARIS.  —  ^  (Li).  This  is  the 
common  chestnut^  of  which  several  varieties  grow  in  China. 
They  are  cultivated  throughout  the  empire,  and  are  used  as  an 
article  of  diet,  being  most  frequently  cooked  with  chicken. 
However,  they  are  thought  to  be  somewhat  diflBcult  to  digest, 
and  are  therefore  not  recommended  to  the  sick  as  food,  or  to 
those  suffering  from  deranged  digestion.  They  are  among  the 
fruits  considered  suitable  to  be  presented  to  the  Son  of  Heaven, 
and  by  the  ancient  Chinese  were  used  as  a  present  of  in- 
troduction by  women.  Owing  to  the  similarity  of  the  leaves 
and  fruits  of  some  varieties  to  those  of  certain  kinds  of 
QuercuSy  there  is  a  certain  amount  of  confusion  among  th€ 
Chinese  in  regard  to  these  plants.  Of  the  different  kinds  of 
chestnuts,  the  Phitsao  mentions  a  large,  smooth,  flat  variety, 


which  grows  plentifully  in  the  central  provinces,  and  is  called 
"j^  ^  (Pan-li)  ;  a  small,  round  variety  known  as  [Ij  ^  (Shan- 
li),  of  which  there  is  a  pointed  kind  which  is  called  §|  ^ 
(Chui-li)  ;  a  small  one  shaped  like  an  acorn  called  '^  ^  (Hsin- 
li)  ;  a  still  smaller  one,  like  a  hazelnut,  called  ^  ^  (Mao-li), 
which  in  the  Erhya  is  called  Ijjf  (Erh),  The  Sanscrit  name  of 
JH  5|U  (Tu-chia)  is  also  given. 

The  tree  of  some  varieties  is  quite  large,  and  some  have 
very  large  leaves.  The  smallest  varieties  are  very  delicate 
little  shrubs.  They  grow  in  all  of  the  provinces  except  the 
two  south-eastern  ones  ;  there  being  no  chestnuts  (^)  there 
except  the  ^  ^  (Shih-li),  Alciirites  triloba.  The  best 
chestnuts  come  from  Kiangnan  and  the  north.  Several  parts 
of  the  chestnut  tree  and  fruit  are  used  medicinally.  The  fruits 
themselves  are  considered  to  be  saltish  and  cooling  in  their 
nature.  Children  should  not  eat  them  much,  either  raw  or 
cooked.  Their  use  is  thought  to  hinder  the  development  of 
the  teeth.  They  are  considered  to  have  a  beneficial  action 
upon  the  "breath,"  stomach,  and  kidneys,  assisting  in  endur- 
ing hunger.  Masticated  into  pulp  and  applied  as  a  poultice, 
they  are  recommended  in  muscular  rheumatism  and  extravasa- 
ted  blood.  The  crushed  fruits  are  also  used  as  poultices  in  bites 
of  animals  and  virulent  sores  of  various  kinds.  The  septa  of 
the  involucre,  called  ^  ;^  (Li-hsiehi,  is  considered  to  be 
especially  efficacious  in  muscular  rheumatism  and  to  promote 
the  circulation  of  the  blood.  The  tegmen  of  the  seed,  which 
is  known  as  ^  -^  (Li-fu),  is  pulverized  and  added  to  honey  as 
a  cosmetic  application  ;  it  is  thought  with  the  effect  of  improv- 
ing the  completion.  Incinerated  and  powdered,  it  is  used  for 
removing  a  fish  bone  from  the  throat.  A  decoction  of  the 
hulls  is  recommended  in  nausea,  thirst,  and  bloody  stools.  A 
decoction  of  the  spiny  involucre  is  said  to  be  useful  as  a  wash 
for  inflamed  ulcers.  The  flowers  are  used  in  scrofula,  a 
decoction  of  the  bark  of  the  tree  as  a  wash  in  poisoned  wounds, 
and  the  root  in  hernia  and  hydrocele,  between  which  difficulties 
the  Chinese  do  not  clearly  distinguish. 

CATALPA  BUNGEL— fft  (Ch'iu).     Classical  name,   ^ 
(TztJj.      Catalpa  k(zmpferi^  the  same  Chinese  name  or  H  Ht 


(Cliio-cli'iii).  The  names  are  confounded  by  both  Chinese  and 
Japanese  botanists.  Li  Shih-chen  says  there  are  three  varieties, 
and  then  proceeds  to  name  four  !  That  with  a  white  veined 
wood  is  the  tsii^  that  with  a  red  wood  is  chHu^  that  with  a 
beautifully  veined  wood  is  ^  (I),  while  a  smaller  variety  is 
called  \'%_  (Chia).  This  last  character  is  also  written  \%  but 
this  seems  also  to  be  used  in  the  Erhya  for  the  tea  plant. 
The  characters  \%  and  |g  refer  to  the  fact  that  the  leaves  of 
this  tree  fall  at  the  end  of  summer  or  the  beginning  of  autumn, 
and  during  the  Tang  dynasty  the  leaves  were  worn  cere- 
monially at  the  time  of  the  autumnal  equinox. 

Thecatalpa  is  a  large  tree  with  very  excellent  wood,  which 
is  used  for  buildings  of  the  better  sort,  for  making  chess-men, 
chess  tables,  weighing-scale  frames,  and  printing  blocks  ;  in 
this  last  replacing  the  more  expensive  boxwood.  The  white 
inner  bark  and  the  leaves  are  the  parts  used  in  medicine. 
This  tree  is  said  to  have  been  formerly  in  much  repute  as  a 
remedy  for  surgical  diseases.  The  bark  is  considered  to  be 
stomachic,  anthelmintic,  and  very  useful  as  an  ingredient  in 
lotions  for  stimulating  wounds,  ulcers,  cancer,  fistulse,  and 
other  indolent  or  obstinate  sores.  An  extract  is  prepared  from 
the  bark,  and  the  leaves  are  reputed  to  be  very  efficacious  in 
the  treatment  of  carbuncles,  swellings,  abscesses,  struma, 
porrigo,  specks  on  the  cornea,  and  the  like,  and  are  given  in 
bronchitis  and  emphysema.  The  leaves  are  used  in  treating 
eruptions  on  hogs,  and  these  and  the  leaves  of  Aleurites 
cordata  are  fed  to  pigs  to  fatten  them. 

Lists  1637)  this  is  given  as  the  identification  of  ^  @  :^ 
(K'u-teng-ch'a,  by  which  is  evidently  meant  ^  ^  (K'u-teng) 
and  ^  f  ^  (K'u-ting-ch'a),  the  second  character  of  which 
should  be  written  ^.  It  is  described  in  the  Pentsao  under  the 
heading  of  ^  ^  (Kao-lu),  and  is  also  called  S  M  (Kua-lu). 
It  is  said  that  the  people  of  the  Kuang  provinces  call  it  A''«- 
teng.  The  leaf  of  the  shrub  is  said  to  be  very  much  like  the 
tea  leaf  in  shape,  but  considerably  larger.  Its  action  is  con- 
sidered to  be  very  much  the  same  as  that  of  tea,  quenching 
thirst,  brightening  the  eye,  quieting  the  nerves,  and  acting  as 


a  diuretic.  If  taken  in  excess,  sleep  will  be  prevented.  No 
authority  is  given  for  the  above  identifiction  ;  the  plant  is  not 
mentioned  in  the  Index  Florae  Sinensis,  nor  has  it  been  found 
in  any  other  work  consulted. 

CEDRELA  SINENSIS.  —  ;j$  (Ch'un).  In  the  classics 
the  character  is  written  (j^.  The  Pentsao  includes  this  with 
Ailant/ms  glandulosa  under  the  common  heading  of  ^  \% 
(Ch*un-ch'u).  External  resemblances  led  the  Chinese  to  con- 
found these  trees  of  perfectly  distinct  orders.  The  leaves  of 
the  Cedrela  are  edible,  and  on  account  of  their  fragrance  the 
tree  is  sometimes  called  ^  ^  (Hsiang-ch'un),  while  the 
Ailanthus  receives  the  name  of  ^  ;|^  (Ch'ou-ch'un)  because  of 
the  bad  odor  of  its  leaves,  which  for  the  same  reason  are  not 
eaten.  The  wood  of  the  Cedrela  resembles  mahogany,  and  is 
used  in  cabinet  work.  The  parts  of  the  plant  entering 
commerce  are  the  twigs  (^  ;j^  ;f^,  Hsiang-ch'un-chih),  409, 
and  the  root  (^  ^  :|^,  Hsiang-ch'un-ken),  409. 

It  is  evident  that  the  Chinese  regard  the  medical  properties 
of  Aila7ithus  and  Cedrela  as  similar,  if  not  identical.  There- 
fore it  is  a  little  difficult  to  determine  if  either  is  put  to  any 
peculiar  use.  Reference  to  the  article  on  Ailanthus  glattdnlosa 
is  made  for  the  general  uses  of  these  drugs.  The  tender  leaves 
of  the  Cedrela  are  in  the  spring  boiled  and  eaten  as  a  vegetable, 
and  are  regarded  as  carminative  and  corrective.  They  are  also 
fed  to  silkworms.  In  combination  with  the  leaves  of  Caialpa^ 
they  are  decocted  and  used  as  a  remedy  for  scald  head  and 
baldness.  The  inner  bark  of  the  trunk  and  that  of  the  root  are 
used  in  the  treatment  of  the  %  (Kan)  disease  of  children, 
intestinal  fluxes,  menorrhagia,  and  post-partum  hemorrhage. 
It  is  also  used  in  gonorrhoea  in  both  male  and  female.  The 
fruits  (5^,  Cilia)  are  regarded  as  astringent,  and  are  used  also  in 
aflfections  of  the  eye. 

CELOSIA  ARGENTEA.— ^  5^(Ch'ing-hsiang).  This 
is  also  called  ^  %^  (Yeh-chi-kuan),  "wild  cock's-comb," 
and  %^  ^%  (K'un-lun-ts'ao),  "plant  from  Kunlun."  The 
seeds  are  called  [^  ^  nj  (Ts'ao-chueh-ming),  and  are  therefore 
both  theoretically   and   practically  confounded  with  those  of 


Cassia  tora ;  the  former  being  frequently  found  mixed  with  the 
latter  in  the  shops.  The  plant  is  found  throughout  the  country, 
but  the  drug  supply  comes  principally  from  Fukien  and 
Kuangtung.  It  is  a  troublesome  weed  among  the  farmer's 
crops,  but  the  common  people  gather  it  and  consume  it  as  a 
vegetable.  The  stalk  and  leaves,  bruised  and  applied  as  a 
poultice,  are  used  in  infected  sores,  wounds,  and  skin  eruptions, 
and  the  juice,  taken  internally,  is  considered  to  have  special 
virtues  in  pestilential  difficulties.  To  the  seeds  are  attributed 
cooling,  anti-scorbutic,  anthelmintic,  vulnerary,  and  tonic 
properties  ;  and  they  enjoy  an  equal  reputation  with  Cassia 
tora  in  the  treatment  of  afifections  of  the  eye.  Three-tenths  of 
a  pint  of  the  juice  of  the  seed  forced  into  the  nostril  is 
considered  to  be  a  sure  cure  for  epistaxis. 

CELOSIA  CRISTATA.— 'lil^(Chi-kuan\  'X^\\\s  cock' s- 
comb^  which  by  some  is  regarded  as  a  variety  of  the  last,  is  a 
common  weed  in  China,  although  it  is  also  extensively  culti- 
vated as  a  garden  flower.  The  prevailing  colors  of  the  flowers 
are  red,  yellow,  and  white,  and  the  seeds  are  flat,  black,  and 
glossy.  The  red  flowered  variety  is  the  one  preferred  in  medi- 
cine, and  consequently  is  fancifully  supposed  to  benefit  all 
diseases  of  the  blood,  such  as  hemorrhages,  fluxes,  piles, 
menorrhagia,  and  deficiency  of  the  lochia.  The  young  shoots, 
the  flowers  (50),  and  the  seeds  (51),  are  the  parts  used. 

CELTIS. — According  to  Henry,  Celiis  sinensis  is  ;f|» 
or  ^  (P'o).  In  Japan  -f^  is  Celtis  muku  ( Homoioceltis  aspera)^ 
and  ;;|;^  is  Celtis  sinetisis.  These  do  not  seem  to  be  mentioned 
in  the  Pentsao.  In  Japan  ^  |§  (Sung-yang)  is  also  Celtis  mnkie 
or  Ehretia  serrata^  which  is  a  synonym.  But  Sjing-yang  in 
China  has  been  indentified  by  Henry  as  Cornus  inachrophylla 
(which  see).  This  shrub  bears  an  edible  fruit,  and  it  has  been 
suggested  that  it  may  be  a  Prunus.  As  for  the  i^  (P'o),  it  is 
possible  that  this  refers  to  the  /p  ;^[*  (Hou-p'o)  of  the  Pentsao^ 
which  is  extensively  used  in  medicine,  and  is  Magnolia 
hypoleuca  (which  see). 

CERCIS  CHINENSIS.— ^  fj  (Tztt-ching),  1408.  This 
is  the  Judas  tree  or  Red  bud^  of  the  order  of  Legufninosce, 


The  character  |fi|,  however,  is  usually  applied  to  diflferent 
species  of  the  Vitex  of  the  natural  order  of  VeT-benacecs. 
Similarity  of  foliage  and  general  appearance  has  again  led  the 
Chinese  to  confound  plants  of  two  distinct  orders.  On  account 
of  its  beautiful  purple  flowers,  this  tree  is  much  cultivated  in 
gardens.  The  whole  tree,  including  the  wood,  is  beautiful, 
and  adds  much  to  the  ornamentation  of  any  place  it  occupies. 
The  wood  and  bark  are  used  as  medicine.  "The  kind  that 
is  as  bitter  as  gall  is  the  best."  They  are  employed  in  the 
treatment  of  bladder  disease,  and  a  decoction  is  used  both 
internally  and  as  a  wash  in  mad  dog  bite,  intestinal  parasites 
of  all  kinds,  vicious  post-partum  discharges,  bleeding  piles, 
and  similar  difficulties. 

CHAM^ROPS  EXCELS  A.— i^  |f  (Tsung-lii),  \^  1^ 
(Ping-lli).  It  is  probable  that  Chaniisrops  fotiinei  is  either 
very  closely  allied  to  or  identical  with  this.  It  is  also  by  some 
referred  to  the  genus  Trachycarptis  and  that  of  Caryota.  This- 
is  one  of  the  coir  palms,  producing  that  useful  fibre  which  is 
made  into  cordage,  clothing,  trunks,  brushes,  and  the  like.  It 
is  found  in  the  south  of  China,  and  formerly  extended  as  far 
north  as  the  Yangtsze.  The  tree  grows  to  a  height  of  more 
than  thirty  feet.  The  fibrous  integument  is  annually  gathered 
and  steeped  in  water,  to  separate  the  fibres  for  use  in  manufac- 
tures. Excellent  matting  is  made  from  the  bark,  combined 
with  more  or  less  of  the  fibre.  The  large  leaves  of  this  palm 
are  made  into  fans.  The  young  flower  buds,  which  are  likened 
to  fish  roe  and  therefore  called  ^  @  (Tsung-yii),  also  called 
^  ^  (Tsung-sun),  are  eaten,  although  by  some  considered  to 
be  more  or  less  deleterious.  Steeped  in  honey  and  soaked  in 
vinegar,  they  are  used  as  votive  offerings  by  the  Buddhists. 
The  buds,  flowers,  and  seeds  (1350)  are  recommended  in 
fluxes  and  hemorrhages.  The  bark  is  prescribed  in  similar 
cases,  but  as  only  the  ash  or  charred  remains,  after  incinera- 
tion, is  used,  it  is  probable  that  its  only  action  would  be  to 
check  fermentation. 

CHAVICA  BETEL.— ^  ^  (Chii-chiang),  ±  ^  ^  (T'u- 
pi-po),   and  the  vine  is  called  i^  ^  ±  H  ]^  (Fu-ya-t'u-Iii- 


t'eng),  which  is  probably  a  reproduction  of  the  Malaysian 
name  for  this  plant  (vettila).  The  Pentsao  gives  several 
other  names  of  somewhat  similar  sound,  which  it  says  have 
not  been  explained,  and  which  are  probably  local  variations  of 
the  same  name.  The  leaves  (called  ^  ^,  Lli-yeh)  of  this  vine 
are  spread  with  chunam  and  wrapped  about  a  slice  of  Ai'eca 
nut,  and  the  product  is  chewed  by  the  Malays.  It  produces  a 
species  of  intoxication,  which  is  probably  the  result  of  a 
substance  developed  in  the  combination,  as  none  of  the  com- 
ponent parts  taken  alone  has  any  such  effect.  It  is  now  said 
to  grow  in  South  China,  as  far  north  as  Szechuan.  The 
leaves  are  used  in  Yunnan  as  a  condiment.  The  root,  leaves 
(695,  696),  and  fruits  are  employed  in  medicine,  being  con- 
sidered to  have  carminative,  stimulant,  corrective,  and  pro- 
phylactic properties,  and  they  have  some  reputation  in  the 
prevention  and  treatment  of  malaria.  In  the  appendix  to  the 
Pentsao  an  oil,  called  ^  fjfj  (Lii-yu),  is  mentioned,  and  is  said 
to  be  made  from  the  leaves  of  this  plant.  It  is  highly 
recommended  as  a  counter-irritant  in  swellings,  bruises,  and 
painful  sores,  as  well  as  to  reduce  enlarged  glands. 

CHAVICA  ROXBURGHIL— ^*  ^  (Pi-po),  1008.  This 
is  the  long  pepper^  the  Piper  longuni  of  Linnaeus.  A  number 
of  combinations  of  characters,  having  approximately  the  same 
sound,  are  given  in  the  Pentsao  for  this  plant.  This  shows 
that  the  name  is  of  foreign  origin,  and  inasmuch  as  it  approxi- 
mates the  sound  of  the  name  for  this  article  found  in  other 
languages,  it  is  probably  of  identical  origin.  The  Sanscrit 
name  was  pippala^  which  is  approximated  by  ^  |^  ^  (Pi-po- 
li),  given  in  the  Pentsao  as  the  name  in  the  language  of  the 
country  of  ^  ']^  P'£  (Mo-chia-t'o),  or  Magadha,  which  became 
the  Pali  of  the  Buddhists.  In  the  country  of  Fulin  the  drug 
was  known  by  the  name  of  ppj  ^  |rJ'  p'£  (A-li-ho-t'o).  Many 
countries  of  Southern  Asia,  from  Persia  eastward,  are  given  as 
the  places  of  origin  of  the  drug,  but  the  principal  supply  is 
shipped  from  India.  Points  of  similarity  to  other  peppers, 
especially  to  Chavica  betel  and  Piper  7iigruin^  are  noted  by 
Chinese  authors.  The  spiked  fruits,  sold  under  this  name  on 
the  Chinese  market,  average    more   than    an   inch   long,  are 


cylindrical,  generally  pedicellated  and  slightly  tapering  at  the 
point.  They  are  darkish-grey  in  color  and  studded  with 
spirally  arranged  eminences.  The  taste  is  hot,  pungent,  and 
slightly  aromatic.  Stimulant,  stomachic,  carminative,  cor- 
rective, and  astringent  properties  are  attributed  to  the  peppers, 
which  are  given  in  various  combinations  for  coryza,  pyrosis, 
dysentery,  cholera,  violent  fluxes,  enlargement  of  the  spleen, 
menstrual  disorders,  and  toothache.  They  are  used  in  India 
in  the  treatment  of  beri-beri. 

A  derivative  of  this  plant,  called  ^  ^j|  ^  (Pi-p'o-mu), 
which  is  probably  in  imitation  of  the  Hindustani  name  of 
the  root,  peepla-viool^  is  spoken  of  in  the  Pe?itsao  under  the 
heading  of  this  same  article.  Its  qualities  are  much  weaker 
than  those  of  the  fruit,  but  it  is  reputed  to  have  the  same 
stimulant,  tonic,  and  peptic  properties.  It  is  a  much  vaunted 
remedy  in  the  treatment  of  "cold"  viscera  and  diseases 
resulting  from  this  condition.  Barren  women,  whose  wombs 
are  supposed  to  be  cold,  those  suffering  from  "cold  indiges- 
tion," and  certain  kidney  and  urinary  difficulties  which  are 
regarded  as  "cold,"  are  all  to  be  benefited  by  administering 
this  drug.  Dr.  Waring  reports  its  use  in  Travancore  for 
expediting  the  expulsion  of  the  placenta. 

CHENOPODIUAI    ALBUM.— J^   M.   (Hui-t'iao),   ^   ;^ 
(Hui-hsien).      There  is  the  same  uncertainty  in  the  identifica- 
tion of  the  Chinese  names  for  the   Chenopodiacccc  that  there  is 
of  those  for  the  AmarantacecB^  and  for  the  same  reason,  viz  : 
the  names  are  not   uniformly  applied   to   the  same   plant    iu 
different  parts  of  China.    ^  is  a  general  term  for  Chenopodium, 
and  throughout  the  north  of  China  Hid-f'iao  is  undoubtedly 
Chenopodium   albiun^    which   is  a   very  common  weed   there. 
The  ^  (Li)  of  the  classics,  and  also  the  ^  (Lai),  are  thought 
to    be    the   same.      It   was   evidently  the  plant   which    Fohien 
saw    when   he    returned    from    his   journey    to    the    Buddhist       ^ 
countries.     In  the  account  of  his  journey,  it  is  said  that  when       | 
he  landed  in  Shantung  and  saw  the  1^'^%  again,  he  knew 
that   this   was    the  land  of   Han  (China).     The    plant   (stalk       ; 
and    leaves)   is   thought    to    have  insecticidal   properties,   and       j 
is  used  iu  cases  of  insect  stings  and  bites,  and  the  expressed 


juice   in  freckles  and  sunburn.      The  seeds  are  eaten  as  an 
anthelmintic  remedy. 

In  Japan,  CJiciiopoduun  ambrosoidcs  is  called  Ji  ^  ^ 
(T'u-ching-chieli) ;  whether  this  includes  the  variety  anthel- 
mintiaivi  or  not  is  not  stated,  nor  has  it  been  possible  to  discover 
whether  or  not  zvormsecd  is  met  with  in  China  or  Japan. 

CHIMONANTHUS  FRAGRANS.  —  il  ^  (La-mei), 
]^  'fS  ^  (Huang-mei-hua).  This  plant  has  several  common 
names  in  Chinese.  It  blooms  in  the  Chinese  twelfth  moon, 
and  its  flowers  are  strung  on  fine  wire  and  made  into  hair 
ornaments,  which  are  much  worn  by  the  women.  They  have 
a  very  pleasant  odor,  and  their  color  and  texture  are  also 
pleasing.  The  bark  is  also  fragrant,  but  not  so  much  so  as 
some  other  shrubs  of  the  same  order,  the  bark  of  which  is 
sometimes  used  as  a  substitute  for  cinnamon.  The  Chinese 
soak  the  wood  of  this  tree  in  water,  and  then  polish  it  by 
rubbing  to  a  brilliant,  black  surface.  The  flowers  are  used  in 
medicine  as  a  cooling  and  sialagogue  remedy. 

^  .T^  ^  'f-E  (Chi-chao-lan-hua).  In  Japan  this  is  called 
^  J^  ^  (Chin-su-lan).  The  flowers  of  this  plant,  which  is 
of  a  tropical  genus,  are  used  to  scent  tea,  which  is  consequently 
called  ^  '"^  i^  (Chu-lan-ch'a).  Directions  are  given  that, 
after  having  imparted  their  fragrance  to  the  tea,  the  petals 
should  be  carefully  sifted  out,  as  their  use  is  considered  to  be 
deleterious.  Among  scented  teas,  this  is  in  most  favor, 
although  that  scented  with  the  petals  of  Jas7ninuin  sanibac  is 
preferred  by  some.  The  bruised  root  is  recommended  as  a 
poultice  in  boils  and  carbuncles.  Its  action  is  sudorific  and 
stimulant,  and  its  use  is  suggested  in  malarious  fevers,  since 
according  to  Blume,  the  root  of  a  very  similar  species  is 
extensively  used  in  Java  in  the  intermittent  fevers  of  that  island. 

.  CHLORANTHUS  SERRATUS.— ^  S  (Chi-chi).  This 
is  the  same  as  ChlorantJms  japonia/s  and  Tricercandra 
quadrifolia.  Its  leaves  are  said  to  be  of  the  shape  of  a  deer's 
ear  and  its  root  like  that  of  Asariim.  For  these  reasons  it  is 
called  3^  iPl  Is  ^  (Chang-erh-hsi-hsin).     It   grows   in   shady 


mountain  valleys,  shooting  up  in  a  single  stem,  at  the  top  of 
which  come  out  four  leaves,  and  bearing  white  flowers  which 
appear  between  the  leaves.  The  root  is  dark  in  color,  bitter, 
and  poisonous.  It  is  used,  chiefly  in  decoction,  externally  in  the 
treatment  of  parasitic  skin  diseases,  and  in  infected  ulcers  and 
sores.     It  has  also  some  reputation  as  an  anthelmintic, 

hao),  3^  "^  (P'eng-hao).  The  Pentsao  makes  these  two 
identical,  although  the  character  3^  also  refers  to  Erigeron 
and  Conyza.  Because  the  plant  is  said  to  bear  some 
resemblance  to  Artemisia  stelleriana^  it  is  classed  by  the 
Chinese  among  the  Artemisics {^).  While  it  is  not  considered 
at  all  poisonous,  its  excessive  use  is  said  to  result  in  a  species 
of  intoxication.  Its  action  is  considered  to  be  sedative,  and 
its  use  is  thought  to  benefit  the  digestive  and  vital  functions. 
It  is  not  employed  in  any  particular  class  of  diseases. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM  SINENSE.— ^  1^  (Chii-hua), 
227.  The  character  ^  is  a  general  name  for  several  kinds  of 
Composite  plants,  but  is  applied  particularly  to  this  one  species, 
which  is  indigenous  to  China,  growing  in  a  wild  state  in 
several  parts  of  the  empire,  especially  the  north.  It  has  also 
been  cultivated  from  very  ancient  times  as  a  favorite  winter 
flower,  very  many  varieties  being  found  in  the  Chinese  gardens. 
The  wild  plant  is  small,  seldom  exceeding  one  foot  in  height, 
and  late  in  the  autumn  bears  small  flower  heads,  the  florets  of 
the  disk  being  yellow,  while  those  of  the  ray  are  rose  colored. 
A  yellow  flowered  variety  is  also  very  common,  is  called  at 
Peking  *]^  ^  ^  ^  (Hsiao-yeh-chii-hua),  and  may  be  Chrysan- 
thenium  indiaim.  The  Phitsao  gives  a  large  number  of 
alternative  names,  but  the  one  at  the  head  of  this  article  is  the 
one  by  which  the  plant  is  universally  known.  The  varieties 
entering  commerce  are  the  ^'%1)c  (Hang-chii-hua),  or  variety 
from  Hangchou  ;  the  ^  ^  :i^  (Huang-chii-hua^  which  by 
some  is  considered  to  be  Anthemis  ;  the  tl"  if  ^  (Kan-chii-hua), 
or  "sweet  chrysanthemum  ;  "  and  the  ^^'^  (Pai-chii-hua), 
or  "white  chrysanthemum." 

Some  difference  is  made  by  the  Chinese  in  the  medical 
uses  of  different  varieties,  although  their  therapeutical  action 


is  regarded  as  practically  identical.  The  use  of  the  ordinary 
cultivated  varieties  is  thought  to  benefit  the  blood  and 
circulation,  and  to  preserve  the  vitality.  The  flowers  are 
prescribed  in  colds,  headaches,  and  inflamed  eyes.  Pillows  are 
recommended  to  be  made  of  the  flowers  or  leaves  for  the 
treatment  of  these  difficulties.  The  white  variety  is  considered 
to  be  especially  useful  in  preserving  the  hair  from  falling  out 
or  turning  grey.  The  flowers  are  soaked  in  wine,  producing 
a  ''chrysanthemum  wine,"  the  use  of  which  is  considered 
beneficial  in  a  great  variety  of  digestive,  circulatory,  and 
nervous  difficulties.  The  use  of  the  dew  gathered  from  the 
flowers  is  also  held  in  much  repute  in  preserving  and  restoring 
the  vital  functions.  Of  the  wild  variety,  the  whole  plant  is 
recommended  to  be  used.  It  is  thought  to  be  slightly 
poisonous.  It  is  employed  in  decoction  in  the  treatment  of 
retained  menses,  and  as  a  wash  in  infected  and  cancerous  sores, 
and  as  a  fomentation  in  enlarged  glands.  Anti-vinous  properties 
are  also  ascribed  to  this  plant.  Any  of  these  varieties,  and 
especialy  the  Kan-chit^  will  make  a  good  substitute  for 

CICHORIUM. — It  is  uncertain  whether  this  genus  in 
found  in  China,  although  Loureiro  mentions  it.  The  plants 
are  generally  referred  to  the  related  genera  of  Sojichiis  and 
Lactuca  (which  see). 

CINCHONA.—^  II  ^  (Chin-chi-lo).  In  the  appendix 
to  the  Pentsao  it  is  said  that  the  foreigners  at  Macao  introduced 
this  drug  in  the  fifth  year  of  the  reign  of  the  Emperor 
Kiaching  (1801).  Its  specific  action  in  the  cure  of  malarial 
fevers  was  soon  recognized,  and  the  bark  was  long  used  before 
the  introduction  of  quinine.  Dr.  Hobson  did  not  seem  to  be 
aware  of  this  fact  when  he  coined  his  term  for  Cinchona.  Its 
use  was  also  highly  recommended  as  an  anti-vinous  remedy. 

CINNAMOMUM  CASSIA.~;g(Kuei),  J(±?g(Mou-kuei), 
^  ^  (Ch 'iin-kuei).  The  cinnamon  tree  is  a  native  of  Kuang- 
si  ;  the  best  quality  being  still  produced  in  the  prefecture  of 
Hsinchou,  where  it  was  found  by  Martini  in  1645-1655.     It  is 


now  grown  in  other  parts  of  Southern  China,  as  well  as  in 
Cochin-China,  often  giving  a  name  to  the  political  division  in 
which  it  is  produced ;  as,  for  example,  Kuiyang,  Kuilin,  and 
Kuichou.  The  mou-kuei  ("male  cinnamon"),  which  is  also 
called  TfC  /^  (Mu-kuei,  "wood  cinnamon")  and  ^  ;^  (Jou- 
kuei,  "fleshy  cinnamon"),  is  the  unscraped  bark  of  the  larger 
cinnamon  tree.  The  scraped  bark  is  called  j^  ^  (Kuei-p'i). 
The  difference  between  the  7mi-ktiei  and  the  joii-kiiei  is  that 
the  former  is  taken  from  the  larger  and  older  branches,  and  is 
therefore  more  woody  and  less  pungent,  while  the  latter  comes 
from  the  smaller  and  younger  branches.  This  latter  is  also 
called  ^  ^  (Kuei-chih),  and  after  being  scraped,  is  called  ^  i(^ 
(Kuei-hsin).  A  very  inferior  kind  of  cinnamon,  which  has 
but  little  aroma,  but  which  is  also  found  on  the  market,  is 
called  1!^  ;|^  (Pan-kuei,  "board  cinnamon"),  because  it  is  in 
unrolled,  flat  pieces.  This  is  probably  the  thick  inner  bark  of  old 
trees.  The  most  delicate  young  shoots  of  the  cinnamon  twigs 
are  called  ;^  /^  (I^iu-kuei,  "willow  cinnamon  ").  The  ch'-un- 
kuei  is  a  smaller  tree  bearing  a  thinner  bark  more  like  that 
from  Ceylon,  As  it  quills  more  readily  than  the  other,  it  is 
called  ^  >^  (T'ung-kuei,  "tube  cinnamon").  Another  name 
is  >]>  j^  (Hsiao-kuei,  "small  cinnamon"),  evidently  referring 
to  the  size  of  the  tree.  The  finest  qualities  of  the  bark  of  this 
tree  are  the  ^  i§  /^  (An-pien-kuei),  a  highly  valued  kind 
brought  from  Annam,  and  ^  Sit  i||  (Chiao-chih-kuei),  probably 
the  same  as  or  similar  to  the  last,  but  on  account  of  its  great 
repute  these  characters  are  often  found  on  the  sign  boards  of 
Chinese  medicine  shops. 

In  the  Phitsao,  at  the  close  of  the  article  on  ChHln-kuei^  it 
is  said  that  there  is  a  tree  much  cultivated  in  China,  and  bears 
the  names  of  ^  ;^  (Yen-kuei)  and  if,  H  (Mu-hsi).  There  are 
three  varieties  named  according  to  the  color  of  the  flowers  they 
bear  ;  the  white  being  called  |^  ^(Yin-kuei),  the  yellow  ^  %, 
(Chin-kuei),  and  the  red  ^  j^  (Tan-kuei).  The  flowers 
appear  in  the  axils  of  the  leaves,  are  very  fragrant,  and  are 
used  for  scenting  tea.  The  common  name  used  by  the  flower 
gardeners,  who  cultivate  it  extensively  for  sale,  is  ;^  ^  CKuei- 
hua,  "  cassia  flowers  "  ).  It  is  the  Olea  (OsmnntJms)  fragranSy 
and  has  none  of  the  properties  of  true  ciuiiamon.     jj  j^  (Tan- 


kuei\  however,  is  also  used  for  a  red  kiud  of  true  cinnamon 
bark,  which  comes  from  a  variety  of  tree  found  most  largely  in 
the  province  of  Kuichou.  A  similar  kind  is  known  as  ^  ;i^ 
(Yao-kuei),  and  conies  from  the  country  of  the  Yao  tribes. 

Another  kind  mentioned  in  the  Pe.ntsao  is  5^  ^  ;)^  (T'ien- 
chu-kuei).  Porter  Smith,  on  the  supposition  that  the  first  two 
characters  meant  India,  identified  this  with  Cimia7nomum 
tamala.  But  Li  Shih-chen  says  that  it  is  so  named  from  a 
place  called  T'ien-chu,  in  the  prefecture  of  Taichou,  Chekiang, 
where  it  grows  plentifully.  It  is  a  large  tree,  bearing  abundant 
flowers  and  a  fruit  the  size  of  a  lotus  nut.  The  Buddhists 
regard  it  as  identical  with  the  ^  j^  (Ylieh-kuei).  In  Japan  it 
is  called  Cinuauiomtini  japoniciun^  which  is  the  Cinnafnomiwi 
pedunculaturn  of  Nees.  Its  fruits  are  called  j^  -^  (Kuei-tzu), 
as  are  also  those  of  the  Yueh-kiiei  (see  Litsea  glauca\  and  the 
immature  flowers  of  the  Cinnamonmm  cassia;  although  the 
proper  name  for  these  last  is  ;^  'J'  fKuei-ting),  according  to 
the  appendix  to  the  Pentsao. 

The  parts  of  the  cinnamon  tree  now  found  in  Chinese 
commerce  are  the  bark  (557,  659,  667,  668,  and  672);  the 
twigs  (658,  660)  ;  the  buds  (,673)  ;  the  peduncles  (671)  ;  and  the 
oil  (558,  669).  The  leaves  are  not  found  as  an  article  of  com- 
merce, but  the  Chinese  use  the  bruised  fresh  leaves  in  water 
for  cleansing  the  hair.  The  oil  is  manufactured  in  Canton  and 
exported,  but  much  of  that  now  found  in  China  comes  from 
abroad,  as  it  is  of  superior  quality  to  the  Chinese  article  and 
sells  as  cheaply.  It  is  used  as  a  perfume  and  flavoring  in- 
gredient, and  also  as  a  substitute  for  the  bark  in  medicine  and 
cookery.  Dr.  Williams  says  that  the  j^  ^  (Kuei-chih)  are  the 
"extreme  and  tender  ends  of  the  branches"  of  the  cassia  tree, 
such  as  are  used  in  distilling  oil  at  Canton.  The  leaves  are 
sometimes  used  in  combination  with  these  twigs  for  distilling 

Kiiei-pH  is  met  with  on  the  Chinese  market  in  half  quills 
of  a  foot  in  length,  half  an  inch  in  diameter,  and  one-twelfth 
of  an  inch  in  thickness.  It  is  darker,  closer  in  the  grain, 
thinner,  and  much  less  pungent  than  the  Joii-kuei.  This 
latter,  which  is  the  "cinnamon"  of  Dr.  Williams,  is  met  with 
in  close,  perfect  quills,  of  the  same  length  as  the  Ktiei-pH^  but 


much  stouter  and  thicker.  The  texture  is  more  open,  of  a 
lighter  color,  and  the  inner  surface  is  more  distinctly  striated. 
The  external  surface,  like  that  of  the  Kuei-pH^  is  variegated 
with  lichenous  patches.  The  taste  is  exceedingly  pungent  and 

Cassia  is  more  often  used  by  the  Chinese  as  a  condiment 
than  as  a  medicine,  being  employed  as  a  flavor  for  pork  and 
other  meats.  Stomachic,  stimulant,  carminative,  astringent, 
sedative,  and  tonic  qualities  are  attributed  to  this  drug.  It  is 
especially  recommended  in  colic  and  excessive  sweating.  Post- 
partum difficulties  and  retained  foetus  are  among  the  troubles 
for  which  it  is  prescribed,  as  also  are  snake  bite  and  rhus  poi- 
soning. The  prolonged  use  of  the  better  qualities  of  cassia  is 
thought  to  improve  the  complexion,  giving  one  a  more  youth- 
ful, rubicund  appearance.  ^  Pao  P'u-tzu  said  that  if  cassia  was 
taken  with  toad's  brains  for  seven  years,  one  could  walk  on 
the  surface  of  the  water  and  never  grow  old  or  die  ;  and  Chao, 
the  hunch-back,  took  the  drug  continuously  for  twenty  years, 
with  the  result  that  hair  grew  on  the  bottom  of  his  feet ;  he 
was  able  to  walk  five  hundred  li  (200  miles)  in  a  day,  and  lift  a 
weight  of  one  thousand  chin  (1,333  pounds). 

CITRULLUS  VULGARIS. —  H  %  (Hsi-kua),  %  JDi 
(Han-kua),  ^  -^  jji  (Yang-ch'i-kua).  This  is  the  ordinary 
watermelon,  which  is  very  extensively  grown  in  China,  and  is 
eaten  as  a  cooling  fruit  in  very  hot  weather.  It  was  introduced 
from  Mongolia  in  the  tenth  century,  having  been  brought 
there  at  an  earlier  period  by  the  Kitans  from  the  country  of  the 
Uigurs  farther  west.  This  is  the  reason  that  it  is  called 
"western  melon",  and  not  as  some  have  supposed,  because  it 
was  introduced  from  what  is  now  "the  west".  The  Chinese 
melon  is  not  so  large  as  the  ordinary  American  variety,  and 
not  so  sweet  or  so  fine  flavored  ;  but  it  is  very  juicy.  Several 
varieties  are  grown  ;  some  having  white  pulp,  some  yellow,  and 
some  red.  The  seeds  of  these  varieties  are  of  different  colors — 
white,  red,  brown,  and  black.  The  black  seeded  variety  with 
red  pulp  is  usually  the  finest  flavored.  Melon  seeds  (S  ^, 
Kua-tzu)  are  extensively  eaten  in  tea  shops,  and  in  fact  are  in 
evidence  wherever  tea  is  formally  or  socially  served.     They 


are  prepared  for  this  purpose  by  salting  and  parching.  In 
eating,  the  shells  are  cracked  with  the  teeth  and  the  kernels 
extracted.  To  crack  the  seed,  extract  the  kernel,  and  spit  out 
the  shells  without  using  the  hands,  is  an  accomplishment  that 
is  considered  to  evidence  the  good  breeding  of  the  gentleman. 
The  melon  grown  to  produce  these  seeds  is  of  a  special  variety, 
evidently  the  result  of  a  long  period  of  selective  development. 
It  is  not  so  large  as  the  other  varieties,  contains  but  little  pulp, 
and  is  a  mass  of  seeds.  The  pulp  has  little  or  no  taste.  The 
kernels  are  said  to  be  demulcent,  pectoral,  and  peptic.  Much 
of  their  good  effects,  however,  may  be  attributed  to  their 
saltiness  and  the  masticatory  effort  made  in  eating  them.  The 
Chinese  consider  that  sometimes  the  eating  of  melons  produces 
fluxes,  and  even  Asiatic  cholera.  But  as  liquid  night  soil  is  so 
largely  used  in  their  cultivation,  and  as  they  are  usually  left 
lying  cut  open  in  the  markets,  it  is  probable  that  the  infection 
comes  from  the  outside  of  the  melon.  It  is  well  to  wash  the 
melon  thoroughly  before  cutting.  The  rind  of  the  melon  is 
dried  and  incinerated,  and  after  being  finely  powdered,  is  used 
in  the  treatment  of  aphthous  sore  month. 

CITRUS.— fl  (Chii).  This  term  is  practically  generic, 
as  well  as  being  used  with  qualifiers  as  a  common  term  for  the 
fruit  as  it  appears  in  the  market.  There  are  several  species, 
with  many  varieties,  all  apparently  indigenous  to  China  and 
the  East  Indies.  Indeed,  it  is  probable  that  this  is  the  natural 
habitat  of  the  orange,  from  whence  it  has  spread  to  other 
parts  of  the  world.  After  discussing  the  general  subject  of 
these  fruits  under  the  term  above  given,  the  P^ntsao  describes 
five  species,  viz  :  (i  \^  (Kan  i  or  Citrus  nobilis,  the  tajigerine 
and  mandarin  orange^  also  called  ^  /fjj;  \%  (Chu-sha-chii)  ;  (2) 
fg  (Ch'eng)  or  Citrus  aurantimn^  the  coolie  orange^  also 
called  ^  \^  (Kuang-chii,  "Canton  orange")  and  ^  Jj  (Chin- 
ch'iu,  "golden  ball");  (3)  ^  (Yu)  or  Citrus  decumana^  the 
pumelo  or  shaddock ;  (4)  i^  |||  (Kou-yiian)  or  Citrus  medica^ 
the  citron^  of  which  there  are  some  peculiar  varieties  (see 
below) ;  (5)  ^  \%  (Chin-chii)  or  Citrus  japonica^  the  cumquat 
ox  golden  orange^  also  called  ^  S  (Chin-tou,  "golden  beau  ") 
and  ^  |§  (I^u-chii),  after  the  Cantonese  sound  of  these  char- 


acters  '''•  lonnnt''\  although  this  term  is  more  often  applied  to 
the  pipa  {Eriobotrya  japoiiica). 

The  fruits  of  all  of  the  different  species  and  varieties  are 
considered  by  the  Chinese  to  be  cooling.  If  eaten  in  excess, 
they  are  thought  to  increase  the  "phlegm",  and  this  is 
probably  not  advantageous  to  the  health.  The  sweet  varieties 
increase  bronchial  secretion,  and  the  sour  promote  expectora- 
tion. They  all  quench  thirst,  and  are  stomachic  and  carmina- 

The  peel  of  the  ripe  fruit  is  found  under  various  names, 
of  which  the  Pentsao  gives  ^  ^t  i£  (Huang-chli-p'i),  jfX  ^ 
(Hung-p'i),  and  ^  ^  (Ch'en-p'i.  The  Customs  lists  also 
give  1^  ^  (Kuo-p'i)  as  an  equivalent  for  the  last  (39),  and  says 
that  at  Canton  it  is  the  peel  taken  from  the  mandarin  orange. 
It  ifl  (Chii-hungj  or  ^  ifX  (Chieh-hung)  is  another  term  for 
the  peel  coming  from  Fukien  and  Chekiang,  while  ||[  jj 
(Chii-p'i)  or  fo  .^  (Chieh-p'i)  comes  from  southern  Fukien  and 
Kuangtung.  Although  citrus  fruits  of  many  varieties  are 
exceedingly  plentiful  in  China,  very  little  of  the  peel  of  these 
fruits  is  thrown  away  ;  servants,  children,  rag-pickers,  and 
others  gathering  it  all  up,  drying  it  and  selling  to  the  drug- 
gists, who  use  enormous  quantities  of  it  in  the  preparation  of 
medicines.  The  coolie  orange  peel  is  especially  esteemed,  and 
sells  at  a  higher  price  than  the  others.  The  peel  is  regarded 
by  the  Chinese  doctor  as  a  panacea  for  all  sorts  of  ills.  Among 
the  many  qualities  attributed  .to  it  are  stomachic,  stimulant, 
antispasmodic,  antiphlogistic,  and  tussic.  The  difficulties  for 
which  it  is  recommended  also  include  marasmus  in  children, 
dyspnoea  in  the  aged,  fish  and  lobster  poisoning,  pin  worms, 
and  cancer  of  the  breast.  It  is  administered  both  in  pill  and 
decoction,  together  with  ginger  and  other  carminatives. 

The  peel  of  the  unripe  fruit  is  called  W  <#  >^  (Ch'ing- 
chii-p'i),  or  simply  %  ^  (39).  At  the  present  time  the 
immature  or  unripe  fruit  is  often  dried  whole  or  in  slices. 
Other  names  found,  therefore,  are  >J.  %  ^  (Hsiao-ch'ing-p'i), 
W  >S  ^  (Ch'ing-p'i-tzu),  and  ^  "k  \%  (Ch'iug-p'i-ho).  When 
fresh,  it  is  very  fragrant,  but  seems  to  soon  lose  its  aroma  and 
become  of  little  value.  Its  virtues  are  regarded  to  be  for  the 
most  part  carminative.     The  virtues  ascribed  to  several  decoc- 


tions  for  external  application  must  be  purely  imaginary.  A 
sort  of  a  spirit  of  orange,  made  with  hot  wine  of  the  membrane 
covering  the  pulp,  is  regarded  as  a  sure  remedy  for  nausea. 

Orange  seeds,  (225,  235),  deprived  of  their  husks  and 
rubbed  up  in  a  mortar,  and  then  decocted  with  wine,  are 
prescribed  for  urinary  difficulties,  "wine  nose",  varicocele, 
and  buboes.  The  expressed  juice  from  orange  leaves  is  also 
used  as  a  carminative,  to  promote  menstruation,  and  as  a 
dressing  to  ulcers  and  cancerous  sores.  The  dried  leaves  (236) 
are  also  used  in  decoction  for  the  same  purposes.  The  chalaza, 
t^  3^  (Chii-lo),  \^  1^  (Chii-pai),  is  employed  in  the  treatment 
of  menstrual  disorders.  , 

Citrus  7iobilis  is  considered  to  be  stimulant  to  digestion, 
corrective,  and  diuretic.  The  peel  is  used  as  a  carminative 
and  in  alcoholism.  A  hot,  strong  decoction  is  used  in  feverish 
colds.  The  peel  of  the  wild  variety  is  considered  efficacious 
in  sore  throat.  The  seeds  are  used  in  the  preparation  of 
cosmetic  applications,  and  a  decoction  of  the  leaf  buds  iu  the 
treatment  of  otorrhcea. 

Citrus  aiirantiiim  is  considered  to  be  similar  to  the  shad- 
dock. Its  special  properties  are  thought  to  be  corrective  and 
deobstruant.  The  sour  juice  is  rejected,  and  the  remainder  of 
the  pulp  is  mixed  with  honey  for  the  treatment  of  indigestion 
and  flatulence.  It  is  also  used  as  an  antidote  to  fish  and 
shrimp  poisoning.  The  seeds  are  bruised  and  applied  to  the 
face  at  night  for  pimples  and  freckles.  Excellent  marmalade 
(^  ^)  Ch'eng-kao)  may  be  made  from  this  orange. 

Citrus  decumana^  the  sJiaddoch^  pumclo^  or  pompehnoose^ 
is  a  large,  thick  skinned,  yellow  fruit.  It  has  been  known 
since  the  days  of  the  Great  Yii,  who  mentions  it  in  his  Tribute 
Roll.  Other  names  given  in  the  Pentsao  are  j^  (T'iao),  ^  |jj- 
(Hu-kan,  "jug  orange",  from  its  occasional  shape),  %  fg 
(Ch'ou-ch'eng,  "stinking-orange",  from  its  strong  odor),  and 
^  ^  (Chu-luan).  An  ancient  way  of  writing  the  character 
commonly  used  for  the  pumelo  is  ;f^  (Yu).  This  fruit  flourishes 
throughout  south  China,  and  is  especially  found  in  the  Amoy 
region,  which  is  famous  for  its  pumelos.  The  flowers  of  the 
tree  are  very  fragrant,  and  the  fruit,  when  stripped  of  its  thick, 
spongy  rind,  is  of  exquisite  taste.     It  is  frequently  grafted  upon 


other  species  of  Citrus,  and  considerable  improvement  in  flavor 
has  resulted  therefrom.  The  fruit  is  considered  to  be  digestive, 
corrective,  antivinous,  and  is  specially  recommended  for  the 
use  of  pregnant  women.  The  peel  is  bitter,  but  very  aromatic. 
If  enough  is  used,  it  makes  an  excellent  stomachic.  The 
Chinese  use  it  in  coughs  and  dyspepsia.  The  leaves  are  bruised 
together  with  onions,  and  applied  to  the  temples  for  headache. 
The  flowers  are  used  in  cosmetic  preparations. 

Citrus  inedica  in  China,  as  in  southern  Europe,  is  rep- 
resented by  many  varieties.  The  most  common  one  is  that 
of  Citrus  chirocarptis^  ^  ^  \^  (Fo-shou-kan),  323.  The  fruit 
is  formed  by  the  natural  separation  of  its  constituant  carpels 
into  a  form  somewhat  resembling  a  hand  with  the  fingers  laid 
closely  together  longitudinally.  Why  it  should  have  been 
called  Buddha's  hand  is  not  clear.  The  Jews  carried  the 
citron  (ethrog)  in  the  left  hand  at  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles  as  a 
sacrifice  of  a  sweet  smell,  and  possibly  the  Chinese  name  of 
this  denotes  some  similar  practice  connected  with  the  worship 
of  Buddha  ;  or  it  may  have  been  thought  to  resemble  the  hand 
of  Buddha's  image.  The  tree  grow's  near  the  water  in  all  of 
the  southern  provinces.  The  leaves  are  long  and  pointed  and 
the  branches  prickled.  The  yellow  fruit  attains  a  very  large 
size  in  some  cases,  and  is  much  prized  in  Central  and  Northern 
China,  where  it  is  carried  in  the  hand,  or  placed  on  tables,  to 
give  out  its  strong  and  delicious  perfume.  In  the  south,  where 
the  fruit  is  plentiful,  it  is  also  placed  in  clothes-presses  with 
the  same  object  in  view  ;  and  it  is  made  into  a  preserve,  or  the 
juice  is  used  to  wash  fine  linen.  The  product  is  found  in 
commerce  principally  in  the  form  of  the  dried  peel,  -j^  :^  ^ 
(Fo-shou-p'ien),  325.  This  occurs  in  fine  dried  slices,  thin 
and  shrivelled,  the  greenish-yellow  cuticle  fringing  the  white, 
inert,  cellular  tissue  which  forms  the  greater  part  of  the  drug. 
The  smell  is  citron-like,  but  faint,  and  the  taste  aromatic  and 
bitter.  Some  of  the  drug  met  with  in  the  drugshops  is  very 
dark.  Stomachic,  stimulant,  tussic,  expectorant,  and  tonic 
properties  are  attributed  to  this  drug.  ^  ^  |£  (Fo-shou-kan) 
is  simply  the  whole  fruit  dried,  and  does  not  differ  in  use  from 
the  peel.  The  root  and  the  leaves  are  used  for  the  same 
purposes  as  the  peel,  and  the  flowers  appear  in  commerce,  but 


are  not  mentioned  in  the  Phitsao.  It  is  probable  that  their 
uses  are  the  same  as  those  of  other  species  of  Citrus.  In 
Barbadoes,  citronella  is  prepared  from  the  rind  of  the  citron, 
and  it  is  shipped  from  there  to  France  and  used  to  flavor 
brandies.  This  term,  however,  is  given  to  several  products, 
such  as  :  a  perfume  prepared  from  Melissa  officinalis^  an  oil 
produced  from  Andropogon  schcB)ianthiis^  and  in  France  the 
term  is  applied  to  Artemisia  abrotanum. 

Citrus  japonica  has,  in  addition  to  the  names  already 
mentioned,  several  others  by  which  it  is  known.  The  Pentsao 
gives  ^  If  (Chin-kan),  ^  |§  (Hsia-chii,  ** summer  orange"), 
llj  (t  (Shan-chii,  "hill  or  wild  orange"),  ^%^  (Chi-k'o- 
ch'eng,  "give-guest  orange").  When  dried,  it  has  some 
resemblance  to  a  nutmeg,  and  is  therefore  called  "nutmeg 
orange."  It  is  used  as  a  dessert,  or  garniture,  at  weddings, 
and  is  made  into  a  conserve.  It  is  regarded  medicinally  as  a 
stimulant,  carminative,  antiphlogistic,  antivinous,  and  deodoriz- 
ing remedy.  This  "golden  orange,"  in  dwarf  variety,  is 
grown  in  pots,  and  when  the  plant  is  covered  with  green 
oranges,  or  after  they  have  begun  to  turn  yellow,  is  used  as  a 
present  to  friends  or  guests. 

Another  form  of  drug,  described  by  Porter  Smith  as 
Citrus  aiirantiidu^  var.  scabra^  is  found  at  Hankow,  and  is 
called  ^  1^  ifX  (Hua-chii-hung).  It  is  probably  a  different 
form  of  Chli-hung  (228),  which  the  Customs  lists  give  as 
coming  from  Chekiang  and  Fukien.  Braun,  in  the  Hankow 
list  (1909  revision),  gives  its  origin  as  Szechuan.  In  regard 
to  the  former.  Porter  Smith  says:  "The  dried  peel  of  this 
immature  orange,  a  variety  of  the  sweet  orange,  is  brought 
from  Huachou  in  Kaochoufu  (Kuangtung)  and  sold  at  a  very 
high  price  in  Central  China.  It  is  externally  of  a  dark  brown, 
or  blackish  color,  and  covered  with  a  yellowish  bloom,  which 
is  seen,  by  means  of  a  glass,  to  consist  of  short  hairs.  The 
inner  surface  is  of  a  dirty  white  color.  As  usually  sold  in  the 
shops  it  is  put  up  in  the  form  of  a  six-rayed  star,  made  by 
dividing  into  six  parts  the  fruit  or  rind,  from  nearly  the  apex 
to  the  bottom,  and  doubling  the  segments  of  the  peel  upon 
themselves  into  a  flat  star.  The  whole  fruits  have  their  rind 
thus  treated,  the  pulp  being  taken  away,  and  the  two  star-like 


pieces  bound  together  in  the  centre  with  red  silk  thread. 
These  sell  for  about  a  tael  a  pair."  (Braun  says  that  they 
sell  for  five  cents  a  pair  in  Canton.)  "The  pieces  vary  from 
two  inches  and  a  half  to  three  inches  and  three-quarters  in 
diameter  ;  the  smallest  pieces  fetching  the  highest  price.  It  is 
made  into  a  tincture,  and  is  much  esteemed  in  the  central  and 
northern  provinces  as  a  sedative,  carminative,  stomachic,  and 
expectorant  remedy."  The  appendix  to  the  Pentsao  describes 
this  Hua-chou-chii-hung  i  ^fc  j^^  ft  ,fl)  in  very  much  the  same 
way  as  does  Porter  Smith.  It  makes  it  out  to  be  a  hairy  orange, 
taken  in  the  immature  state  and  split  into  a  stellate  form  of 
seven  rays,  and  after  being  dried  is  tied  in  pairs  with  red  cord. 
The  same  orange  is  sometimes  candied  whole,  or  compressed 
into  a  cake  and  then  candied. 

Citrus  fiisca^  or  Citnis  ti'ifoliata^  :^n  (Chih).  This  seems 
to  be  the  best  identification  attainable.  Loureiro,  Fianchet, 
and  the  Japanese  all  so  regard  it.  Siebold  and  Hemsley  call 
it  ^gle  sepiaria.  Other  names  which  the  Japanese  apply  to 
the  same  plant  are  ^  f§  (Kou-chii)  and  ^  |^  (Ch'ou-chil), 
but  the  Pentsao  discusses  these  two  latter  under  a  heading 
separate  from  the  Chih.  Bretschneider  says  that  one  of  the 
plants  thus  confounded  may  be  Triphasia  trifoiiata^  a  thorny 
bush  indigenous  to  China  as  well  as  to  Japan  and  cultivated  at 
Kew.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  products  appearing  in 
Chinese  medicine  are  from  a  Citrus.  The  most  common  form 
is  called  ^a  ^  (Chih-k'o),  and  consists  of  the  fruits  cut  in  half 
and  dried.  It  is  in  circular  discs  of  one  or  two  inches  in 
diameter,  nearly  flat  on  the  cut  side  and  rounded  on  the  other. 
The  peel  is  firm  and  very  thick,  forming  about  half  the 
thickness  of  the  specimen.  Externally  it  is  rough,  of  a 
reddish  or  blackish-brown  color,  and  internally  it  is  bufi". 
The  taste  is  bitter  and  agreeably  aromatic.  Whether  the 
form  known  as  |n  ^  (Chih-shih)  is  the  same  fruit  gathered  in 
a  more  immature  state  and  dried,  or  whether  it  is  the  product 
of  a  different  plant,  is  not  clear.  The  Pentsao  says  that  both 
are  gathered  in  the  ninth  and  tenth  moons,  and  while  the 
larjguage  is  not  clear,  the  place  of  collection  would  seem  to  be 
somewhat  different.  The  principal  sources  of  supply  for  both 
drugs  is  Szechuan  and  Kuangtung.     The  properties  ascribed 


to  both  are  stomachic,  cooling,  deobstrnant,  and  carminative. 
They  are  both  prescribed  for  a  very  large  tnimber  of  exceed- 
ingly dissimilar  maladies,  and  seem  to  be  in  very  great  favor 
with  the  Chinese  in  all  sorts  of  prescriptions.  The  rind 
of  the  fruit,  the  bark  of  the  root,  and  the  young  leaves  are 
all  used  ;  the  latter  being  recommended  in  place  of  tea  in 
colds.  A  wine  decoction  of  the  root  bark  is  recommended  ia 

Of  the  1^  |§  (Kou-chii),  which  indeed  may  be  ^gle 
sepiaria^  the  leaves,  thorns,  seeds,  and  bark  of  the  tree  are  all 
used  in  indigestion,  fluxes,  and  dysentery.  The  flowers  and 
fruit  of  this,  while  resembling  those  of  the  orange,  are  not 
fragrant.      Porter  Smith  calls  this  Citrus  bigaradia. 

The  ^  ^^  (Hsiang-yiian),  which  is  very  common  in  some 
parts  of  China,  is  a  variety  of  citron,  not  so  large  as  some  others. 
Its  pulp  is  very  sour  and  somewhat  bitter,  resembling  in  taste 
the  linie^  although  the  fruit  is  larger  than  that  of  Cit7'2cs  acida. 
It  may  be  regarded  simply  as  a  variety  of  Citrus  medica.  The 
lemon  has  been  called  by  the  same  name  by  foreigners  in 
China,  as  well  as  by  the  names  %  f^  (Ning-meng)  and  ^  ^  (Li- 
meng).  But  it  is  pretty  certain  that  the  lemon  does  not  grow 
in  China  proper,  or  at  least  has  been  but  lately  introduced,  and 
therefore  it  is  not  named.  The  Ktiang-chihi-fang-pu  refers  to  a 
small  species  of  Citrus  under  the  last  name  given  above,  as 
having  very  acid  fruit,  but  no  medicinal  properties  are  referred 
to  it.  Mr.  Eitel  gives  Jl  ^  -^  (Tan-pu-lo)  or  "g^  ^  ^  (Chan- 
p*o-lo)  as  the  Chino-Buddhist  name  of  the  Citriis  acida. 

CLATJSENA  WAMPI.— ^  ^  =P  rHuang-p'i-tzri),  519. 
This  is  a  Rutaceous  plant,  yielding  the  delicious  yellow-skinned 
fruit  called  jr  Jf^  ^  i  Huang-p'i-kuo)  by  the  Chinese,  and  by 
foreigners  wampee^  It  is  common  in  southern  China  and  the 
Indian  archipelago.  The  Pentsao  gives  its  origin  as  Huang- 
chou  in  Kuangsi,  but  says  that  it  is  also  found  in  Kuangtung. 
The  fruit  is  sour,  with  a  yellow,  furry  skin,  and  whitish  pulp 
surrounding  several  greenish-black  seeds.  If  one  has  eaten  too 
many  licJiis^  the  wampee  will  counteract  the  bad  effects.  Lichis 
should  be  eaten  when  one  is  hungry,  and  wampees  only  on  a 
full  stomach.     Their  medical  properties  are  stomachic,  cooling. 


and  anthelmintic.      The  root  of  the  plant  also  appears  in  com- 
merce (520),   but  the  Pentsao  does  not  mention  it. 

CLEMATIS  GRAVEOLENS.— ^  |^  ^  (Huang-yao- 
tzu),  524.  Other  names  are  /fv  ^  -^  (Mu-yao-tzu),  ^  ^  (Ta- 
k'u),  :^,  ^  (Ch'ih-yao),  and  J^I  ^  -^  (Hnng-yao-tzu).  The 
Pentsao  says  that  the  plant  bears  some  resemblance  to  both 
Glycyrrhiza  glah-a  and  Mentha  piperita^  but  that  it  is  neither. 
It  grows  to  the  height  of  two  or  three  feet,  with  a  jointed  stalk, 
large  leaves,  white  or  pinkish  flowers,  and  has  a  long  root, 
yellow  in  color.  The  root  is  the  part  used  in  medicine.  Its 
taste  is  exceedingly  bitter  and  somewhat  cooling.  Its  action  is 
regarded  as  antiseptic  and  cooling.  It  is  prescribed  as  a  gargle 
in  ulcerated  throat,  as  an  application  in  dog  and  serpent  bites, 
and  to  be  taken  in  cases  of  hemorrhage  from  the  stomach  or 
throat.  Clematis  florida  (|^  |^  j||,  Tieh-hsien-lien)  is  not 
mentioned  in  any  of  the  Chinese  medical  works  consulted,  and 
neither  is  Cle^natis  pate7is{^  ^  jH  Chuan-tzu-lien).  Loureiro 
calls  /f;  3iJ  (Mu-t'ung)  Clematis  sinensis^  but  the  drug  selling 
under  this  name  has  been  identified  as  Akebia  qjiinnta  (see 
p.  22).  The  plant  producing  the  drug,  however,  still  needs 

CLEMATIS  MINOR.— J^  ^  flJj  (Wei-ling-hsien),  1443. 
This  plant  grows  in  the  northern  provinces,  especially  in 
Shensi.  It  bears  jade-like  white  flowers  in  a  panicle,  and  has 
a  long  blackish  root,  which  turns  quite  black  when  dry.  Roots 
of  a  lighter  color  are  not  regarded  as  genuine.  The  taste  is  a 
sweetish-bitter.  Its  action  is  considered  to  be  antimalarial, 
diuretic,  and  antirheumatic,  and  is  prescribed  in  all  sorts  of 
muscular  rheumatism,  constipation,  and  difficulties  due  to 
catching  cold. 

CLEMATIS  PANICULATA.— filj  Ai^  (Hsien-jen-ts'ao). 
A  decoction  of  this  plant  is  used  to  wash  scrofulous  sores  in 
children.  It  is  reputed  to  be  an  antidote  in  vermillion  poison- 
ing, and  the  expressed  juice  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  corneal 

CNICUS  JAPONICUS.— >I>  fi  (Hsiao-chi),  433.  This 
is  the  identification  of  Maximowicz  and  the  Japanese.     Siebold 


calls  it  Car  dims  acaulis.  Henry  claimed  that  in  Hupeh  Cnicus 
japonicus  is  :fe  DJ  (Ta-chi).  There  is  very  little  difference 
between  the  two.  Another  name  for  this  is  ||  ||]  (Mao-chi, 
*'  cat  thistle  " ).  The  root,  which  has  a  sweetish  pleasant  taste, 
is  the  part  used  in  medicine.  Very  remarkable  virtues  are 
ascribed  to  it,  such  as  building  up  the  animal  spirits  and 
restoring  the  blood.  It  is  therefore  prescribed  in  hemorrhages, 
wounds,  and  bites  of  poisonous  reptiles  and  insects.  It  is  also 
said  to  have  tonic  and  febrifuge  properties.  The  shoots  of 
the  plant  are  also  used  medicinally,  but  will  be  referred  to 
under  Cnicus  spicaUis. 

CNICUS  NIPPONICUS.— =^^  ^  (K'u-yao).  This  was 
also  called  by  Maximowicz  Cniais  sinensis.  Other  names  for 
it  are  ^  ^  (Kou-yao)  and  ^  1^  (K'u-pan).  This  is  the 
ordinary  thistle  found  throughout  the  central  provinces.  The 
shoot  is  the  only  part  used,  and  edible.  It  has  a  bitter,  saltish 
taste,  and  is  thought  to  promote  respiration  and  to  cool  the 
blood.  A  decoction  is  highly  recommended  for  washing  bleed- 
ing piles,  and  the  ash  is  used  as  an  application  to  wounds. 

CNICUS  SPICATUS.— :;c  m  (Ta-chi),  1216.  Other 
names  are  J^  UJ  (Hu-chi,  "tiger-thistle"),  ,i^  IJJ  (Ma-chi, 
♦♦  horse-thistle"),  fi]  ^\  (Tz'u-chi,  *'thorny  thistle  "),  llj  '^  H 
(Shan-niu-p'ang),  %,  '^^  %.  (Chi-hsiang-ts'ao,  ''chicken  neck 
grass",  from  the  character  of  its  stalk),  ^ '^^  (Yeh-hung- 
hua,  "wild  Carthamus)^  and  -f-  |f  :^  (Ch'ien-chen-ts'ao)  ;  the 
last  being  the  name  by  which  it  is  called  in  the  north.  The 
root,  which  is  the  part  used  in  medicine,  is  tuberous,  and  in 
the  south  is  called  i  A  #  (T'u-jen-shen,  "native  ginseng"). 
The  plant  grows  from  four  to  five  feet  high,  and  has  wrinkled 
leaves.  In  the  Peking  mountains  the  people  apply  the  name 
Ta-chi  to  Cnicus  pcndulus^  which  grows  from  five  to  six  feet 
high,  is  very  spiny,  and  has  enormous  purple  flower  heads. 
The  use  of  the  drug  is  thought  to  promote  plumpness  of  the 
body.  It  is  prescribed  in  menstrual  difficulties,  irritable 
uterus,  and  in  hemorrhages.  The  leaves  are  also  used  for 
similar  purposes,  and  as  a  diuretic.  Bruised,  they  are  applied 
in  scaly  skin  diseases.     In  many    cases,    little  distinction   is 


made  between  this  plant  and  the  Cniais  japoniciis^  as  the 
Chinese  regard  the  latter  as  simply  a  small  variety  of  the 
other.  Generally  speaking,  the  Hsiao-chi  is  used  internally, 
and  the  Ta-chi  is  the  more  frequently  recommended  for  external 

CNIDIUM  MONNIERI.— $^  "^  (She-ch*uang),  1114. 
This  is  the  Selimim  ^nonnieri  of  Linnaeus.  The  classical  name 
is  g^  (Hsii).  Other  names  are  ^  ^  (Hni-ch'uang),  %  ^ 
(Ma-ch'uang),  ^  %  (She-mi  1,  ,g,  g  (Ssu-i),  ifl  ^(Sheng-tu), 
^  ]^  (Tsao-chi),  and  ^|  ^  (Ch'iang-mi).  It  is  a  fragrant 
umbelliferous  plant,  the  seeds  of  which  are  used  in  medicine. 
It  is  found  in  nearly  every  part  of  China,  but  the  product 
coming  from  the  region  of  Yangchow  is  considered  to  be  the 
best.  The  drug  has  very  little  odor,  but  a  warm  taste.  It  is 
said  to  act  on  the  kidneys,  and  to  be  aphrodisiac,  antirheu- 
matic, sedative,  astringent,  vulnerary,  and  discutient.  Washes 
and  ointments  are  made  from  the  crushed  or  powdered  seeds 
for  bathing  prolapsus  recti,  piles,  anal  fistula,  and  leprous  or 
scabious  sores.  Li  Shih-chen  makes  the  very  appropriate 
remark,  that  although  we  are  familiarly  acquainted  with  our 
own  indigenous  plants,  we  are  apt  to  neglect  them  in  search  of 
far-fetched  drugs  of  no  better  quality. 

COCCULUS.— 155  a  (Fang-chi),  291.  This  identification 
is  somewhat  doubtful,  but  is  from  Hoffmann  and  Schultes, 
who  follow  Siebold.  They  give  ^H  |JJJ  £,  (Han-fang-chi)  as 
Cocaihcs  japoiiicus^  and  /fC  ^  £^  (]\Iu-fang-chi)  as  Cocciilus 
Thiinbergii.  Faber  gives  Fang-chi  as  Mcnispervium  dajiri- 
cuvi^  and  a  Japanese  identification  is  Stephania  herjiandifolia. 
The  Chinese  books  describe  only  the  root,  so  it  cannot  be 
decided  from  these  what  plant  is  meant.  Henry  says  that 
Cocciihis  Thunbcrgii  is  known  by  other  Chinese  names  in 
Hupeh,  but  he  does  not  say  what  these  are.  Other  names 
given  by  the  Pe.ntsao  are  ^  f|fl  (Chieh-li)  and  ^  ^  (Shih- 
chieh).  The  drug  is  a  brown,  bulky,  amylaceous,  tuberous 
root,  split  longitudinally  into  two  or  four  pieces,  and  showing 
on  its  cross  section  something  of  the  same  radiated  disposition 
of  the  vascular  tissue  as  is  met  with  in  Adenopiiora  and  other 


of  the  CampamdacecB.  The  smell  is  agreeable,  and  the  taste 
bitterish  and  mucilaginous.  It  is  used  in  fevers,  dropsies, 
rheumatism,  and  pulmonary  diseases,  and  is  also  said  to  be 
diuretic.  The  diseases  for  which  it  is  to  be  prescribed  are  all 
of  a  grave  character,  and  include  cholera  and  pulmonary 
hemorrhage.  When  the  innoccuous  character  of  the  drug  is 
considered,  one  wonders  how  it  secured  such  a  reputation,  even 
in  China.     The  fruit  is  used  in  prolapsus  recti. 

COCOS  NUCIFERA.  — 15  ip  (Yeh-tzu).  Also  called 
^  H  M  (Yiieh-wang-t'ou,  "  hornbill  head")  and  ^  ff;  (Hsii- 
vii).  In  regard  to  the  first  of  these  two  names,  the  Pentsao 
says  that  the  king  of  I  was  angry  with  the  king  of  Yueh, 
invited  him  to  be  his  guest,  made  him  drunk,  and  took  off  his 
head  and  hung  it  in  a  tree,  when  it  turned  to  a  cocoa-nut. 
So  it  seems  that  the  slang  phrase  "my  cocoa-nut,"  referring 
to  the  head,  has  its  origin  in  ancient  Chinese  legend.  This 
tree  is  met  with  in  the  island  of  Hainan  and  on  the  adjacent 
mainland  of  the  Kuangtung  province,  as  far  north  as  latitude 
21°.  The  albumen  of  the  drupe  is  eaten  by  the  Chinese,  and 
is  considered  by  them  to  be  very  beneficial,  promoting  a 
healthy  plumpness  of  figure  and  face.  The  juice  or  milk, 
called  ^\  J^  ^  ( Yeh-tzu-chiang),  is  considered  by  some  to  be 
cooling  and  by  others  heating.  This  discrepancy  is  probably 
due  to  the  fact  that  one  is  speaking  of  the  fresh  juice,  and  the 
other  of  that  which  has  been  fermented.  The  intoxicating  prop- 
erties of  the  latter  are  recognised,  and  it  is  said  to  increase 
thirst  instead  of  relieving  it,  as  the  un fermented  juice  does. 
This  juice  is  said  to  be  nutrient  and  serviceable  in  hematemesis 
and  dropsy.  It  has  lately  been  recommended  in  India  as  a 
remedy  in  phthisis,  debility,  and  cachexia.  The  bark  of  the 
root  of  the  tree  is  recommended  as  an  astringent  and  styptic 
remedy  in  hemorrhages  and  fluxes.  The  shell  of  the  nut, 
which  is  sometimes  carved  and  polished  to  make  drinking 
vessels  and  ornaments,  is  incinerated  and  mixed  with  wine, 
to  be  used  in  the  treatment  of  secondary  and  tertiary  syphilitic 
manifestations.  The  collection  of  the  sweet  juice  of  the 
flowering  branch  of  this  and  of  the  Palmyra  palin^  is  alluded 
to  as  having  been  known  in   China   since   the   Han  dynasty. 


The  Palmyra  palm,  Borassus  flabelliformis^  is  called  the  |'^  ^ 
(Pei-shu),  and  it  yields  arrack  and  a  kind  of  white  sugar  called 
jaggery  in  India.  The  tree  is  said  to  grow  in  the  southern 
provinces.  Dr.  Waring  speaks  of  a  toddy  poultice,  made  by 
adding  the  freshly  drawn  juice  of  the  cocoa  or  Palmyra  palm 
to  rice  flour  till  it  has  the  consistence  of  a  soft  poultice,  and 
subjecting  this  to  heat  over  a  gentle  fire  until  fermentation 
commences.  This  poultice,  applied  after  the  manner  of  the  old 
fashioned  yeast  poultice  to  gangrenous  sores,  carbuncles,  and 
indolent  ulcers,  is  said  to  be  very  useful.  The  fibers  of  the  rind 
of  the  cocoa-nut,  and  the  brown  cotton-like  substance  from 
the  outside  of  the  base  of  the  fronds  of  the  Palmyra  palm,  may 
be  used  to  staunch  wounds. 

COIX  LACHRYMA.  —  ^  ^  t  (I-i-jen),  547.  Other 
names,  ^  ^  (Chieh-li),  "g;  ^  (Chi-shih),  ^  %  (Kan-mi), 
H]  0  TJt  (Hui-hui-mi),  and  ^  3^  ■^  (I-chu-tzu).  This  grami- 
neous plant  grows  in  marshes,  as  well  as  on  the  plains  and 
fields,  to  the  height  of  several  feet.  It  is  said  that  the  famous 
general  Ma  Yuen  (A.D.  49)  introduced  the  plant  into  China 
from  Cochin  China.  It  does  not  flourish  so  well  here  as  it  does 
in  the  Philippines,  where  the  Chinese  settlers  make  a  kind  of 
meal  of  the  seeds,  which  is  very  nourishing  for  the  sick.  The 
seeds  are  hard  and  beadlike,  and  are  somewhat  like  pearl 
barley,  for  which  they  are  sometimes  mistaken  in  the  Customs 
lists,  and  for  which  they  make  an  excellent  substitute.  How- 
ever, they  are  larger  and  coarser  than  pearl  barley.  The  un- 
huUed  corns  are  often  strung  by  children  as  beads,  and  priests 
are  sometimes  seen  using  the  largest  ones  in  their  rosaries. 
The  seeds  are  considered  by  the  Chinese  to  be  nutritious, 
demulcent,  cooling,  pectoral,  and  anthelmintic.  Given  either 
in  the  form  of  soup  or  congee,  it  is  highly  recommended  by 
native  doctors.  It  is  considered  to  be  especially  useful  in 
urinary  affections,  probably  of  the  bladder.  A  wine  is  made 
by  fermenting  the  grain,  and  is  given  in  rheumatism.  The 
root  of  the  plant  is  said  to  be  an  excellent  anthelmintic.  The 
leaves  also,  gathered  in  the  summer  month  and  made  into  a 
decoction,  are  said  to  benefit  the  breath  and  blood.  A  new  born 
infant,  washed  in  this  decoction,  will  be  preserved  from  disease. 


COLOCASIA.— ^  (Yii),  ±  ^  (T'u-chih).  This  is  the 
same  as  the  ^aro  of  the  South  Sea  Islands,  which  is  cultivated 
for  its  edible  roots,  known  as  ^  ^M,  (Yii-t'ou).  But  the  name 
taM  or  kopeh  is  also  applied  in  New  Zealand  to  the  root  of 
Pteris  esadenta^  an  edible  fern.  Several  species  of  Colocasia 
are  cultivated  in  China.  It  has  been  known  since  before  the 
Han  period.  The  seeds  are  used  in  medicine,  as  are  also  the 
leaves  and  stalk.  The  former  are  considered  to  be  somewhat 
poisonous,  and  are  recommended  in  indigestion,  flatulence,  and 
in  disorders  of  parturient  women.  A  decoction  is  prescribed 
as  a  wash  in  pediculosis.  The  leaves  and  stalk  are  recom- 
mended in  similar  cases  and  as  an  application  in  insect  bites 
and  other  poisons. 

COMMELYNA  POLYGAMA.  — H  %  %  f  Ya-chih-ts'ao), 
ft  ^  ^  (Chu-yeh-ts'ai).  This  is  an  identification  of  Tatarinov 
adopted  by  Porter  Smith,  who  says  in  regard  to  it:  "This 
'duck's- foot-grass,'  with  its  flat  narrow  leaves  and  herbaceous 
calyx,  is  considered  to  be  related  to  the  bamboo.  The  flower  of 
this  Spider-wort  is  compared  by  the  Chinese  to  a  moth.  The 
plant  is  much  cultivated  as  a  pot  herb,  which  is  eaten  in  the 
spring,  and  the  juice  of  the  flower  is  used  as  a  bluish  pigment 
in  painting  upon  transparencies.  Demulcent,  diuretic,  and 
lenitive  qualities  evidently  reside  in  the  herbage  of  this  plant, 
which  is  taken  internally  in  cyanache,  fevers,  dysentery, 
abdominal  obstructions,  and  dysuria,  and  is  applied  topically 
to  piles,  abcesses,  and  bites.  Dr.  Hasskarl,  of  Java,  has  pub- 
lished a  valuable  monograph  on  the  Commelynacese  of  India 
and  the  Indian  Archipelago.  In  some  countries  the  rhizomes 
of  Comviclynas  become  very  starchy,  and  are  eaten.  Com- 
melyna  rumphii  is  used  in  India  as  an  emmenagogue." 

ch'iungi,  469.  This  is  a  Japanese  identification.  It  is  an 
umbelliferous  plant,  resembling  Angelica.  The  common 
name  by  which  it  appears  in  commerce  is  ]\\  ^  (Ch'uan- 
hsiung),  247.  Other  names  are  ^  |f  (Hu-ch'iung)  and  ^  ^ 
(Hsiang-kuo).  The  leaves  are  called  ^  M  (Mi-wu),  which  is 
given   a   special   article   in    the    Pentsao.     Faber    calls    this 


SeliniLm.  Li  Shih-chen  says  that  the  drug  was  called  H  ^  "^ 
H"  (Ma-hsien-lisiung-ch'iung),  from  the  resemblance  of  the 
root  with  its  joints  to  a  horse's  bit.  It  was  also  called  ^  iPf  t? 
(Chiao-nao-hsiung),  when  coming  from  Kuanchung,  on  account 
of  the  compact  masses  resembling  the  brain  of  a  bird.  This 
latter  is  also  called  %  ^  (Ching-hsiung)  and  W  ^  (Hsi- 
hsiung).  The  Chekiang  variety  is  called  -^  "^  (T'ai-hsiung), 
and  that  from  Kiangnan  is  called  ^  f^  (Fu-hsiung).  The 
drug  is  cultivated  in  some  parts  of  China,  and  the  cultivated 
varieties  are  regarded  more  highly  than  the  wild  ones  ;  these 
latter  often  being  small  in  size,  and  having  a  bitter  pungent 
taste.  The  parts  used  in  medicine  are  the  root  and  leaves. 
The  former  is  recommended  for  a  large  variety  of  difficulties  : 
such  as  colds,  headache,  anaemia,  menorrhagia,  retained 
placenta,  sterility,  pains  and  aches  of  all  kinds  including 
toothache,  hemoptysis,  phthisis,  strumous  difficulties,  rheu- 
matism, and  fluxes.  The  leaves  are  said  to  .be  anthelmintic, 
and  are  also  used  in  the  treatment  of  diarrhoea  and  dysentery. 
The  flowers  of  the  plant  are  used  in  the  preparation  of  facial 

CONOCEPHALUS  CONICA.— Jl|  ^  if  (Ti-ch'ien-ts'ao). 
This  is  Faber's  identification.  But  this  name  is  given  in 
the  Phitsao  under  the  article  on  ^  Q:  ^  (Chi-hsiieh-ts'ao), 
which  is  Nepeta  glechovia^  under  which  title  this  will  find 

CONOPHALLUS  KONJAK.— ^  ^  (Chu-jo).  This  is 
an  Aroid  plant,  so  identified  by  the  Japanese.  Other  names 
given  in  the  Pentsao  are  ^  5^  (Jo-t'ou),  %  ^  (Kuei-yii),  and 
J^  0^  (Kuei-t'ou).  It  is  said  to  grow  in  moist  and  shady 
places,  principally  in  the  mountainous  regions'  of  Szechuan 
and  Fukien.  The  root  is  the  part  used,  and  it  is  considered 
to  be  very  poisonous,  being  said  to  produce  hematemesis  when 
ingested  in  sufficient  dose.  Its  medical  uses  are  not  clearly 
stated.  Being  a  virulent  poison,  it  is  recommended  in  such 
difficulties  as  cancer,  rodent  ulcer,  lupiis,  and  the  like.  The 
only  medical  property  mentioned  is  that  of  relieving  thirst, 
possibly  due  to  a  sialagogue  effect. 


CONVOLVULUS. — The  common  representative  of  the 
Convolvulacese  in  China  is  the  ^  ^g  (Hsiian-hua),  and  this  is 
Calystegia  sepium  (which  see).  Another  is  ^  ^  -^  (Ch'ien- 
niu-tzu),  which  is  IpomcEa^  and  will  be  referred  to  under  that 
title.  At  Peking  Convolvulus  arvensis  is  found  under  the 
name  of  fi  '^'\^  (Ta-wan-hua)  and  ^2  ^  (Yen-fu).  Another, 
identified  by  Faber  as  Convolvulus  japonicus  is  ^  ;^  ^f  jij 
(Ch'en-chih-mou-tan).  None  of  these  latter,  however,  is 
specially  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao^  and  they  are  not  considered 
as  differing  materially  from  the  principal  members  of  this 

COPTIS  TEETA.  —  m  51  (Huang-lien),  516.  The 
different  names  given  for  this  drug  in  the  Customs  lists  refer 
to  different  qualities  and  places  of  origin.  The  Pentsao  gives 
as  additional  names  3£  ^  (Wang-lien)  and  '^  5^  (Chih-lien). 
The  plant  grows  extensively  throughout  China,  but  the  best 
comes  from  Szechuan,  where  it  is  cultivated.  It  is  a 
Ranunculaceous  plant,  and  the  root  has  sometimes  the 
appearance  of  a  bird's  claw.  Two  kinds  of  roots  are  described 
in  the  Chinese  books  :  one  being  hairy  (fine  radicle  fibers)  and 
the  other  coarse  and  knotted,  forming  a  series  of  united  tubers. 
Large  quantities  of  this  drug  are  shipped  from  China  to  India. 
Siebold  identifies  it  as  Coptis  an<zmoncsfolia^  and  the  Japanese 
describe  a  three-leaved  and  a  five-leaved  variety.  Porter 
Smith  wrongly  identifies  Hiiang-lien  as  Justicia.  The  drug, 
as  it  appears  in  the  market,  is  in  short  branching  pieces,  one 
or  two  inches  long,  of  a  yellowish-brown  color,  and  often 
bristled  with  radicles.  The  interior  is  hard,  the  cortical  part 
being  dark,  and  the  central  portion  being  pierced  by  a  pith  of 
deeper  shade.  The  color  of  the  main  portion  is  a  deep,  rich 
yellow.  The  taste  is  intensely  bitter,  but  aromatic.  The 
more  brittle  the  root  is,  the  more  highly  its  reputed  virtues. 
It  is  regarded  by  Chinese  doctors  as  a  sort  of  a  panacea  for  a 
great  many  ills.  It  is  supposed  to  clear  inflamed  eyes,  to 
benefit  the  chest,  to  combat  fever,  and  to  act  as  an  alterative 
or  alexipharmic  drug.  Its  use  in  all  forms  of  dysentery  is 
specially  recommended,  and  in  diabetes  to  relieve  thirst  and 
reduce  the  quantity  of  urine.     Various  poisons,  especially  that 


of  the  Croton  bean,  are  said  to  be  antagonized  by  it.  Most 
midwives  insist  upon  every  infant  swallowing  a  dose  of  this 
drug,  mixed  with  borax,  soon  after  birth.  This  is  said  to 
prevent  apthse  and  to  eliminate  or  counteract  all  syphilitic 
poison.  The  drug  closely  resembles  the  Creyat^  or  Kariat  of 
India  in  its  action,  which  is  the  same  in  general  character  as 
that  of  Chiretta.  The  leaves  and  stalk  are  not  used.  The 
^  (Kan)  and  other  infantile  disorders  are  treated  both 
topically  and  internally  by  this  drug.  A  tincture  may  be 
made  to  be  taken  as  a  "bitter,"  by  digesting  three  ounces  of 
the  sliced  root  and  two  ounces  of  coolie-orange  peel  for  a  week 
in  a  pint  of  brandy.  This  is  of  some  use  in  indigestion  in 
cases  where  bitters  are  sometimes  prescribed. 

CORCHORUS  PYRIFORMIS.— ^  ^  (T'ang-ti).  Dr. 
Morrison  gives  this  as  the  name  of  the  Chino-Japanese  species 
of  Cor  chorus  which  with  Triumfetta^  another  Tiliaceous  plant, 
yields  the  hemp-fiber  called  Po-lo-ma.  The  SJmow^n  makes 
the  above  characters  to  be  only  a  various  writing  of  J^:  ;j^ 
(T'ang-ti).  Chinese  writers  describe  this  tree  very  differently  ; 
some  making  it  out  to  be  a  sort  of  plum  or  cherry,  while 
others  think  it  to  be  an  aspen  or  poplar.  Li  Shih-chen  says 
that  it  is  the  same  as  the  ^  \%  (Ch'ang-ti),  which  is  identical 
with  the  IR  ^  (Yii-li),  Prunus  japonica.  ^  ^  (Ti-t'ang)  is 
Kerria  japonica. 

CorcJioriis  capsiilaHs  is  also  identified  by  the  Japanese  as 
^  %  (Huang-ma).  It  is  cultivated  for  its  fibre  (jute)  in 
south  China  and  other  parts  of  tropical  Asia.  It  is  not  known 
to  be  used  in  medicine.  It  may  be  that  in  the  Pentsao 
and  other  Chinese  medical  works  it  is  regarded  as  identical 
with  j^  %. 

CORDYCEPS  SINENSIS.  — H  ^  ^  ^  (Hsia-ts'ao- 
tuug-ch'ung),  287.  This  fungus,  described  by  the  Chinese  as 
a  plant  in  summer  and  an  insect  in  winter,  grows  upon  the 
pupa  of  a  kind  of  caterpillar  as  a  parasite.  It  is  said  to  be 
common  in  southern  Thibet,  but  the  Pintsao  says  that  it 
comes  from  Szechuan,  and  this  is  the  source  of  origin  given  in 
the  Customs  lists.     It  is  not  so  rare  nor  so  much  thought  of  as 


in  the  days  of  Duhalde,  who  praises  it  immoderately.  It 
belongs  to  the  class  of  drugs  called  //^  f^  ^  (Leug-tan-huo),  or 
things  uncommon,  but  not  in  great  demand.  It  is  sold  in 
bundles  weighing  two  mace  (ii6  grains  Troy)  each,  or  there- 
abouts. The  bundles  are  three-quarters  of  an  inch  in  diameter 
and  from  three  to  three-and-a-half  inches  in  length.  Each  of 
the  many  pieces  forming  the  bundles  consists  of  two  distinct 
portions  :  one,  which  is  the  larger  and  belonging  to  the  insect, 
being  more  than  an  inch  long  and  of  a  yellowish-brown 
color,  and  showing  the  rings,  joints,  and  more  or  less  of  the 
characteristic  structure  of  the  grub ;  and  the  upper  fungus 
portion,  consisting  of  a  spurred  filament  of  a  greyish-brown 
color,  flexible,  more  or  less  twisted,  and  internally  of  a  lighter 
shade.  It  is  said  by  Duhalde  to  be  found  in  the  province  of 
Hukuang,  answering  to  Hupeh  and  Hunan  of  the  present  time, 
and  it  is  entirely  probable  that  it  can  be  found  in  other  parts 
of  China.  The  Pentsao  compares  its  action  to  that  oi ginseng^ 
and  it  is  said  to  be  worth  four  times  its  weight  of  silver.  It  is 
considered  to  be  restorative  and  tonic,  and  is  used  in  jaundice, 
phthisis,  and  in  cases  of  injury  of  any  serious  nature.  Taken 
with  duck,  its  virtues  are  very  much  increased.  If  a  drake  is 
taken,  prepared  for  cooking,  the  head  split  open  and  the 
cavities  filled  with  this  drug,  while  cooking  the  aura  of  the 
medicine  will  spread  to  the  whole  bird  permeating  every  part, 
and  thus  increasing  the  potency  of  the  medicament.  It  is  said 
that  one  duck  thus  prepared  will  be  quite  the  equivalent  of  an 
ounce  of  the  best  gmseng. 

CORIANDRUM  SATIVUM.—]^  ^  (Hu-sui,  ^  ^ 
Hsiang-sui)  ^  ^  (Yiian-sui ),  and  7^  ^  (Yiian-sui),  1565. 
The  root  and  leaves  are  used  in  medicine,  as  well  as  the  fruits. 
The  former,  although  sometimes  used  with  green  vegetables, 
is  considered  to  be  slightly  deleterious.  Carminative,  correct- 
ive, and  quieting  properties  are  ascribed  to  the  plant,  and  it  is 
recommended  in  ptomaine  poisoning  as  well  as  in  the  treat- 
ment of  the  ^  (Ku)  poison.  The  fruits,  deprived  of  their 
husks,  can  be  eaten,  and  have  carminative  and  corrective 
properties.  They  are  specially  recommended  to  be  used  freely 
in  fluxes. 


CORNUS  MACHROPHYLLA.  —  ;^  )^^  (Sung-yang). 
Henry  so  identifies  this.  But  in  Japan  Siing-yang  is  Celtis 
iniiku  or  EJirctia  sen'ata.  Another  name  given  by  the 
Pentsao  is  ||[  -^  /jv  (Liang-tzii-mu).  According  to  the  Erhya^ 
1^  (Liang)  is  the  same  as  \%  (Lai).  This  is  a  tree  of  some 
proportions,  growing  in  Kiangsi,  bearing  a  small  edible  fruit 
called  ^  ^  1^  (Tung-ch'ing-kuo),  and  having  a  reddish 
colored  sap.  The  wood  is  thought  to  be  efficacious  as  a 
constructive  remedy,  probably  on  account  of  the  color  of  the 
sap.  It  is  said  to  destroy  bad  blood  and  to  build  up  good 
blood,  quieting  the  uterus,  relieving  pain,  and  nourishing  the 
body.  The  bark  is  i3rescribed  in  all  forms  of  dysentery,  prob- 
ably being  astringent  in  character. 

CORNUS  OFFICINALIS.— il]  ^  ^  (Shan-chu-yii), 
1094.  Other  names,  ^  ^  ^  (Shu-suan-tsao)  and  |^  ^  (Jou- 
tsao).  This  is  a  large  thorny  shrub  or  tree,  growing  in  the 
mountainous  districts  of  China.  It  bears  white  flowers,  resem- 
bling those  of  the  apricot.  The  drupe  is  red,  enclosing  a 
stone  which  is  retained  in  the  prepared  drug.  It  has  a  sub- 
acid taste,  and  contains  considerable  of  oil.  It  is  the  only  part 
recommended  in  Chinese  medicine,  although  the  bark  of  all  of 
these  dogivoods  has  excellent  tonic  and  astringent  properties, 
as  well  as  some  anti-malarial  virtues.  Various  medical  quali- 
ties are  ascribed  to  this  drug,  among  which  are  diuretic, 
astringent,  tonic,  anthelmintic,  and  antilithic.  It  is  recom- 
mended for  menorrhagia,  impotence,  and  the  urinary  difficul- 
ties of  the  aged. 

CORYDALIS  AMBIGUA.— 5E  ^  %  (Yen-hu-so),  1529, 
S  1^  ^  (Hslian-hu-so).  The  tubers  of  this  Fumariaceous 
plant  are  met  with  as  small,  firm,  brownish-yellow,  flattened 
pellets,  with  a  depression  on  one  of  the  surfaces,  giving  them 
some  sort  of  resemblance  to  the  tubers  of  PineUia  hibcr^ifera. 
They  are  from  four  to  six  lines  in  diameter,  and  are  marked 
externally  with  wrinkles  or  reticulations.  When  broken,  they 
present  a  horny,  semi-translucent,  yellow  or  greenish  appear- 
ance. The  flavor  is  bitterish  and  bean-like.  The  Pentsao  says 
that  it  comes  from  the  country  of  the  Northeastern  Barbarians, 


and  this  is  confirmed  by  Hanbury,  wlio  says  that  it  is 
indigenous  to  Siberia,  Kamtchatka,  and  the  Amur  region. 
The  Corydalis goviana  of  India,  and  doubtless  this  species  also, 
contains,  according  to  Sir  W.  B.  O'Shaughnessy,  the  crysta- 
line  principle  corydalia^  discovered  in  Corydalis  hibei'osa  by 
Wackenroder.  This  active  principle  is  suggested  in  the  Phar- 
macopoeia of  India  as  an  antiperiodic.  Whether  it  has  proven 
of  any  value  or  not,  or  whether  such  use  was  only  suggested 
by  the  intense  bitterness  of  this  product,  it  has  not  been 
possible  to  learn.  To  the  drug  itself,  as  appearing  in  China, 
is  ascribed  tonic,  diuretic,  emmenagogue,  deobstruaut,  astrin- 
gent, alterative,  and  sedative  properties.  It  is  much  used  in 
prescriptions  for  post-partum  difficulties,  hematuria,  and  other 
bloody  fluxes. 

CORYDALIS  INCISA.— ^  ^  (Tzu-chin\  ^.  j^  (Ch<ih- 
ch'in),  ^  -^  (Shu-ch'in),  ^  %  (T'ai-ts'ai).  This  marsh  plant 
grows  in  Central  China,  where  the  shoots  are  used  in  the 
spring  as  food,  although  they  are  considered  to  be  slightly 
deleterious.  The  flowers,  dried  and  pulverized,  are  used  in 
prolapse  of  the  rectum. 

CORYLUS.— ;ji  (Chen).  Two  species  abound  in  the 
mountains  of  Northern  China  ;  the  Corylus  heterophylla  and  the 
Co7'ylus  mandslmrica.  The  nuts  of  both  are  edible  and  are  to 
be  found  in  the  markets.  The  first  named  has  a  spreadmg 
involucre,  resulting  in  a  flattened  nut,  while  that  of  the  latter 
is  contracted  and  prolonged  beyond  the  apex  of  the  nut,  pro- 
ducing a  pointed  shape.  The  hazel  has  been  known  from  very 
early  time  in  China,  and  is  mentioned  in  the  classics.  The 
eating  of  the  nuts  is  considered  to  be  in  every  way  beneficial, 
benefitting  the  breath,  relieving  hunger,  and  giving  strength 
for  locomotion.  They  are  not  prescribed  for  any  particular 
diseases,  but  are  thought  to  improve  the  appetite  and  aid  in 
digestion.  They  appear  in  commerce  as  ;f^  -j^  (Chen-jen)  and 
;ji  ^  (Chen-tzu),  38. 

CRAT.^GUS.— If  (Cha).  This  character  serves  as  a 
generic  name  for  hawthorne^  which  in  China,  as  elsewhere,  is 
represented    by    several   species.      The    [1]    ;[|   (Shan-cha)   is 


CratcBgus  piniiatifida^  and  Cratcegus  cnneata  is  llj  ^  ^ 
(Slian-li-kuo).  The  fruit  of  these  commonest  kinds  is  scarlet, 
or  dark-red,  and  almost  as  large  as  the  frnit  of  Pyrus  speclabiiis. 
The  frnit,  when  ripe,  is  sour  and  of  a  pleasant  flavor,  and 
upon  the  addition  of  sugar  is  most  readily  converted  into  a  most 
delicious  jelly  or  jam.  The  jam  is  a  common  article  of  sale 
in  the  shops  under  the  name  of  jl]  |^  |j£  (Shan-cha-kaoi,  1084, 
01'  iJj  it  ff  (Shan-cha-ping).  The  flesh  of  the  fruit,  after 
the  skin  and  core  have  been  removed,  is  also  sold  under  the 
name  of  IJJ  |f  |^  (Shan-cha-jou),  1082.  The  fruit,  sliced  and 
dried,  is  called  jlj  ;^  |^  (Shan-cha-kan),  1085.  The  whole 
fruit  is  preserved  in  sugar  and  candied,  and  then  strung  upon 
straws  or  slips  of  bamboo,  and  peddled  upon  the  streets  by 
sweetmeat  sellers,  under  the  name  of  |f  ^jj  ^  (T*ang-liu-lu), 
H  %  (T*ang-ch'iu),  and  [ll  ifS  ^  (Shan-cha-ch'iu). 

Another  species,  which  is  named  !^  ^  ^  fCh'ih-chao- 
tzu),  is  probably  CratcBgus  inacracantha.  It  grows  in  vShan- 
tung  to  the  height  of  five  or  six  feet,  and  has  a  five  pointed 
leaf  and  thorny  axils.  Early  in  the  spring  it  bears  a  small 
white  flower,  which  is  followed  by  the  pome  ;  this  attaining  to 
the  size  of  a  small  date.  Another  kind  is  known  as  ^  '^$. 
(Mao-cha),  *'  reed  haw  ",  or  ff^  |^  (Hou-cha),  "  monkey  haw  ". 
This  tree  grows  to  the  height  of  several  feet,  and  there  are  two 
varieties  ;  one  bearing  a  red  fruit  and  the  other  a  yellow. 
The  M.  jyt  (Shu-cha),  "rat  haw",  and  the  "monkey  haw" 
are  so  named  because  the  wild  animals  on  the  hills  like  to  eat 
them.  The  rat  haw  is  also  known,  especially  in  the  north, 
^s  ill  H  ifl  (Shan-li-hung),  "  red-on-the-hill ".  Another 
kind,  having  a  very  large,  pear-shaped  fruit,  is  known  as  ^  \^ 
•^  (T'ang-ch'iu-tzu),  and  is  probably  Cratcegus  Jiava.  The  use 
of  the  character  ^  may  have  been  suggested  by  the  resem- 
blance of  this  fruit  in  appearance  to  Pyrus  fruits,  as  this  character 
is  almost  a  generic  term  for  Pyrus.  This  latter  species  is  not 
used  in  medicine,  but  is  employed  in  making  the  confection. 
From  another  kind,  called  ^  |^;  ^  ( Yang-ch'iu-tzu),  which 
is  possibly  Cratcegus  parvifolia.,  is  obtained  a  greenish  or 
yellowish  fruit,  which  is  not  fit  to  eat  until  after  it  has  been 
exposed  to  frost.  It  is  not  used  in  medicine.  The  character 
f^  in  this  name  is  also   written   \ji  in   the  Pentsao^   but   this 


latter  character  is  more  properly  applied  to  the  Myrica  riibra^ 
or  a  PrniiHs. 

Antiscorbutic,  laxative,  stomachic,  deobstruant,  and  altera- 
tive properties  are  ascribed  to  these  fruits.  The  juice  is 
used  in  lumbago,  diarrhoea,  to  stop  the  itching  of  ulcers,  and 
to  bring  out  the  rash  in  the  exanthemata  of  children.  It 
is  considered  to  be  peptic  and  stimulant,  and  is  employed 
in  scrotal  hernia  and  prolonged  lochia!  discharge.  The 
confection  is  eaten  to  assist  digestion  and  to  promote  the 
circulation  of  the  blood.  As  the  fruit  is  constantly  used 
as  food,  its  physiological  effect  upon  the  system  cannot  be 
very  powerful.  The  seeds  are  recommended  for  hernia,  difficult 
labor,  and  swelling  of  the  genitals.  The  wood  of  the  -^  ^ 
(Ch'ih-chao)  is  used  in  decoction  for  pruritus.  The  root  of 
the  different  species  of  haw  is  recommended  for  nausea  and 
vomiting.  A  decoction  of  the  twigs  and  leaves  is  employed 
in  varnish  poisoning. 

CRINUM  SINENSIS.—^  J^  H  (W8n.chu-lan).  This 
beautiful  amarillidaceus  plant  is  confounded  by  the  Chinese 
with  orchids,  and  is  not  specially  mentioned  in  the  Pintsaa. 
It  is  cultivated  in  China,  India,  and  Japan,  and  is  met  with 
in  Cochiuchina,  the  Moluccas,  and  in  Ceylon.  Four  or  five 
species  are  said  by  Burnett  to  be  found  in  China.  In  India 
the  bulbous  root,  which  has  a  terminal,  stoloniferous,  fusiform 
portion  issuing  from  the  crown  of  the  bulb,  as  described  by 
Dr.  Waring,  has  an  unpleasant  narcotic  odor.  It  is  there 
used  in  fresh  slices  as  an  emetic  and  diaphoretic,  or  the 
root  is  carefully  dried  and  reduced  to  powder  as  a  substitute 
for  squills  or  ipecacuanha.  It  is  said  to  contain  a  principle 
analagous  to  scilitin^  the  active  chemical  ingredient  of  Scilla 
viaritima^  which  so  far  as  at  present  known  is  not  met  with 
in  the  Far  East.  Dr.  Waring  bears  testimony  to  the  efficiency 
of  this  drug.  The  classification  is  given  on  the  authority 
of  Dr.  Morrison. 

CROCUS  SATIVUS.— #  jfl  -^  (Fan-hung-hua).  Ac 
cording  to  the  Pentsao^  this  was  brought  from  Arabia  by 
Chang  Chien,  at  the  same  time  that  he  brought  the  safflower 


and  other  Western  drugs  and  plants.  Another  name  given 
is  ^  fi  ^  (Sa-fa-ang),  which  is  evidently  a  transliteration 
of  the  Arabic  name  Zafardii.  The  last  character  is  sometimes 
written  ^  and  |p,  but  this  does  not  have  the  proper  sound,  and 
is  probably  wrongly  written.  Still  another  name  is  f)^  ^  ^  (Po- 
fu-lan),  which  is  also  probably  a  transliteration  of  some  foreign 
term.  Saffron  is  said  to  be  stimulant,  carminative,  and 
antispasmodic.  It  is  thought  to  have  a  beneficial  action  upon 
the  blood,  and  to  be  quieting  in  cases  of  fright.  At  the  time 
of  the  Yuan  (Mongol)  dynasty  these  flowers  were  used  in 
cooking.  ^  ^I  f2  (Tsang-hung-hua),  "  Thibetan  safflower  ", 
is  given  by  some  foreign  writers  as  another  name  for  saffron, 
but  this  has  not  been  found  mentioned  by  any  Chinese  writer. 
However,  it  may  be  found  in  Tibet,  although  this  has  not  yet 
been  confirmed. 

CROTON  TIGLIUM.— E.  s  (Pa-tou),  933.  The  first 
character  of  this  name  refers  to  a  country  which  was  included 
within  the  boundaries  of  the  present  eastern  Szechuan.  The 
second  character  was  used  because  of  the  resemblance  to  the 
soy-bean.  This  is  one  of  the  five  principal  poisons  mentioned 
by  Shen  Nung,  so  the  plant  is  probably  indigenous  to  China. 
The  Arabic  name  is  baioo^  which  was  probably  derived  from 
the  Chinese  name.  One  of  the  Persian  names  means  '•*■  Ricimis 
from  China,"  so  that  it  is  quite  possible  that  the  original 
habitat  of  this  plant  was  here.  The  Patoit  is  properly  a  fruit. 
It  is  oblong,  obscurely  triangular,  about  three-quarters  of  an 
inch  in  length,  three-celled,  and  of  a  yellowish-brown  color. 
Each  cell  contains  an  oval,  flattened,  or  imperfectly  quadran- 
gular seed,  resembling  a  coffee  bean.  The  dark  brown  testa 
encloses  the  yellowish  albumen,  within  which  is  the  large 
dicotyledonous  embryo,  often  much  shrunken.  The  taste  is 
very  acrid.  The  fresh  fruits,  the  oil,  the  testa,  and  the  root  of 
the  tree  are  all  used  in  medicine.  The  drug  is  recommended 
for  a  very  large  number  of  difficulties,  but,  generally  speaking, 
the  Chinese  doctors  are  afraid  to  employ  it  on  account  of  the 
exaggerated  notions  of  its  poisonous  properties,  which  were 
handed  down  from  very  ancient  times.  It  is  recommended  as 
a  revulsive  in  colds  aud   fevers,    for  obstinate  diarrhoea   and 


dysentery,  in  delayed  menstruation,  and  similar  troubles.  It 
is  also  adaiinistered  in  ranula,  apoplexy,  paralysis,  toothache, 
and  affections  of  the  throat.  Externally  it  is  applied  in  com- 
bination with  rape-seed  oil  in  various  skin  affections.  The 
seeds  in  coarse  powder  are  also  recommended  in  various  kinds 
of  drug  poisoning.  The  oil  is  used  in  much  the  same  classes 
of  cases,  as  well  as  being  used  for  very  much  the  same  purposes, 
as  it  is  employed  in  the  west.  The  testa  is  only  recommended 
for  fluxes.  The  bruised  root  is  applied  in  carbuncle  and 
cancerous  sores. 

CRYPTOT^NIA  CANADENSIS.— f"  |f  (Tang-kuei), 
1250.  Faber  identifies  this  umbelliferous  plant  as  the  ordi- 
nary ho)ieyzvort  of  North  America.  Hanbury  identifies  it  errone- 
ously with  Aralia  edulis^  and  Tatarinov  as  Levisticiim.  The 
Japanese  make  it  to  be  Ligitsticiim  or  Angelica.  The  root  of 
this  plant  represents  the  drug,  which  is  held  in  very  high  repute 
among  the  Chinese.  It  ranks  next  to  licorice  in  frequency  of 
use  in  prescriptions.  It  comes  principally  from  the  three 
western  provinces,  but  is  also  prepared  in  Shansi,  Shantung, 
and  Chihli.  It  is  met  with  in  the  form  of  brown,  fleshy  root- 
stocks,  branching  and  dividing  into  a  mass  of  large,  close, 
pliant  rootlets,  something  like  gentian  root.  The  interior  is 
soft,  sometimes  mealy,  and  of  a  whitish  or  yellow  color,  or 
sometimes  much  darker.  The  odor  is  very  strong,  resembling 
that  of  celery,  and  the  taste  is  sweetish,  warm,  and  aromatic. 
Names  by  which  it  is  also  called  are  ^]  ]|jf  (Shan-ch'in)  and  j^ 
^  (Pai-ch'in*,  which  mean  "mountain"  or  "  white  celery," 
and  it  is  compared  to  Aphnn  graveolens^  and,  indeed,  is  said  by 
Siebold  to  be  eaten  like  celery  in  Japan,  though  we  do  not  find 
that  it  is  so  used  in  China.  The  drug  is  much  used  by  medical 
men  in  China  in  the  treatment  of  the  menstrual,  chlorotic,  and 
puerperal  diseases  of  women.  It  is  used  in  hemorrhages  of  all 
kinds,  colds,  fluxes,  dyspeptic  complaints,  ague,  and  a  large 
number  of  other  difficulties.  Its  name  is  said  to  be  derived 
from  its  asserted  power  to  make  the  female  "revert"  to 
her  husband,  and  much  of  its  employment  is  probably  to  be 
referred  to  the  wish  of  Chinese  women  to  stimulate  their 
generative  organs,   in  order  to  increase  their  opportunities  of 


bearing  children^  at  present  their  only  fnnction  in  Chinese 
society.  According  to  Henry,  Angelica  polyniiorpJia  is  the 
source  of  the  drug  Tang-knei  exported  from  Ichang  and 

CRYPTOMERIA.— >t^  (Shan).  This  name  is  nowadays 
applied  to  this  and  perhaps  to  other  coniferous  trees.  Henry 
claims  that  in  Hupeh  some  of  the  many  '■'■  Shan''''  trees 
are  undoubtedly  Cryptomeria  japoitica^  and  in  Japan  this 
character  is  used  for  CryptomeHa.  But  the  Shan  tree  of 
the  ancient  Chinese  authors,  and  the  one  which  is  particularly 
discussed  in  medical  works,  is  CuniiijigJiantia  si7iensis^  and  will 
be  referred  to  under  that  title. 

CUCUAHS  MELO.  — t  JR  (Kan-kua),  ^^  )^  (TMen-kua), 
^  JK.  (Yiieh-kua),  |g  JJSL  (Shao-kua),  and  %  JJS;.  (Hsiang-kua). 
%.  (Kua)  is  a  general  term  for  the  fruits  of  cucurbitaceous 
plants.  The  Chinese  divide  these  into  two  classes  ;  one  called 
H  JK.  (Kuo-kua),  including  musk  melons  and  water  melons, 
and  the  other  called  ^  ]%,  (Ts'ai-kna),  comprising  cucumbers, 
squashes,  pumpkins^  gourds,  and  the  like.  This  plant  is 
probably  indigenous  to  China,  and  the  first  name  above  given 
is  the  old  name,  which  has  been  superseded  by  the  second, 
which  at  present  is  more  colloquial.  The  third  name 
indicates  the  probable  original  habitat  of  the  plant,  the  present 
province  of  Chekiang.  Several  varieties  are  found  in  different 
parts  of  the  empire  ;  some  being  almost  mealy  when  ripe,  while 
others  are  firm  and  more  like  a  encumber  in  texture.  None 
are  so  juicy  as  the  western  kinds,  but  all  have  more  or  less 
of  an  aromatic  flavor  and  fragrance.  Some  are  quite  small  and 
egg-shaped,  while  others  are  longer  and  more  cucumber-like. 
The  skin  varies  from  a  bright  yellow,  through  greenish  yellows, 
to  a  pure  green,  being  sometimes  striped  in  darker  shades.  In 
accordance  with  the  Chinese  classification,  and  on  account  of 
the  variation  of  these  melons  in  texture,  the  Pentsao  discusses 
these  under  two  separate  headings  :  the  |§  jrjj^  (Yiieh-kua),  under 
the  classification  of  vegetables,  and  the  $^  ^  (T'ien-kua), 
under  that  of  fruits.  The  eating  of  these  melons  is  regarded 
by  the  Chinese  as  somewhat  deleterious.     As  they  usually  eat 


them  before  they  are  ripe,  and  as  the  melons  are  opened  amidst 
the  dust  and  filth  of  a  summer  street,  it  is  quite  probable 
that  they  do  not  entirely  deserve  the  reputation  they  have 
secured.  Notwithstanding  their  slight  fear  of  these  melons, 
large  quantities  are  ingested  every  season  by  all  sorts  and 
conditions  of  people.  The  YiieJi-Jziia  is  not  much  used 
medicinally,  but  is  considered  to  be  cooling,  diuretic,  anti- 
vinous,  and  peptic.  The  incinerated  ash  is  used  in  sore  mouth. 
The  pulp  of  the  T'-icii-ktia  is  regarded  with  more  favor 
than  that  of  the  Yiieh-kna.  But  if  eaten  to  excess,  it  is 
thought  to  cause  pimples,  to  bring  on  ague,  and  to  produce 
general  weakness  of  the  body.  Its  action  is  said  to  be  cooling, 
diurectic,  and  resolvent.  If  eaten  during  the  month  of  great 
heat,  sunstroke  will  be  prevented,  as  it  is  regarded  as  decidedly 
cooling.  The  kernels  of  the  seeds,  JK.  *jF  fl  (Kua-tzit-jen), 
are  highly  regarded  as  a  stomachic,  peptic,  and  constructive 
remedy.  They  are  prescribed  in  cancer  of  the  stomach  and 
purulent  difficulties  of  the  digestive  tract  generally.  They 
are  also  used  in  menorrhagia,  after  the  oil  has  been  extracted. 
The  peduncles,  ^§  jK.  ^  (T'ien-kua-ti),  1293,  also  called 
=^  "J*  ^  (K'u-ting-hsiang),  are  vaunted  as  a  remedy  out  of 
all  proportion  to  their  importance.  General  anasarca,  the 
worst  forms  of  intestinal  parasites,  and  acute  indigestion  from 
the  ingestion  of  too  much  fruit,  will  all  yield  to  this 
remedy.  It  is  also  used  in  the  treatment  of  nasal  polypus, 
jaundice,  acute  coryza,  and  colds  of  every  kind,  and  mixed 
with  musk  and  Asarttm  sieboldi  will  restore  a  lost  sense  of 
smell.  The  vine  (^,  Wan)  of  the  melon  is  prescribed,  together 
with  Quisqiialis  indica  and  Glycyrrhiza  glabra^  in  suppressed 
menstruation.  The  flowers  are  used  in  refractory  coughs. 
The  expressed  juice  of  the  leaves  is  thought  to  promote  the 
growth  of  whiskers  in  those  who  have  none,  and  when  made 
into  a  tincture  with  wine,  will  disperse  the  blood  from  bruised 

CUCUMIS  SATIVUS.— ^  E  (Hu-kua),  %  JR  (Huang- 
kua).  Chang  Chien,  the  noted  legate  of  the  Han  dynasty, 
seems  to  have  brought  this  plant  from  Central  Asia  to  China, 
as  he  did  many  other  useful  plants.     It  is  largely  cultivated. 


and  the  fruit  is  eaten  in  the  raw  state  and  as  a  pickle.  Its  use 
is  considered  to  be  slightly  deleterious.  Its  reputed  virtues 
are  cooling  and  diuretic.  A  sort  of  cucumber  salve  is  recom- 
mended for  skin  diseases,  and  for  scalds  and  burns.  The 
expressed  juice  of  the  leaves  is  used  as  an  emetic  in  acute 
indigestion  of  children.  The  bruised  root  is  applied  in  case  of 
swelling  from  the  wound  of  a  hedgehog  quill.  There  is  the 
same  danger  of  severe  diarrhoea  resulting  from  the  ingestion  of 
the  Chinese  varieties  of  this  vegetable  as  in  the  case  of  those 
from  the  west. 

CUCURBITA  MAXIMA.— The  Chinese  do  not  distin- 
guish clearly  between  the  mammoth  winter  squash  and  the 
larger  forms  of  gourd.  The  former  undoubtedly  is  grown  in 
China,  but  it  is  known  by  the  names  of  ^  ^  (Hu-lu),  ^  ^ 
(Hu-lu),  and  ^  (P'ao).  These  all  refer  to  the  gourd  (see 
Langeiiaria  V2ilgare\  and  medical  properties  will  be  discussed 
under  the  latter  title. 

CUCURBITA  MOSCHATA,  Cnairbita  pepo.—i^  S 
(Nan-kua).  Several  varieties  of  this  are  found  in  China, 
Cticurbita  maxima  may  also  in  some  cases  be  included  with 
this  product.  In  any  case  its  medical  properties  would  be 
similar.  A  crook-necked  variety  is  called  ^  )^  (Wo-kua, 
*' Japanese  gourd").  Another  variety  is  the  ^i  JJJL  (Fan-kua). 
Ivi  Shih-chen  says  that  the  natural  habitat  of  this  genus  is  the 
south  ;  hence  the  name.  The  Chinese  compare  the  flesh  of 
this,  when  cooked,  to  the  sweet  potato.  It  is  especially 
esteemed  when  cooked  with  pork.  When  prepared  with 
mutton,  it  is  considered  to  be  deleterious.  Squashes  are  pre- 
sented with  great  ceremony,  on  the  evening  of  .the  mid-autumn 
festival,  to  married,  childless  women,  being  considered  propi- 
tious for  the  speedy  production  of  offspring.  A  similar  custom 
prevails  in  India  where,  to  insure  prosperity,  the  tallow  gourd 
is  presented  to  the  newly  married  pair  at  their  wedding  feast. 
The  seeds  are  sometimes  used  salted  along  with  melon  seeds. 
The  medicinal  use  of  this  plant  and  its  fruit  is  not  great.  It  is 
not  recommended  in  any  particular  class  of  diseases,  but  its 
action  is  considered  to  be  beneficial  to  the  viscera  and  breath. 


CUDRANIA  TRILOBA.— ;{::5  (Che).  This  tree  is  of  the 
order  ArtocarpecB^  and  is  sometimes  mistaken  for  Morus  or 
Broussonetia.  It  is  said  to  grow  commonly  in  the  mountains, 
and  to  have  a  finely  grained  wood  suitable  for  manufacturing 
utensils.  Its  leaves  are  used  for  feeding  silkworms,  producing 
a  quality  of  silk  that  is  especially  esteemed  for  making  lute- 
strings. It  bears  a  fruit  somewhat  resembling  the  mulberry, 
of  which  the  birds  are  very  fond.  The  wood  is  used  in  prepar- 
ing a  yellow  dye,  which  is  employed  in  dyeing  the  imperial 
garments.  The  wood,  the  white  inner  bark  of  the  tree,  and 
that  of  the  eastward-extending  root  are  used  in  medicine.  The 
taste  is  sweetish  and  cooling,  and  it  is  prescribed  for  menor- 
rhagia,  malarial  fever,  debility,  and  wasting.  An  infusion  of 
the  wood  is  used  in  weak  and  sore  eyes.  An  epiphyte  growing 
upon  the  tree,  called  %-^  ^  (Che-huang)  and  |5  5  (Che-arh),  is 
used  in  consumption.  Of  a  thorny  variety  of  the  tree,  called 
^  15  (Nu-che),  the  thorns  are  used,  in  combination  with  other 
drugs,  in  decoction  for  the  treatment  of  constipation  and 
obstruction  of  the  bowels. 

CUNNINGHAMIA  SINENSIS.— ^f^  (Shan),  Q?  %  (Sha- 
mu).  This  tree  grows  in  the  southern,  central,  and  western 
provinces  of  China  and  in  Japan.  It  is  the  common  pine 
of  China,  and  is  found  in  many  varieties,  one  of  which  is 
said  to  have  been  introduced  from  Japan.  The  color  of 
the  wood  in  the  different  kinds  varies  from  red  to  white  ; 
the  former  being  tough  and  resinous,  while  the  latter  is 
of  a  looser  structure,  and  when  dry  becomes  beautifully 
veined.  Its  short,  stiff,  pointed  leaves,  and  its  avoid- 
ance of  the  sea-coast,  have  been  remarked  by  Mr.  Samp- 
son as  distinguishing  features  of  this  tree.  The  timber  is 
much  valued  for  making  coffins,  flooring,  furniture,  and 
house-frames,  as  it  is  less  liable  to  the  attacks  of  insects  than 
the  Pinus  sinensis  1;^,  Sung),  but  is  not  so  suitable  for  piles 
as  the  latter,  as  it  rots  easily  if  exposed  to  continual  dampness. 
Charcoal  for  making  gunpowder  has  been  usually  procured 
from  this  wood  by  the  Chinese.  A  decoction  of  the  wood  is 
said  to  be  a  sure  remedy  for  varnish  poisoning  at  every  stage. 
It  is  also  used  for  bathing  fetid  feet,  and  is  taken  internally  for 


flatulence  and  choleraic  symptoms.  Also,  in  combination  with 
other  things,  it  is  used  in  purulent  expectoration  and  as  a 
wash  to  chronic  ulcers.  The  ash  pf  the  old  bark  is  a  common 
application  to  wounds,  scalds,  and  burns.  The  leaves,  decocted 
in  wine  together  with  Conioselinum  and  Asar'nm^  iare  used  in 
the  treatment  of  worms  and  toothache.  The  seeds  arfe  Employed, 
one  to  be  ingested  for  each  year  of  age,  for  the  treatment  of 
hernia.  The  epiphyte,  called  >^  ]^  (Shan-chiin),  is  considered 
to  be  antispasmodic  and  carminative. 

CUPRESSUS.— tfi  (Po).  This  is  Faber's  identification, 
and  Henry  says  that  at  Ichang  the  Po  is  Cupressus  funebris. 
Dr.  Williams  sets  the  %_  ffi  (Pien-po)  down  as  Cupressus  thy- 
oidcs.  But  undoubtedly  in  the  north,  as  also  in  Japan,  Po 
refers  to  Thuja  {Biota)  orientalis.  Discussion  of  this  plant  will 
therefore  be  reserved  for  this  latter  title. 

CURCUMA  LONGA.— ^^(Yii-chin),  1545,  1546.  The 
first  character  of  this  name  refers  to  a  fragrant  plant  which, 
in  the  classical  period,  was  mixed  with  the  sacrificial  wine 
called  1^  (Ch'ang),  prepared  from  black  millet.  The  whole 
name  refers  to  the  yellow  tubers  of  the  plant,  described  by 
Hanbury  as  being  "oblong  or  ovate,  tapering  at  either  end, 
from  three-fourths  to  one  and  a-fourth  inch  in  length,  covered 
externally  with  a  thin,  adherent,  brownish-grey  cuticle,  usually 
(but  not  invariably)  smooth.  When  broken,  they  exhibit  a 
shining  fracture,  and  are  seen  to  consist  of  a  hard,  semi-trans- 
parent, horny,  orange-yellow  substance,  easily  separable  into 
two  portions,  an  inner  and  an  outer.  The  tubers  have  an  aro- 
matic odor,  and  a  slight  taste  resembling  turmeric,  and  contain 
an  abundance  of  starch."  In  Japan  this  plant  is  considered  to 
be  a  variety  {machrophylla)  of  Curcuma  loyiga.  According  to 
the  Pentsao  it  is  indigenous  to  the  country  of  ;^  ^  fTa  Ch'in), 
which  comprised  parts  of  what  is  now  Kausu  and  Shensi  prov- 
inces, or  possibly  was  Syria.  It  is  also  found  in  Szechuen  and 
Thibet.  The  root,  which  is  one  of  the  many  forms  of  turmeric 
found  in  commerce,  is  used  for  dyeing  women's  clothes.  It  is 
employed  medicinally  in  all  sorts  of  hemorrhages,  such  as 
hematuria,  hematemesis,  hemoptysis,  post-partum  hemorrhage, 


and  wounds.  It  is  also  recommended  in  primarj^  syphilis, 
mania,  and  "worm  poison."  Excessive  sweating,  arsenic 
poisoning,  and  the  distress  attending  hemorrhages  are  said  to 
be  reliev^ed  by  it.      It  is  also  used  in  veterinary  practice. 

Another  variety  (possibly  species)  of  Curcu)na  is  known 
by  the  name  of  ^  ^  (Chiang-huang),  75.  Chinese  authors  are 
not  clear  about  this  product ;  some  saying  that  there  are  three 
forms  of  the  root — yellow,  black,  and  white — while  others  claim 
that  these  are  three  distinct  varieties.  Ch'en  Ts'ang-ch'i  (8th 
Century)  says  that  the  root  of  the  Yii-ching  is  bitter,  cooling,  and 
red  in  color  ;  the  Chiang-huang  is  acrid  and  warming,  and  the 
color  yellow  ;  while  a  third  kind,  called  \^  ~^  (Shu-yao), — see 
Kicmpferia  pioidurata — is  bitter  and  black  in  color.  Other 
varieties  are  said  to  be  brought  from  Persia  and  other  western 
countries.  The  dried  root  stocks,  which  are  the  Chinese  turmeric 
of  commerce,  are  met  with  in  hard,  irregular,  tuberculated 
pieces  of  a  light  yellow  color  externally,  and  internally  varying 
in  color  from  orange  to  saffron-yellow.  The  smell  is  aromatic, 
and  the  taste  agreeable,  with  a  bitterish  after-taste.  In  the 
south  a  sliced  form  of  a  larger  tuber,  known  as  '^  ^l  j^ 
(Chiang-huang-p'ien),  76,  is  found.  This  may  be  the  so-called 
Cochin  tur}neric  of  commerce.  These  products  are,  for  the  most 
part,  exported  to  India,  as  the  Chinese  do  not  use  them  much 
as  condiments.  They  employ  them  to  some  extent  as  a  dye 
and  prescribe  them  in  colic,  congestions,  hemorrhages,  and  as 
an  external  application  to  some  intractable  diseases  of  the  skin. 
They  are  especially  recommended  in  cancerous  discharges.  Dr. 
Waring  advises  inhalations  of  the  fumes  of  burning  turmeric 
in  coryza,  and  approves  of  a  decoction  of  turmeric  as  a  wash 
for  eyes  suffering  from  catarrhal  and  purulent  ophthalmia. 

The  plant  spoken  of  at  the  head  of  this  article  is  evidently 
mentioned  in  the  P^nisao  under  the  title  of  i^  ^  @  ( Yii-chin- 
bsiang).  Other  names  are  |^  j;^  ^  (Tzu-shu-hsiang),  ^  ^  § 
(Ts'ao-she-hsiang,  "vegetable  musk  "),  and  ^^g  J^  (Ch'a-chii- 
mo)  ;  this  last  being  a  Buddhist  name.  It  was  formerly  sent  as 
tribute  by  the  ^  (Yii)  tribes,  and  from  this  the  present  f|  ;^ 
(Yii-lin)  in  Kuangsi  derives  its  name.  Ch'en  Ts'ang-ch'i 
says  that  it  comes  from  the  country  of  ^  (Ch'in),  and  bears  a 
flower  like  the  safflower.     Li  Shih-chen  says  that  besides  being 


fouud  iu  various  districts  in  western  Kuangsi,  it  comes  from 
the  countries  of  ^  ^  (Ch'i-pin)  and  -j^  ^  (Cb'ieh-p'i,  Kapila- 
vastu).  It  has  leaves  like  the  Ophiopugon  spicatus  and  flowers 
like  those  of  the  Hibiscus  mutabilis.  The  flowers  are  very 
fragrant,  and  can  be  smelled  for  a  long  distance.  An  empress 
of  the  Chin  (^)  dynasty  wrote  a  poem  in  praise  of  this  plant, 
in  which  she  extols  its  sweetness.  Medicinally,  it  is  used  to 
correct  foul  odors  and  bad  breath.  It  is  also  used  as  a  perfume. 
The  plant  is  not  yet  identified,   but  is  probably  not  Curcuma. 

CUSCUTA.— Faber  identifies  |g  %  (T'u-ssti)  as  Oiscuta 
cJn}ie?isis  and  -^  ^  (Nli-lo)  as  Ciiscuta  japonica.  According 
to  the  Pentsao  the  latter  is  the  same  as  |^  ^  (Sung-lo),  which 
is  Viscum.  It  is  possible  that  those  species  growing  upon 
herbaceous  plants  are  also  sometimes  indifferently  called  Nil-lo. 
Under  the  heading  of  T^ic-ssu  the  Pentsao  gives  a  number  of 
alternative  names  :  -%  ^g  (T'u-lil),  ^  ^  (T'u-lei),  %  ^  (T'u- 
lu),  %,  %  (T'u-chiu),  %  m  (Ch'ih-wang),  ^  ^  (Yii-nii),  ^  ^ 
(T'ang-meng),  >AC^  i^  (Huo-yen-ts'ao),  ^  ^  i^  ( Yeh-hu-ssu), 
and  ^  ^  ^  (Chin-hsien-ts'ao).  It  will  be  probably  found  that 
some  of  these  names  refer  to.  different  varieties,  if  not  to 
different  species,  of  the  dodder.  The  seeds  ^  i^.  -^  (T'u-ssit- 
tzu),  1382,  are  the  parts  used  in  medicine,  and  these  are  also 
found  in  commerce  in  the  form  of  cakes,  known  as  ^  i^  ^ 
(T'u-ssu-ping),  1383.  They  are  met  with  as  roundish  bodies 
of  the  size  of  black  mustard-seed,  and  of  a  brown  color,  with 
little  or  no  taste  or  smell.  Diaphoretic,  demulcent,  tonic,  and 
aphrodisiac  properties  are  ascribed  to  these  seeds,  and  they  are 
administered  in  gonorrhoea,  incontinence  of  urine,  leucorrhoea, 
and  as  a  nostrum  in  cases  of  cross  birth.  If  taken  for  a  long 
time,  they  are  thought  to  brighten  the  eye,  enliven  the  body, 
and  prolong  life.  The  young  shoots  of  the  plant  are  used 
externally  in  cosmetic  washes,  for  favus,  and  for  sore  eyes. 
Hanbury  says  that  the  plant  was  formerly  officinal  in  Europe 
as  a  purgative,  under  the  name  of  Herba  cuscutcB  majoris. 

CYCAS  REVOLUTA.— ^  Ci  ^  (Wu-lou-tzH).  This  is 
Faber' s  identification.  In  the  Pentsao  the  following  names 
are  given  for  this  product :  =f-  :^  ^  'Ch'ien-nien-tsao),  ^  ^ 


^  (Wan-siii-tsao),  f^  ^  (Hai-tsao^,  -^  fijf  ^  (P'o-ssu-tsao),  ^ 
^  (Fau-tsao),  ^  |^  (Chin-kuo),  and  IL  ;1  |E  (Feng-wei-chiao, 
"phoenix-tail-plantain.")  In  Japan  the  tree  is  called  M  J^  ^ 
(Feng-wei-sung),  in  which  the  first  character  is  probably 
improperly  written.  In  the  Customs  Lists  we  find  ^  ^  ^ 
(Feng-wei-ts'ao),  318,  where  again  the  first  character  is  improp- 
erly written,  and  also  probably  the  last,  ^  (Tsao),  being 
intended  instead  of  ^  (Ts'ao).  The  wood  is  known  as  ^  ;j^ 
(Hai-tsung).  Although  western  works  on  botany  ascribe  the 
natural  habitat  of  this  tree  to  Japan,  the  Pentsao  refers  it  to 
Persia  and  the  East  Indies.  It  is  not  said  to  be  found  iu 
China,  but  both  the  fruits  and  the  wood  are  said  to  be  brought 
to  this  country  iu  ships.  The  fruits  are  the  part  used,  and  to 
them  are  ascribed  expectorant,  tonic,  and  nutritive  properties. 
If  used  for  a  short  time  they  are  said  to  produce  plumpness. 

CYCLAMEN.— In  Faber's  lists  this  is  given  as  ^  ^ 
(Hai-yu).  But  he  also  gives  the  same  Chinese  name  for 
Alocasia  macrorhiza^  and  without  doubt  the  name  should  be 
referred  to  this  aroid  plant,  instead  of  to  the  primulaceous  one. 
(See  page  29.) 

CYDONIA   SINENSIS.     {Stt  Pyrus  cathayensia.) 

CYPERUS. — The  Pentsao  describes  two  cyperaceous 
plants,  under  the  names  ^  [^  (So-ts'ao),  §  ^^  ^  (Hsiang-fu- 
tzQ),  and  ^\\  ^  ^  (Ching-san-leng).  There  seems  to  be  the 
greatest  confusion  in  regard  to  the  identification  of  these. 
Faber  makes  the  first  to  be  Cyperus  iria  and  the  second  and 
third  Cypems  rotiindus.  The  Japanese  agree  with  the  first 
identification,  call  Hsiang-fu-tzii  Cyperus  rotiuidusy  Ching- 
san-leng  they  call  Scirpiis  jnaritinms^  and  what  is  given  in  the 
PSntsao  as  a  synonym  of  the  last,  i^  H  '^  (Ts'ao-san-leng),  is 
assigned  to  Cyperus  serotmtis.  Porter  Smith  calls  Hsiang-fu 
Cyperus  esculentus^  and  with  some  show  of  reason,  as  the 
description  of  the  Pentsao  more  nearly  coincides  with  this 
identification  than  with  any  other.  These  sedges  are  all  used 
for  making  hats,  matting,  and  rain  coats.  They  grow  almost 
every  place  where  there  is  moist  or  boggy  ground.  The  tubers 
of  the  Hsiang-fu-tzYi^  412,  have  a  strong  odor,   and  are  very 


much  in  request  as  a  medicament.  Stimulant,  tonic,  sto- 
machic, sedative,  astringent,  and  other  properties  are  believed 
by  the  Chinese  to  reside  in  the  drug,  and  it  is  prescribed  for 
fluxes  of  all  kinds,  colds  in  every  organ,  post-partuni  difficulties, 
boils,  abscesses,  felons,  and  cancers.  The  shoots  and  flowers 
are  also  used,  being  regarded  as  tonic  and  sedative  to  the 
nervous  system.  The  tnbers  of  the  Ching-san-l^ng^  1062,  as 
they  appear  in  the  market,  are  top-shaped,  pointed  at  one  end 
and  hard,  and  have,  apparently,  been  cut  and  trimmed  with  a 
knife  to  separate  them  from  the  running  root  which  connects 
them  together  in  the  growing  state.  The  internal  texture  is 
hard,  yellowish,  and  woody.  The  taste  and  smell  are,  to  some 
extent,  aromatic.  Emmenagogue,  galactagogue,  stomachic, 
tonic,  deobstruant,  and  vulnerary  qualities  are  ascribed  to  the 
drug.  It  is  not  in  as  much  favor,  however,  as  the  Hsiang- 

CYTISUS  SCOPARIUS.— ^  '^  (Chin-ch'iao).  It  is  also 
called  M  ^  -j^  (Huang-ch'iao-hua).  The  papilionaceous  flower 
is  aptly  compared  to  a  bird  by  the  Chinese  botanist.  The 
leaves  are  said  to  be  salted  and  made  into  a  tea.  The  root, 
which  is  said  to  be  covered  with  prickles,  is  used  in  medicine. 
In  decoction,  it  is  used  as  a  fomentation  for  bruises,  and  it  is 
also  extracted  with  wine  for  this  purpose.  It  is  also  prescribed 
internally  in  coughs  and  colds.  A  decoction  of  the  flowers  is 
said  to  bring  out  the  eruption  in  small-pox. 



DALBERGIA  HUPEANA.— =jf  (T'an).  The  P&ntsao 
describes  this  as  a  tree  with  finely  veined,  hard  wood,  and 
leaves  resembling  those  of  the  Sophera.  The  flowers  are 
yellow  or  white,  and  there  is  said  to  be  a  purple  flowered 
variety.  This  plant  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  ^  ^  (T'an- 
hsiang),  which  is  Santaliim  albinn.  ■|f  ^  (Ch'ing-t'au)  is  said 
by  Henry  to  be  a  name  for  Celtis  sinensis.  The  bark  of  both 
trunk  and  root  is  the  part  of  Dalbergia  used  in  medicine.  It 
is  considered  to  be  slightly  poisonous,  but  mixed  with  elm 
bark  and  pulverized,  it  may  be  used  as  food  in  time  of  famine. 
As  an  external  application  (presumably  in  the  form  of  a  poul- 
tice) it  is  used  in  scabies  and  parasitic  skin  diseases. 

DAMNACANTHUS  INDICUS.— {/c  ^  tS  (Fu-niu-hua), 
)j^  ;$lj  (Hu-tzu),  1425.  This  is  a  rubiaceous  plant,  found  grow- 
ing in  the  marshy  river  valleys  of  Szechuen,  having  a  small 
deep  green  leaf,  a  thorny  stalk,  and  pale  yellow  flowers  in 
clusters  like  apricot  flowers.  Another  kind  of  similar  shrub, 
which  goes  by  the  second  name  given  above,  is  said  to  be 
evergreen.  Of  the  former,  the  flowers  are  used  in  medicine  for 
rheumatism,  headaches,  and  bleeding  piles.  Of  the  latter,  the 
root  and  leaves  are  used  in  the  treatment  of  dropsical  swellings. 

DAPHNE  GENKWA.— |g:j!g  (Yiian-hua.,  1561,  fiLIBI^ 
(Men-t'ou-hua).  It  is  also  called  %  @^  (Tu-yii,  "  fish  poison  "), 
since,  when  thrown  into  ponds  or  streams,  it  poisons  the  fish. 
Another  name  is  H^  '^  (T'ou-t'ung-hua,  "  headache  flower"), 
as  the  odor  is  said  to  give  one  a  headache.  The  name  Yiian- 
hita  is  applied  in  the  Peking  region  to  a  plant  having  small 
yellow  flowers,  which  has  been  identified  by  Tatarinov  as 
Passerina  chamcBdaphne^  Dunge  (Wickstroimia  chajucB daphne^ 
Meissn.).  The  Daphne  grows  upon  a  perennial  root  Its 
leaves  are  at  first  green,  but  as  they  grow  older,  they  grow 
thicker  and  darker  in  color.  The  flowers  are  purple,  red,  and 
white.  Flowers,  leaves,  and  root  are  all  used  in  medicine. 
The  flowers  and  root  are  employed  in  the  form  of  tincture  in 
the  treatment   of  coughs,  as  a  cordial,  tonic,   and   antifebrile 


medicine  for  tlie  cure  of  malaria,  especially  in  its  chronic 
forms,  and  in  mushroom  poisoning.  The  leaves,  as  well  as  the 
flowers  and  root,  are  used  bruised  in  the  treatment  of  buboes, 
ulcers,  favus,  and  other  skin  diseases.  The  leaves  are  said  to 
have  a  special  action  on  the  uterus.  They  are  mixed  with  salt 
and  used  to  color  preserved  eggs  a  reddish-brown. 

DAPHNE  ODORA.— ^  ^  (Shui  [Jui]-hsiang).  This 
very  fragrant  plant  grows  everywhere  throughout  the  southern 
provinces.  Several  varieties  are  distinguished  by  the  Phiisao^ 
some  of  which  are  cultivated,  being  dwarfed  or  deformed  by 
gardeners  for  the  purpose  of  producing  ornamental  shrubbery 
for  lawns  and  conservatories.  The  root  and  leaves  are  both 
used  in  decoction  in  the  treatment  of  sore  throat,  as  a  wash  for 
small-pox  pustules,  and  in  caked  breast. 

DAPHNIDIUM  CUBEBA.— it  Jg  ^  (Pi-ch'eng-ch'ieh), 
1006.  It  is  probable  that  the  Chinese  use  this  term  for  the 
true  cubeb  (Piper  ciibeba)  as  well  as  for  this  article.  Loureiro 
first  described  the  tree,  under  the  name  Laurns  cubcba.  Nees 
afterwards  transferred  it  to  the  genus  Daphnidwm.  The  drug 
consists,  according  to  Hanbury,  of  "one-seeded  globular  ber- 
ries, attached  to  a  pedicel  sometimes  half  an  inch  long  ;  at  the 
base  of  each  berry  traces  of  the  perianth  are  visible.  The 
pericarp  is  thin,  fleshy,  and  in  the  dried  state,  corrugated.  The 
seed  is  globular,  with  its  cartilaginous,  shining  brown  testa 
surrounded  longitudinally  by  a  narrow  ridge."  The  berries, 
therefore,  have  only  a  superficial  resemblance  to  cubebs.  The 
plant  is  native  of  Cochin  China,  and  is  grown  in  South  China. 
The  product  is  shipped  for  the  most  part  to  India.  The  berries 
are  agreeable  in  odor,  and  have  a  warm,  aromatic,  bitterish 
taste.  Carminative,  peptic,  stomachic,  tonic,  and  expectorant 
qualities  are  reported  to  reside  in  the  fruit,  which  is  given  in 
cystic,  bronchitic,  dyspeptic,  and  choleraic  affections.  Hanbury 
quotes  Loureiro  to  the  effect  that  the  fresh  fruits  are  used  for 
preserving  fish,  and  that  the  bark  of  the  tree  has  properties 
similar  to  those  of  the  berries.  Another  name  given  in  the 
Pentsao  is  ffljt  |>^  ^q  ^  (P'i-ling-ch'ieh-tzu),  which  is  said  to  be 
of  foreign  origin,  probably  an  East  Indien  term. 


DAPHNIDIUMMYRRHA.--,^|||(Wii-yao),  1478.  Also 
called  Lindera  strychnifolia^  which  is  probably  identical.  In 
Japan  this  last  is  distinguished  as  5c  "a  .^  1^  (T'ien-t'ai-wu- 
yao),  which  is  also  known  as  Daphnidium  strychnifoliiim, 
Tatarinov  called  this  tree  DapJinis  viyrrha^  but  like  many 
of  Tatarinov' s  identifications,  the  term  is  open  to  doubt.  The 
tree  grows  to  the  height  of  ten  or  more  feet,  and  is  found 
in  the  provinces  south  of  the  Yangtse,  and  especially  in 
Kuangsi.  The  drug  is  usually  sold  in  the  form  of  thin  slices 
of  the  dried  root,  which  are  of  a  whitish  color,  and  have 
an  aromatic  odor.  Tonic,  astringent,  carminative,  stomachic, 
and  many  other  properties  are  assigned  to  this  root,  and  it  is 
prescribed  in  indigestion,  malaria,  fluxes,  hernia,  urinary 
difficulties,  menorrhagia,  and  gonorrhoea.  Mixed  with  lign- 
aloes,  ginseng,  and  licorice,  it  forms  a  famous  prescription, 
which  is  used  as  a  tonic  and  sedative.  The  leaf  buds  of 
the  plant  may  be  used  instead  of  tea  as  a  stimulant  and 
diuretic.  The  seeds  are  used  in  cases  in  which  the  yin  is 
in  excess  producing  fever.  They  are  bruised  and  decocted, 
and  the  decoction  freely  drunk,  which  will  induce  perspira- 
tion, when  the  yang  will  return  in  full  force  and  the  patient 

DATURA  ALBA.— ^  P£  ^  (Man-t*o-lo).  In  India  the 
Sanscrit  equivalent  of  this  Chinese  name,  Mandara^  refers 
to  E}'ythrina  indica.  Hoffman  and  Schultes  have  identified 
the  plant  so  called  in  China  as  Datura  alba^  although  Eitel 
(Handbook  of  Chinese  Buddhism,  p.  71)  also  refers  the  name 
to  Erythrina  fiilgans^  or  Erythrina  indica.  The  leaves  of 
the  plant  contain  the  alkaloid  daturia^  which  is  similar  in 
physiological  action  to  atropia,  but  much  stronger.  In  India 
the  plant  is  called  Dhatura^  from  which  name  the  generic 
term  is  derived.  The  plant  was  said  to  have  been  rained  down 
from  heaven  at  the  time  when  Buddha  promulgated  the  law. 
The  Sanscrit  term  means  ''variegated,'*  evidently  referring  to 
the  color  of  the  flowers.  Names  given  as  equivalents  in  the 
Phttsaa  are  Jg,  ^  5£  (Feng-ch'ieh-erh)  and  [Ii  jfjfi  %  (Shan- 
ch'ieh-erh).  It  is  certain  that  the  Chinese  confound  the 
different   species   of  Datura^  and  that  the  first  ©f  the    latter 


terms  refers  to  the  Datura  stramonium,  Hoffman  and  Scliultes 
have  assumed  f^  jja  !§i  (Fo-ch'ieh-erh)  as  the  name  of  this 
last,  but  such  a  name  has  not  been  found  in  Chinese  books, 
does  not  seem  to  be  known  in  Japan,  and  is  probably  a 
mistake  for  Fcng-cW'ieh-erh.  In  the  Customs  List  the  first 
character  of  this  last  term  is  wrongly  written  ^  (Feng),  302, 
and  the  drug  is  considered  to  be  identical  with  j^^j  ^.  1^  (Nao- 
yang-hua),  894,  which  is  there  identified  as  Datiira  alba. 
Without  doubt  this  last  term  is  sometimes  referred  to  Datura 
metel,,  but  it  also  refers  to  Hyoscyamzis  niger  (which  see),  and 
it  is  discussed  in  the  Pentsao  under  the  article  ^  Si5  E^  (Yang- 
chih-chu),  which  certainly  is  Rhododeiidro7i  {Azalea)  sinense 
(which  see).  The  ericaceous  and  solanaceous  plants  seem  in 
some  cases  to  be  nearly  related  in  the  physiological  action 
of  their  active  principles,  as  well  as  being  similar  in  external 
appearance.  Hence  the  ease  with  which  they  have  been  con- 
founded by  the  Chinese. 

The  flowers  and  seeds  of  the  Man-t^o-lo  are  used  in 
medicine  as  a  wash  for  eruptions  on  the  face,  oedema  of  the 
feet,  and  prolapsus  of  the  rectum.  They  are  prescribed  also 
for  colds,  chorea,  and  nervous  disorders,  and  their  use  as  an 
anaesthetic  is  also  mentioned.  Their  delirient  action  is  also 
spoken  of,  being  said  to  produce  laughter  or  dancing  move- 
ments (1^).  If  equal  quantities  of  this  and  of  Cannabis 
saliva  are  gathered  in  the  seventh  and  eighth  moons,  dried 
in  the  shade,  pulverized,  and  digested  in  wine,  the  prepara- 
tion, when  ingested,  will  produce  a  narcotic  anaesthesia  that 
will  enable  small  operations  and  cauterizations  to  be  done 
without  pain. 

DATURA  METEL.— I^J  ^  1^  (Nao-yang-hua),  894. 
This  species  of  Datura  is  included  in  Burnett's  list  of  the  Flora 
of  China,  and  this  name  is  assigned  to  it  by  Dr.  Bridgeman 
in  his  Chinese  Chrestomathy.  Parker  makes  it  identical  with 
Datura  alba.  Tatarinov  calls  it  Hyoscyamus.  Hanbury  says 
"flowers  of  Rhodode^idi-onl'''*  As  this  Chinese  term  is  in- 
cluded in  the  Pentsao  as  a  synonym  of  ^  ^  f^  (Yang-chih- 
chu),  discussion  of  its  medicinal  uses  will  be  referred  to  that 
article  (see  Rhododendro/i  sinense). 


DATURA  STRAMONIUM.  —  IL  ff  ^  Feug-ch'ieh- 
erh),  302.  The  Chinese  do  not  distinguish  between  this  and 
Datura  alba  (see  that  article  for  medicinal  uses).  The  term 
f^  ^n  3i  (Fo-ch'ieh-erh),  which  was  used  by  HofFman  and 
Schultes  and  is  given  in  Giles's  Dictionary,  was  not  found 
in  any  Chinese  or  Japanese  lists  consulted.  It  is  probably  a 

DAUCUS  CAROTA.— i^  H  ff  (Hu-lo-po),  The  carrot 
is  well  described  in  the  Pentsao.  The  red  and  yellow  varieties 
are  there  spoken  of,  and  the  names  ^I  ^  ^  (Hung-lo-po)  and 
^  II  ^  (Huang-lo-po),  which  are  in  common  use,  refer  to 
these.  This  vegetable  is  one  of  those  which  are  said  to  have 
originally  come  from  the  country  of  the  Western  Tartars. 
The  seeds  of  the  plant  probably  appear  in  commerce  under  the 
name  of  ^  ^j  tl  (Lo-po-jen),  751.  The  root  is  considered  to 
be  in  every  way  beneficial  to  the  digestive  tract,  increasing  the 
appetite  and  acting  as  a  carminative.  The  seeds  are  used 
in  chronic  dysentery.  There  is  a  wild  variety,  known  as 
^  H  M  (Yeh-lo-po),  the  hispid  fruit  of  which  is  used  by 
the  Chinese  as  the  basis  of  the  vermilion-pad  for  their  seals 
and  stamps. 

DAVALLIA  TENUIFOUA.— .^  ^  ( Wu-chiu),  This  is 
a  fern,    to  which   the  following  alternative  names  are  given  : 

;5  f^  (Shih-hsii),  IS  ^  (Shih-i),  ;5  ^  (Shih-t'ai),  :s  ^  (Shih- 

hua),  ;5'  %  ,l|g  (Shih-ma-tsung),  and  %  ^  (Kwei-li).  Some 
of  these  may  refer  to  different  species,  or  even  to  different 
genera.  This  plant  is  said  to  resemble  Lycopodium.  It  grows 
among  the  stones  in  mountainous  districts,  and  is  considered 
to  be  nou-^oisonous.  Cooling  and  demulcent  properties  are 
ascribed  to  it,  and  it  is  prescribed  in  feverish  conditions, 
bladder  difficulties,  as  an  application  in  burns,  and  to  promote 
the  growth  and  preserve  the  black  color  of  the  hair. 

DENDROBIUM  NOBILE.— ;^  ^  (Shih-hu),  1148. 
China  is  very  rich  in  orchidaceous  plants,  of  M^hich  this  is  one 
genus.     The  above   is  the  term  given  in  the  P^nisao^  under 


which  doubtless  several  kinds  of  these  plants,  as  well  as  Tritiaim 
repens  are  described.  It  grows  upon  stones,  is  sometimes 
called  ^  I^  (Huang-ts'ao\  and  is  cultivated  in  Szechuen  for 
use  as  medicine.  It  is  found  in  nearly  all  of  the  central  and 
southern  provinces.  An  epiphytic  variety,  found  growing 
upon  the  root  and  trunk  of  oak  trees,  is  called  -^  f4  (Mu-hu), 
and,  on  account  of  its  yellow  color,  ^  ^  (Chiu-hu).  These 
plants  are  all  remarkably  tenacious  of  life,  recovering  after 
having  been  dried.  Other  names  by  which  they  appear  in 
commerce  are  .ft  7f^  M  (Kan-mu-hu),  580,  «^  ^  ^f  (Hsien-hu- 
tou)  452,  and  ^  %%  (Chin-ch'ai),  145.  These  all  have  straight, 
jointed,  solid,  cylindrical  stems  of  a  yellow  or  golden  color, 
and  often  deeply  striated  or  furrowed.  Parallel-veined  leaves 
are  attached  to  some  of  the  stems,  which  commonly  have  traces 
of  their  roots.  These  stems  are  said  to  be  quite  green  when 
freshly  gathered.  Under  the  name  of  |^  ^  (i\Iai-hu)  there  is  also 
described  a  drug  which  is  in  all  probability  the  tuber  of  Tritiaim 
repens.  Hanbury  ( Science  Papers,  p.  262)  mentions  a  drug  under 
the  name  of  \\\  ^  §51  (Hsiao-huan-ch'ai)  which  is  also  probably 
Shih-hiiy  although  this  term  is  not  given  in  the  Pentsao.  ■^  ^ 
^  (Chin-hu-tou),  152,  and  ^  ^  (Ya-tou\  i486,  are  other 
names  by  which  the  drug  is  known,  but  why  the  Bj-  is  used  in 
the  first  case  does  not  appear.  In  the  last  case  it  may  be  a 
substitute  for  ^,  which  is  properly  written  ^.  The  drug  is 
of  a  sweetish  taste,  and  is  non-poisonous.  It  is  said  to  have 
tonic,  stomachic,  pectoral,  and  antiphlogistic  properties.  Two 
peculiar  difficulties  for  which  it  is  prescribed  are  entropion  and 
insects  in  the  ear. 

DEUTZIA  SIEBLODIANA.— '^  1%  (Sou-su).  Identifica- 
tions are  doubtful  ;  this  term  being  applied  in  Japan  to  Deutzia^ 
Staphylea^  and  Philadelpfms.  We  here  follow  Faber.  Li 
Shih-chen  seems  not  to  have  recognized  this  tree,  although  he 
gives  what  was  said  about  it  by  older  authors.  The  tree  is 
about  ten  feet  high,  and  bears  reddish  berries,  similar  to  the 
fruit  of  the  Lycitmi.  The  bark  is  white,  and  is  the  part  used 
in  medicine.  Its  properties  are  said  to  be  cooling  and  diuretic. 
It  is  prescribed  for  the  thirty-six  diseases  of  the  lower  abdominal 
region  (f  ^%)  in  women. 


DIANTHUS  CHINENSIS.— ;5t't(Shih-clui).  This,  the 
common  Chinese  pink,  is  not  distinguished  in  the  Phitsao 
from  the  next,  and,  in  fact,  the  two  are  often  confounded  by 

DIANTHUS  SUPERBUS.— ^  ^  (Ch'li-mai),  237.  This 
is  the  same  as  DiiDitJius  fischeri.  The  seed  resembles  wheat, 
whence  the  name.  The  dried  flowering  plant  is  sold  in 
the  medicine  shops,  being  found  in  large,  yellow  bundles. 
The  flowering  heads  and  leaves  of  these  plants  are  used  in 
medicine,  and  very  remarkable  and  dissimilar  virtues  are 
ascribed  to  them.  The  former  is  said  to  be  diuretic,  vul- 
nerary, abortifacient,  to  relieve  opacities  of  the  cornea,  to 
check  post-partum  hemorrhage,  alleviate  fluxes,  promote  the 
growth  of  hair,  and  is  used  also  in  the  treatment  of  gravel, 
amenorrhoea,  and  as  a  resolvent  for  incipient  abscesses.  The 
latter  is  used  in  hemorrhoids,  bloody  diarrhoea,  luinbricoid 
worms,  of)hthalmia,  as  well  as  in  buboes  and  venereal  sores  in 
women.  Also  such  difficulties  as  bones  in  the  throat,  bam- 
boo splints  in  the  flesh,  and  wounds  with  knives  or  scissors 
are  treated  by  the  internal  administration  of  a  decoctiou  of 
this  plant. 

DICTAMNUS  ALBUS.— ^  W^  (Pai-lisien),  947.  This  is 
a  white  root  with  a  strong  odor,  which  resembles  that  of  the 
goat  ;  hence  the  name,  also  written  ^  f^  (Pai-shan).  It  is  a 
common  plant  in  Mid-China.  It  has  flowers  resembling  those 
of  the  Althea^  and  the  root  is  like  a  small  turnip.  The  fruit 
consists  of  several  carpels  like  the  Zanthoxylon^  and  is  there- 
fore called  ^%^\^  (Chin-ch'iao-erh-chiao),  "golden-bird- 
pepper."  The  root  is  the  part  used  in  medicine,  and  to  it  is 
ascribed  tonic,  sedative,  antipyretic,  and  tussic  qualities.  It  is 
also  recommended  in  post-partum  difficulties  and  the  nervous 
crying  of  children. 

DIERVILLA  VERSICOLOR.— li  |1  (Yang-lu).  This 
is  the  same  as  Weigela  japonica.  It  is  also  by  the  Chi- 
nese confounded  with  Deiitsia  sieboldiana.  It  is  a  shrub, 
or   small    tree,    used    in    making    hedges,    and    its   seeds   are 


borne  in  a  pod.  The  leaves,  which  are  said  to  be  slightly 
poisonous,  are  recommended  in  decoction  as  a  wash  for  viru- 
lent sores. 

DIGITALIS. — Roots  of  an  unidentified  species  of  this 
plant  are  said  to  be  brought  from  Honan  under  the  name  of 
^  iife  M  (Mao-ti-huang).  As  j^  ^  (Ti-huang)  is  ReJnnarmia 
ghitinosa^  and  as  the  leaves  of  this  latter  are  also  downy,  identi- 
fication by  this  means  would  be  uncertain.  It  is  said  that 
the  roots  of  the  former  are  smaller  and  more  fusiform  than 
those  of  the  latter.  But  this  also  would  be  an  unreliable 
method  of  identifying  so  active  a  drug.  It  is  doubtful  if 
Digitalis  purpurea  is  found  in  China,  or  if  found  it  has  not 
yet  been  identified  ;  so  it  is  unfortunate  that  "^  \%'^  (Mao-ti- 
huang)  has  been  adopted  iu  pharmacy  as  a  Chinese  equivalent 
of  the  name  of  this  drug. 

DIGITARIA  SANGUINALIS.— (li  Yu),  Wi  M  (Ma- 
t'angi.  This  is  Faber's  identification.  The  Japanese  call  it 
Caryopteris  divaricata.  It  is  also  called  ^  )/i|  (Yang- ma), 
since  both  horses  and  sheep  eat  it.  It  is  said  to  have  a 
very  vile  and  persistent  odor,  which  is  mentioned  in  the 
Tso-chuan  as  an  illustration  of  the  persistence  of  evil.  It 
grows  in  marshes,  has  long  leaves  and  a  jointed  stem.  It 
nmch  resembles  Potomogeton^  and  has  by  some  been  so 
identified.  The  root  is  the  part  used  iu  medicine,  and  is 
prescribed  in  infusion  as  an  eye  and  ear  wash,  for  fetid  feet,  in 
dry  coughs,  and  to  relieve  thirst. 

DIOSCORRA.— §  ^  (Shu-yii),  ill  %  (Shan-yao),  1108, 
^  '%.  (Pei-hsieh),  988.  Shan-yao  is  nowadays  the  common 
name  in  north  China  for  the  cultivated  yam,  Dioscorea  japonica. 
In  Hupeh  it  is  Dioscorea  qidnqueloba^  and  in  other  parts 
of  China  Dioscorea  batatas.  The  Japanese  lists  distinguish 
Dioscojea  japonica  as  ^  llj  ^  (Yeh-shan-yao',  Dioscorea 
qninqneloba  as  ilj  ^  ||(Shan-pei-hsieh),  and  Dioscorea  saliva  as 
j\\  ^  ^j|  iCh'uan-pei-hsieh).  Faber  makes  the  first  two  names 
at  the  head  of  this  article  to  be  identical,  and  assigns  them 
to  Dioscorea  qninqneloba^  while  the  third  he  assign  to  Dioscorea 


sativa.  To  Dioscorea  japoiiica  he  assigns  the  names  ^  ^ 
(Huang-tn)  and  ^  ^  (T'li-yii).  The  Phitsao  gives  the  last 
under  a  separate  article  and  considers  it  to  be  related  to 
Colocasia.  It  has  leaves  like  those  of  the  bean,  and  eeg-- 
shaped  tubers,  which  are  the  part  used  in  medicine.  These 
have  emetic  properties,  and  are  used  for  this  purpose  in  cases 
of  poisoning.  The  Hankow  list  mentions  a  '/^  |1]  ^  (Huai- 
shan-yao),  503,  which  is  said  to  come  from  Huaining  in  Honan, 
and  which  it  describes  as  follows  :  "It  occurs  in  long  tuberose 
roots  about  a  half  a  foot  in  length  and  two  inches  in  circum- 
ference, and  when  divested  of  its  rind  and  the  ends  are 
trimmed,  it  has  a  perfectly  white  surface  and  interior.  It  is 
brittle,  has  no  smell,  and  is  tasteless."  This  does  not  answer 
to  the  description  of  the  tuber  of  Dioscorea  sativa^  and  may 
be  Dioscorea  japonica  or  some  unnamed  species.  The  Pinisao 
also  gives  an  article  on  the  capsules  or  berries  of  the  yam, 
which  it  calls  ^  f^  -^  (Ling-yii-tsu),  mentioning  several 
varieties,  and  claiming  for  them  stronger  medicinal  powers 
than  is  possessed  by  the  yam  itself.  Tonic  and  restorative 
virtues  are  ascribed  to  them.  To  the  tubers  of  the  several 
kinds  of  yam  mentioned  in  the  Peiitsao  are  ascribed  coolino- 
and  tonic  properties.  They  are  said  to  benefit  the  spirits, 
promote  flesh,  and,  wheu  taken  habitually,  brighten  the 
intellect  and  prolong  life.  Astringent  properties  in  diarrhoea 
are  also  ascribed  to  them,  as  well  as  some  virtue  in  polyuria. 
As  a  poultice  they  are  applied  in  carbuncles,  boils,  and  incipient 

DIOSPYROS  EMBRYOPTERIS.— 1^  \%  (Pei-shih),  f^ 
\%  (Ch'i-shih).  The  Chinese  call  this  the  "green  persimmon," 
from  the  fact  that  the  fruit,  when  fully  ripe,  is  of  a  dark 
yellowish  tint.  The  fruit  is  of  the  size  of  a  large  plum, 
or  small  apple,  eight-seeded,  and  contains  a  glutinous,  very 
astringent  juice.  It  is  said  that  it  cannot  be  eaten  in  the 
unripe  state,  and  that  it  cannot  be  dried  as  other  species 
of  persimmon  often  are.  The  medicinal  properties  ascribed 
to  it  by  the  Chinese  are  somewhat  remarkable.  It  is  said 
to  be  antifebrile,  antivinous,  and  demulcent.  Its  astringent 
properties,  which  were  noted  by  Dr.  Waring,  and  on  account 


of  which  he  recommends  the  employment  of  an  extract  of 
the  fruit  in  diarrhoea  and  chronic  dysenterv,  and  as  a  basis  of 
vaginal  injections  in  gonorrhoea,  have  been  lost  sight  of  by 
Chinese  physicians.  A  sort  of  extract,  or  oil,  is  prepared 
from  this  fruit  b>  crushing  and  pressing.  In  this  way  a  dark, 
resinous,  thick  juice  is  produced,  which  makes  an  excellent 
varnish,  used  in  varnishing  paper  umbrellas  and  fans.  It  is 
cheaper  than  wood-oil. 

DIOSPYROS  HIRSUTA.— ^  jp  (Mao-shih).  It  is  not 
certain  that  this  tree  is  found  in  China,  but  the  probabilities 
are  in  its  favor.  The  wood,  called  Calamander  Wood  (probably 
a  corruption  of  Coramandel  Wood),  is  met  with,  and  is  used  as 
a  substitute  for  ebony. 

DIOSPYROS  KAKL— |i5(Shih),  |Jc  ^  (Juan-tsao).  The 
fruit  of  this  tree,  which  is  common  in  China  and  Japan,  is  the 
persim?}iofi^  a  large,  thin-skinned,  juicy  fruit,  of  an  orange  or 
yellowish  color,  and  having  a  sweet  taste  when  fully  ripe. 
The  taste  of  the  unripe  fruit  is  exceedingly  astringent.  Traces 
of  the  eight-celled  character  of  the  fruit,  which  presents  a 
great  variety  of  shapes,  sizes,  and  tints,  are  sometimes  met 
with.  The  Chinese  ripen  the  fruits  artificially  by  inserting 
one  or  more  splints  of  bamboo  into  them  by  the  side  of  the 
stem,  which  hastens  the  process  of  softening.  These,  however, 
lack  the  fine  flavor  of  the  naturally  ripened  fruit.  The 
persimmon  appears  in  several  forms  in  Chinese  medicine. 
There  is  an  artificially  ripened  fruit,  called  '}^  \%  (Hung-shih), 
which  is  produced  by  placing  the  unripe  fruit  in  a  vessel  con- 
taining leaves  and  allowing  a  process  of  fermentation  to  go  on 
until  the  fruit  is  ripe.  It  is  said  to  become  as  sweet  as  honey 
under  this  process,  and  is  used  as  an  antifebrile,  antivinous, 
and  demulcent  remedy.  Another  form  is  called  ^  \^  (Pai-shih) 
and  \^  ^  (Shih-shuang).  This  is  prepared  by  taking  off  the 
skin  of  the  fruits,  and  then  exposing  them  to  the  sunlight  by 
day  and  the  dew  by  night  until  they  are  dry,  when  a  whitish 
powder  will  have  gathered  upon  them.  The  persimmons  dried 
in  this  way  are  called  \^  %  (Shih-ping),  1157.  The  medicinal 
properties  of  the  persimmon  are  thought  to  be  much  enhanced 

vp:getablk  kingdom.  153 

by  the  process  employed  in  the  preparation  of  this  product.  In 
addition  to  the  properties  already  described,  anthelmintic, 
restorative,  expectorant,  and  anti-hemorrhagic  virtues  are  as- 
cribed, and  it  is  recommended  in  virulent  sores  and  ulcers.  It  is 
also  said  to  be  an  antidote  to  wood-oil  poison.  Another  form 
of  the  dried  fruit  is  the  ^  |^  (Wu-shih),  which  is  prepared  by 
drying  in  the  heat  and  smoke  of  a  fire.  This  is  not  to  be 
confounded,  as  does  Porter  Smith,  with  ^  /JC  (Wu-mu),  which 
is  Maba  cboios  (see  that  article).  This  form  of  the  persimmon 
is  prescribed  as  an  anthelmintic,  in  wounds  as  an  anodyne,  to 
check  fluxes,  and  to  prevent  nausea  after  taking  other  medi- 
cines. |f|[  \%  (Lin-shih)  are  preserved  persimmons,  and  are  of 
two  kinds  :  those  kept  over  by  being  simply  covered  with  water, 
and  those  preserved  in  salt.  The  former  are  considered  to  be 
cooling,  while  the  latter  are  said  to  be  sligiitly  poisonous. 
They  are  regarded  as  being  beneficial  to  the  spleen  and  stomach, 
and  to  dissolve  stagnant  blood.  Persimmon  confection,  [^  %% 
(Shih-kao),  is  made  by  beating  together  one  peck  of  glutinous 
rice  and  fifty  dried  persimmons,  and  then  steaming  the  mix- 
ture until  it  is  cooked  done.  It  is  recommended  to  be  eaten  by 
children  in  cases  of  autumnal  dysentery,  as  well  as  in  other 
forms  of  flux.  The  fruit  calyces,  \^  '^f^  (Shih-ti),  11 59,  are 
prescribed  in  decoction  in  obstinate  cough  and  dyspnoea.  The 
bark  and  wood  are  prescribed  as  astringents  in  fluxes  and  as 
styptics  in  wounds  and  ulcers.  The  root  is  recommended  as  a 
universal  astringent,  la  ^^  5^3  (Chen-t'on-chia)  is  said  to  be 
the  INIongolian  (Turkic)  name  for  the  persimmon. 

DIOSPYROS  LOTUS.— g-  jl  J-  (Chiin-ch'ien-tziis  ^ 
^  (Suan-tsao),  1205,  M  ^  (Hei-tsao),  368,  |j:  ^  (Juau-tsao), 
^  ^  ^  ( Yang-shih-tsao),  In  the  case  of  some  of  the  foregoing 
names  there  is  uncertainty  as  to  whether  D/os/>yros  or  Ziziphus 
is  meant.  The  Pentsao  gives  a  number  of  other  names,  which 
refer  chiefly  to  the  shape  of  the  fruit.  It  also  says  that  the 
fruit  resembles  the  date,  but  that  the  tree  is  like  the  persimmon. 
The  fruits  are  considered  to  be  antifebrile,  and  are  also  used 
to  promote  secretion.  They  ward  oflf  evil  influence,  and  when 
eaten  for  some  time,  give  a  pleasing  appearance  to  the  coun- 
tenance, and  strength  and  lightness  to  the  body. 


DIPHYLLEIA.— ^  ^  (Kiiei-cliiii),  ^  Ijtfl  -;§  (Tn-chio-lien), 
A  f^  j^  (Pa-cbio-lieii).  Faber  identifies  the  first  as  AHscsma 
heterophylla^  and  in  Hiipeh  the  second  also  signifies  Ariscema. 
Henry  found  the  last  to  be  Podophyllmn  versipelle^  while  Bret- 
schneider  found  that  plants  raised  from  Tn-chio-lien  seed  pro- 
cured at  Peking  proved  to  be  Typhcniium  gigantenm.  It  is  not 
quite  clear  whether  Kjiei-chin  is  Diphylleia  or  Podophyllum.  A 
large  number  of  names  are  given  in  the  Pentsao  as  the  equiva- 
lents oi  Kuei-chin^  but  it  is  probable  that  several  different  plants 
are  confounded  in  these  names.  The  plant  described  grows 
in  shady  places  in  mountains.  It  seems  to  be  akin  to  the  North 
American  "umbrella  plant."  The  root  is  perennial,  and  each 
year  sends  up  a  stalk,  which  on  dying  at  the  end  of  the  season 
leaves  a  depression,  or  "eye,"  which  is  likened  to  a  mortar 
f3).  Anthelmintic  and  antiseptic  properties  are  ascribed  to  the 
drug,  which  consists  of  the  root  of  the  plant,  and  it  is  used  in  the 
treatment  of  coughs,  malaria,  cancerous  sores,  snakebite  and 
arrow  poisoning,  retained  dead  foetns,  and  pernicious  janndice. 
That  the  root  itself  is  regarded  as  poisonous  may  be  inferred 
from  the  variety  of  virulent  diseases  for  which  it  is  prescribed. 

DIPSACUS.— If  if  (Hsii-tuan),  474.  At  Peking  this  is 
Dipsacus  japoniciis^  but  at  Hankow  it  is  Dipsacus  asper.  In 
Japan  it  is  Laviiiim  album.  It  is  also  called  ^  ^  (Chieh-ku), 
as  it  is  considered  capable  of  joining  together  broken  bones. 
The  roots  are  met  with  in  commerce  in  short  pieces,  very  hard, 
brown,  and  wrinkled,  and  of  a  dirty  white  color  in  the  interior. 
The  taste  is  sweetish,  mucilaginous,  and  with  a  bitterish  after- 
taste. The  root  is  the  part  used  in  medicine.  It  is  considered 
to  be  tonic  in  exhausting  diseases,  wounds,  tumors,  fractures, 
and  ruptured  tendons  (as  its  names  indicate),  suppression  of  the 
secretion  of  milk,  dysmenorrhoea,  hemorrhage,  and  is  employed 
in  hemorrhoids,  cancer  of  the  breast,  ante-  and  post-partum 
difficulties  of  every  kind,  incontinence  of  urine,  and  threatened 
abortion.  The  best  quality  of  the  drug  is  called  ]\\  ^  ^ 
(Ch  'uan-hsii-tuan). 

DOLICHOS  CULTRATUS.— 1,|  S  (Ch'iao-tou).  This 
is  a  Japanese  identification  of  a  bean  similar  to  Dolichos  lablab^ 
but  black  in  color,  with  a  white  line  through  the  hilum,  on 


which  account  it  receives  its  name  of  "magpie  bean." 
Bretschneider  says  that  it  is  the  same  as  the  ^jj-  ^  (Liao-tou) 
mentioned  in  tlie  Customs  Lists,  718.  Tiie  Pentsao  does  not 
distinguish  between  this  and  Dolichos  lab/ab,  and  does  not 
assign  to  it  any  special  medical  properties. 

DOLICHOS  LABLAB.— ^  £  (Pien-tou),  102 1.  Com- 
mon names  are  y^  ,||  ^_  (. Yen-li-tou),  "fence-climbing  bean," 
from  its  climbing  habit,  and  4J?  ^  Jl  (E-mei-tou),  from  the 
appearance  of  the  seed.  The  young  pods  of  this  bean  are 
eaten  as  a  vegetable,  and  the  ripe  seeds  are  also  eaten  boiled. 
The  seed  is,  according  to  variety,  black,  white,  red,  and 
variegated.  Only  the  white  bean,  957,  is  discussed  in  the 
Pintsao^  where  it  is  said  that  those  suffering  from  fevers  should 
not  eat  it.  It  is  tonic  to  the  viscera,  and  if  eaten  habit- 
ually, will  prevent  the  hair  from  turning  gray.  Taken  with 
vinegar,  it  is  used  in  cholera  morbus.  It  relieves  flatulence, 
is  anti-vinous  and  antidotal  to  fish  poison,  as  well  as  to  every 
form  of  vegetable  poison.  It  relieves  diarrhoea,  reduces  fever 
heat  from  sunstroke,  and  quenches  thirst.  The  flowers  are 
prescribed  in  menorrhagia  and  leucorrhoea,  besides  being  recom- 
mended in  the  same  diseases  as  the  beau.  The  leaves  are  also 
employed  in  similar  cases,  and  applied  as  a  poultice  in  snake 
bite.     Even  the  vine  is  used  as  a  medicament  in  cholera. 

DOLICHOS  SINENSIS,  Dolichos  umbellatjis.—^  ^ 
(Chiang-tou).  This  is  a  cultivated  bean,  found  in  several 
varieties  ;  the  pods  varying  in  color.  The  virtues  ascribed  are 
those  of  "controlling  the  viscera,  benefiting  the  breath,  restor- 
ing the  kidneys,  strengthening  the  stomach,  harmonizing  the 
abdominal  organs,  subduing  the  passions,  preserving  life,  in- 
vigorating the  marrow,  quenching  thirst,  preventing  nausea, 
checking  diarrhoea  and  frequent  urination." 

DRABA  NEMORALIS.— p  ^  (l^'^g-li),  1307.  The 
plant  to  which  is  applied  this  Chinese  name  is  evidently  a 
crucifer,  with  the  probabilities  in  favor  of  the  above  identifica- 
tion. Tatarinov  called  it  Sisymbrium ;  Lonreiro,  Lcpidiu7n 
petresuni ;  and   in  Japan   the   name   is  applied  i'j  Nasturtium 


pahistre  and  Arahis  perfoliata.  The  classical  name  of  the 
plant  is  '^  (Tien).  Other  names  are  ^pj  r^  (Kou-chi;,  •}^  '^ 
(Ta-shih),  and  ;f;  i^  (Ta-shih).  Th.e  plant  very  much  resem- 
bles mustard.  The  seeds  are  small,  yellow,  and  very  bitter- 
Li  Shih-chen  says  there  are  two  kinds  of  this  product — the 
sweet  and  the  bitter — and  that  the  former  is  called  jfij  ^  ;,Kou- 
chieh),  "dog  mustard."  The  seeds  are  the  part  used  in 
medicine,  and  are  boiled  with  glutinous  rice  for  this  purpose. 
They  are  said  to  act  as  a  demulcent,  laxative,  and  deobstruant 
drug,  and  are  given  in  dropsy,  dysuria,  amenorrhoea,  coughs, 
and  fevers.  Externally  they  are  used  for  decayed  teeth,  tinea, 
and  poisonirrg  from  horse  sweat  entering  a  wound  (possibly 

DRYANDRA  CORD  AT  A.— ^^  -^  \^  (Ying-tzu-t'ung). 
This  is  the  same  as  ElCEOcocca  verrucosa.  ^  ( Ying)  is  an  earth- 
enware jar,  carried  by  a  string  rurr  through  the  ears.  This 
character  is  here  used  in  allusion  to  the  shape  of  the  fririt. 
The  same  character  is  used  in  the  name  for  the  poppy,  in 
reference  to  the  shape  of  the  capsule.  Another  name  for  this 
tree  is  jr^  -^  '^  (Hu-tzu-t'ung),  "tiger  seed  t'ung,"  in  ref- 
erence to  the  violently  poisonous  character  of  the  seeds.  Still 
another  name  is  f3£  '^  (Jen-t'ung),  from  the  shape  of  the  seeds 
being  similar  to  a  bean  called  by  this  distinguishing  character. 
Then,  finally  and  commonly,  it  is  called  fflt  tlsl  (Yu-t'ung), 
"oil  t'ung,',  from  the  fact  that  from  it  is  produced  the  oil 
known  as  ^[5]  •^  ^|  (T'ung-tzu-yu ),  "  t'ung-seed-oil."  This 
tree  is  extensively  cultivated  in  the  Yangtse  valley,  and  is  also 
well  known  in  Japan.  The  Phttsao  says  in  regard  to  it  and  its 
product :  "  It  grows  in  the  hills,  and  the  tree  is  like  the  Steradia 
piatanifolia.  That  of  which  the  people  in  the  south  make  oil 
is  the  f^  )^  (Kang-t'ung,  "  ridge-t'ung ").  The  seeds  are 
larger  tharr  those  of  Sterciilia.  In  the  early  spring  a  flower  is 
produced,  in  color  a  pale  red,  and  in  shape  like  a  drum.  The 
flower  changes  into  a  tube,  in  which  are  found  the  seeds  out  of 
which  the  oil  is  made."  The  above  are  quotations  from  ancient 
works.  Li  Shih-chen  says:  "Ridge-t'ung  is  a  purple  flowered 
Pixiiloiviiia.  The  branches,  trunk,  leaves,  and  flowers  of  the 
Yu-t'ung    are  similar  to  the  Ridge-t'ung,   but  smaller.      The 


tree  grows  more  slowly,  and  the  flowers  are  slightly  redder. 
But  its  fruit  is  large  and  round,  and  in  each  fruit  there  are  two 
or  four  seeds,  as  large  as  those  of  the  ;/y;  ;fg  ^  (Ta-feng-tzu, 
Gvnocardia  odorata^  Lucrabau  seeds).  Internally  they  are 
white,  the  taste  is  sweetish,  and  the  action  is  emetic.  It  is 
also  called  '  purple-flowered-t'ung,'  and  is  extensively  cultivated 
by  men,  who  plant  and  collect  the  seeds  for  the  business  of 
oil-making.  The  oil  is  used  by  painters  for  oiling  and  caulking 
boats.  It  is  often  adulterated,  but  if  a  bamboo-splint  ring 
will  pick  it  up  like  the  head  of  a  drum,  it  is  genuine.  The 
oil  is  sweetish,  slightly  acrid,  cooling,  and  very  poisonous." 
Its  action  is  emetic,  and,  strange  to  say,  alcohol  is  considered 
to  be  antidotal  to  its  action.  It  is  applied  externally  to  parasitic 
skin  diseases  and  wounds,  as  well  as  to  scalds  and  burns.  Its 
emetic  action  is  taken  advantage  of  in  asthma  and  coughs. 
Wine-nose  and  broken  chilblains  are  also  treated  with  it.  The 
oil  also  enters  into  the  composition  of  nearly  all  of  the  ordinary 
Chinese  plasters. 

DRYMOGLOSSUM  C ARNOSUM.  — !Ji|,  ^  ^  (Lo-yen- 
ts'ao),  iMM  ^  (Ching-mien-ts'ao).  This  "snail-shell  grass," 
or  "  mirror- face  grass,"  is  a  fern  which  grows  in  rocky  places, 
and  is  of  a  reddish  color.  As  a  poultice,  or  in  decoction,  it  is 
applied  to  swellings,  fetid  feet,  and  the  like.  It  is  also  taken 
internally  in  hemorrhages,  such  as  hematuria,  hematemesis, 
and  nose  bleed.  It  is  used  principally,  however,  in  felons  and 
animal  bites. 

DRYOBALANOPS  AROMATICA,  Dryobalanops  cam- 
pJiora.  This  tree  is  found  in  the  islands  of  the  Malaysian 
archipelago,  and  is  also  said  to  be  found  in  Kuangtung  and 
Fukien,  although  there  seems  to  be  no  Chinese  name  for  it 
recorded  in  the  books.  The  steareopten  derived  from  it,  which 
is  similar  in  composition  to  camphor,  is  known  in  commerce  as 
Borneo,  or  Baroos,  camphor.  The  name  most  commonly 
used  for  it  in  Chinese  is  -/X  Yx'  (Piug-p'ien),  1029,  ^^"^  there 
are  several  names  for  this  product,  such  as,  fl  (I^}  ^  (Lung- 
nao-hsiang),  |^  fg  )^  (Mei-hua-p'ieni,  ||  ^  ^  f^  (Chieh-p'o- 
lo-hsiang),    and    ^    f|:    #    (P*o-lu-hsiang).      ^    |J^   (Mi-nao), 


jg  B^  (Su-nao\  and  ^  ^]^  )]^  (Chiii-chiao-uao)  are  mentioned  in 
the  Pentsao  as  names  of  varieties  of  this  drug,  brought  from 
the  Indien  archipelago.  ^  -/J^  )^  (Ch'ing-ping-p'ien)  and 
JtJL  7K  )r  'Ni-ping-p'ien)  are  names  given  by  Dr.  Williams  to 
indicate  the  two  sorts,  clean  and  dirty,  brought  to  the  Chinese 
market.  ^  f|  )f^  (Ts'ang-lung-nao)  is  the  name  of  a  very 
pure,  greyish,  crystalline  variety,  said  to  be  much  stronger  than 
any  of  the  other  sorts.  This  steareopten  is  a  natural  product, 
found  in  the  cellular  space  of  the  wood.  The  most  common 
port  of  shipment  of  this  valuable  substance  is  Baroos,  on  the 
west  coast  of  Sumatra  ;  hence  one  of  the  English  names.  The 
tree  is  straight,  with  a  tall  stem  sometimes  twenty  feet  thick, 
overtopping  with  its  huge  crown  other  large  trees  to  the  extent 
of  some  scores  of  feet.  The  natives  describe  three  kinds  of 
this  tree,  named  the  Mailangnan^  Markiii  tiiugan^  and  the 
Mar  kin  targan^  all  distinguished  by  the  mere  color  of  their 
bark.  The  dark-green,  oval,  pointed  leaves  are  tough  and 
camphoraceous.  The  acorn  -  like  fruit,  compared  by  the 
Chinese  to  that  of  the  cardamom,  is  eaten  as  a  relish,  or  as  a 
sweetmeat  by  the  natives.  The  trees  are  cut  down  in  April 
or  May,  while  fruiting,  and  the  whole  of  the  immense  trunk 
is  split  up  and  sacrificed  to  find  the  grains  or  flat  pieces  of 
crystalized  camphor,  the  largest  of  which  rarely  exceeds  half 
an  inch  across.  They  are  met  with  in  crevices  or  cells  in  the 
body  of  the  tree,  and  more  frequently  in  the  swellings  of  the 
branches  as  they  issue  from  the  trunk.  One  tree  may  yield  as 
much  as  a  half  pound.  It  is  met  with  in  commerce  in  crystal- 
lized, reddish-white  grains,  which  upon  closer  inspection  are 
seen  to  be  mixed  with  particles  of  a  purer  white  color.  Large 
colorless  crystals  are  seldom  met  with  in  the  north.  Hanbury 
says  that  it  "has  the  odor  of  common  or  laurel  camphor, 
mixed  with  something  that  has  been  likened  to  patchouli.  It 
is  less  volatile  than  laurel  camphor,  and  has  a  greater  specific 
gravity,  so  that  it  sinks  in  water."  Its  composition  is  C,oH,80, 
that  of  ordinary  camphor  being  C10H16O.  It  is  isomeric  with 
Ngai  camphor  (see  Blinnca  balsajnifcra). 

This  drug  is  considered  to  be  poisonous,  and  is  little  used 
as  an  internal  remedy.  It  has  been  used  by  persons  attempting 
suicide,   but  it  is  doubtful  whether  it  will  destroy  the  life  of  a 


healthy  person,  and  would  not  commend  itself  to  many  for 
this  purpose  on  account  of  its  high  price,  being  wortii  its  own 
weight  of  silver.  It  is  said  to  have  diaphoretic,  sedative, 
stimulant,  antispasmodic,  arthritic,  anthelmintic,  and  escharotic 
properties.  It  is  applied  as  a  powder  to  chancres,  buboes, 
carbuncles,  and  eczematous  sores.  It  enters  into  the  composition 
of  the  better  class  of  dusting  powders,  so  agreeable  in  prickly- 
heat  and  other  eruptions.  It  is  also  applied  to  opacities  of  the 
cornea,  polypus  of  the  nose,  ranula,  fistula,  and  to  any  disease 
affecting  the  five  senses  or  any  of  the  apertures  of  the  body. 
Many  of  these  recommendations  are  based  upon  merely  theoret- 
ical grounds.  The  petty  chiefs  of  Sumatra  are  said  to  embalm 
their  dead  with  this  costly  substance. 

There  is  also  an  oil  which  exudes  from  the  wood  when  the 
tree  is  felled  and  split  up,  and  in  Sumatra  this  oil  is  very 
cheap.  It  is  not  indentical  with,  and  is  superior  in  value 
to  the  ordinary  Oil  of  camphor^  which  is  an  uncrystallizable 
residue  exuding  from  the  freshly  sublimed  laurel  camphor  to 
the  amount  of  three  or  four  per  cent.  It  might  be  suggested 
that  either  of  these  oils,  and  preferably  the  former,  would 
make  a  cheap  and  excellent  embrocation. 

i»u  B  aooofc^^" 



756.  Another  name  is  |Jj^  ]^J  (Yeli-laii),  wild  EupatoriiDH. 
Also  5^5  '^y\  XCliia-hao),  arteniisia  with  pods,  011  account  of 
its  resemblancfe  to  Artoiiisia.  Still  another  name  given  in 
the  Pcnlsao  is  ^  ff{i  ]^%  (Kuei-yu-ma),  but  this  is,  in  all  prob- 
ability, another  plant,  may  be  Syphonostcgia.  The  identifi- 
cation used  here  is  Faber's,  but  without  doubt  the  Chinese 
confound  several  plants  under  the  above  names.  The  plant 
is  said  to  have  a  general  resemblance  to  Arteuiisia.^  Iiicar- 
villca^  and  Sesaniiini  ;  so  it  is  little  w^onder  that  the  Chinese, 
with  their  lack  of  any  definite  system  of  classification,  should 
have  confounded  these.  The  plant  has  a  quill-like  stem, 
and  grows  to  the  height  of  four  or  five  feet.  It  bears  yellow 
flowers,  and  fruits  in  a  pod.  When  dry,  the  pods,  as  well 
as  the  whole  plant,  turn  very  dark,  almost  black  in  color. 
Various  parts  are  used  in  medicine,  but  the  P^ntsao  mentions 
particularly  the  root  and  shoots.  The  root  goes  by  the  name  of 
M  ^ft  ^  (Lu-li-ken).  It  is  considered  to  be  a  very  efficacious 
and  beneficial  remedy,  and  is  prescribed  for  virulent  ulcers 
and  sores,  failure  of  secretion  of  milk,  to  check  exhausting 
discharges,  as  an  anthelmintic,  and  it  is  recommended  for 
use  in  the  bath. 

ECUPTA  ALBA.— il  I|  (Li-ch'ang%  #.  -f  ^  (Han- 
lien-ts'ao),  359.  A  number  of  other  names  are  given  in 
the  Pentsao  for  this  plant.  Its  identification  is  tolerably 
certain,  although  Braun  in  the  Hankow  list  called  the  product 
'■^  dried  lilies^\f  The  plant  when  broken  exudes  a  black, 
sticky  juice,  on  which  account  it  is  called  ^  ^  (Mo-ts'ai), 
"ink-vegetable."  It  grows  in  damp  soil  to  the  height  of 
one  or  two  feet,  has  a  white  flower,  and  seeds  like  the  Inula. 
A  yellow  flowered  kind  is  spoken  of,  but  this  is  confounded 
with  Forsythia.  The  medicinal  action  of  the  plant  is  said  to 
be  astringent,  checking  hemorrhage  and  fluxes,  and  it  is  used 
to  blacken  the  hair,  tighten  the  teeth,  and  in  all  sorts  of  eye 


EL^AGNUS  LONGIPES.  —  ^  H  ^  (Hu-t*ui-tzii). 
This  is  an  evergreen  tree  or  shrub,  growing  in  northern  China 
and  Mongolia,  bearing  a  drupe  similar  to  that  of  Cornus 
officinalis.  Besides  several  names  which  are  possibly  translit- 
erations of  Turkic  or  Mongol  names,  it  is  called  ^  §1  @^ 
(Ch'iao-erh-su),  ''  bird-cheese,"  because  the  birds  are  fond  of  the 
fruit.  The  parts  used  in  medicine  are  the  seeds,  the  root,  and 
the  leaves.  The  fruit  should  not  be  us:d  in  fever,  and  is 
prescribed  only  in  watery  diarrhoeas.  The  root  is  used  in 
decoction  as  a  wash  for  foul  sores  and  itch  in  man,  and  for 
sores  on  dogs  and  horses.  It  is  also  administered  as  an 
astringent  in  hemoptysis.     The  leaves  are  prescribed  for  coughs. 

EL^OCOCCA  CORDATA.     See  Dryandra  cordata. 

ELATOSTEMMA  UMBELLATUM.  —  ^>  %  '^  1^ 
(Ch'ih-ch'e-shih-che).  This  is  a  red  leaved,  red  stemmed, 
purple  rooted  plant,  growing  in  the  central  provinces,  and 
belonging  to  the  foliage  plants.  The  root  is  the  part  used.  It 
is  acrid,  bitter,  and  poisonous,  and  is  prescribed  for  colds, 
worm  poison,  and  flatulence.  It  is  said  to  improve  the  flesh 
and  the  color  of  the  skin,  and  is  probably  stomachic  and  tonic. 

ELSHOLTZIA  CRISTATA.— :f  ^  (Hsiaug-ju),  413a. 
This  plant  occurs  both  in  the  wild  and  the  cultivated  states, 
and  seems  to  have  its  natural  habitat  in  the  central  provinces. 
It  is  grown  in  gardens,  and  is  used  as  a  pot-herb  or  condiment. 
It  is  carminative,  astringent,  and  stomachic,  is  prescribed  in 
fluxes,  dropsy,  and  nausea,  and  if  taken  during  the  summer 
months  is  supposed  to  ward  off  fevers.  Nosebleed  and  burning 
of  the  feet  are  treated  with  it.  The  plant  has  several  other 
names  given  to  it  in  the  PSntsao. 

EPHEDRA  VULGARIS.— it  %  (Ma-huang),  801.  This 
is  a  common  plant  in  north  China  and  Mongolia.  The  prin- 
cipal supply  of  the  drug  seems  to  have  come  from  Honan 
province.  The  plant,  with  its  leafless  branches,  has  a  slight 
resemblance  to  Equisetmn^  and  in  Japan  as  well  as  in  China 
has  been  confounded  with  this  latter.  It  bears  yellow  flowers, 
and  produces  red,  edible  berries,  which  have  been  likened  to 


the  raspberry.  Pistillate  and  staminate  flowers  are  borne  on 
different  plants.  The  drug  consists  of  the  yellow,  jointed  stems 
of  the  plant,  tied  up  in  bundles,  or  the  stems  from  which  the 
joints  have  been  rejected,  cut  up  into  a  chafF-like  mass.  The 
reason  for  rejecting  the  joints  is  because  they  are  considered 
to  have  a  medical  action  differing  from,  and  in  a  measure 
counteracting  that  of  the  stems.  The  action  is  represented 
as  decidedly  diaphoretic  and  antipyretic.  It  is  prescribed  in 
fevers,  especially  malarial  fever,  in  coughs,  influenza,  and 
post-partum  difficulties.  Its  use  should  not  be  long  continued, 
lest  it  weaken  the  body. 

The  root,  which  is  also  known  as  ^  i^  (Kou-ku),  together 
with  the  joints,  is  considered  to  have  an  action  directly  opposed 
to  that  of  the  stem,  and  is  therefore  prescribed  in  profuse 
sweating,  either  critical  or  natural.  It  is  used  as  a  dusting 
powder,  applied  to  the  whole  body.  Although  it  probably  has 
some  astringent  property,  it  is  not  recommended  for  any  other 
difficulty,  or  to  be  used  in  any  different  way.  The  fruit  is 
mucilaginous,  with  a  slightly  acrid  or  pungent  flavor,  and  is 
eaten  by  the  Chinese. 

EPIG^A  ASIATICA.  — llj  ff^  (a  (vShan-p'i-p'a).  There 
is  no  description  of  this  in  the  books,  and  Li  Shih-chen  only 
says  that  the  charred  twigs,  pulverized  and  mixed  with  honey, 
are  very  efficacious  in  the  treatment  of  scalds  and  burns.  The 
ideutificatiou  is  Faber's. 

EPIMEDIUM  SAGITTATUM.  See  AccrantJms  sagit- 

EPIPHYTES. — The  Chinese  do  not  distinguish  between 
epiphytes  and  parasites.  Nearly  all  proper  epiphytes  %o  by 
the  name  of  ^  ^  (Chi-sheng),  to  which  is  prefixed  the  name 
of  the  tree  upon  which  they  are  found.  The  medical  prop- 
erties of  the  epiphyte  in  most  cases  are  supposed  to  be  some- 
what similar  to  those  of  the  plant  upon  which  it  grows. 
There  is  therefore  no  sort  of  classification  of  these  plants.  The 
only  ones  especially  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao  are  the  mulberry 
epiphyte^    the  peach   epiphyte^    and    the  willow  epipJiyte^  and 


these  are  classed  along  with  such  things  as  Aindera.nd  Pachyma 
cocos  under  the  general  heading  of  ^  /fc  (Yii-mu),  "dwellers 
on  wood."  These  epiphytes  have  been  identified  as  varieties  of 
Lora7itJms  and  Visciim^  and  will  be  treated  of  under  those  titles. 
(See  also  Dendrobiiim^  Fiingi^  Mushrooms^  ari  Packy7?ia.) 

EQUISETUM  ARVENSE.— Pp!  fll  (Wan-ching).  This 
is  spoken  of  in  the  Pentsao  under  the  next  article,  from  which 
it  does  not  seem  to  be  clearly  distinguished.  It  is  said  to  grow 
in  Hi  by  the  side  of  streams,  to  have  a  shoot  similar  to  that 
of  Eqieiseium  hyemale^  and  on  account  of  its  peculiar  jointed 
appearance,  it  is  sometimes  called  ^  |i  ^  (Chieh-hsil-ts'ao). 
It  is  prescribed  in  decoction  as  an  anodyne  and  carminative. 

EQUISETUM  HYEMALE.— Tf;  US  (Mu-tsei),  877.  This 
is  found  in  Kansu  and  Shensi  growing  in  watery  places.  It  is 
likened  to,  and  perhaps  sometimes  confounded  with.  Ephedra. 
It  grows  to  considerable  length,  and,  on  account  of  the  large 
amount  of  silicious  material  which  it  incloses,  is  used  to 
polish  wood.  The  drug,  as  used  by  the  Chinese,  consists  of 
the  leafless,  striated,  fistular  stems,  deprived  of  their  cuticular 
sheathes,  and  reduced  to  a  coarse  powder.  It  is  used  as  an 
astringent  remedy  in  a  variety  of  difficulties,  such  as  ophthal- 
mia, fluxes,  menorrhagia,  leucorrhcea,  epiphora,  various 
hemorrhages,  and  prolapse  of  the  rectum.  It  is  also  recom- 
mended in  irritable  uterus  during  pregnancy,  and  as  an  anti- 
dote in  case  of  having  swallowed  copper  cash. 

ERANTHIS  KEISKIL— ^  ^  (T'u-k'uei).  This  is  a 
Japanese  identification.  It  is  not  certain  that  this  may  not 
be  an  Anemone^  a  Hibiscus^  or  a  Malva.  The  figures  and 
descriptions  given  in  the  Chinese  books  are  not  clear.  It  is 
also  called  ^  ^  (T'ien-k'uei)  and  ^  %  '^  (Lei-wan-ts'ao). 
It  seems  to  be  a  small  Malva-like  plant,  bearing  a  white  flower, 
and  with  thick  green  leaves,  slightly  purplish  on  the  under 
side.  Its  habitat  is  said  to  be  Szechuan.  The  medical  use  of 
the  shoot  is  as  an  antilithic,  and  it  is  said  to  be  antidotal  and 
anodyne  in  case  of  animal  and  reptile  bites.  The  shoot  seems 
to  be  the  only  part  recommended  for  use  in  medicine. 


ERGOT. — As  rye  does  not  grow  in  China,  true  ergot  is 
not  found.  A  decoction  of  the  shoots  oi  Avena  fatua  (^  ^, 
Ch'iao-mai)  is  given  to  parturient  women  to  excite  uterine 
contractions,  and  it  may  be  surmised  that  there  is  an  ergot- 
like growth  on  these  shoots.  The  Pentsao  describes  a  growth 
appearing  on  the  heads  of  wheat  and  barley  when  the  grain  is 
nearly  ripe,  which  it  calls  ^  ^  (Mai-nu).  But  this  is  prob- 
ably a  rust  or  smut,  as  no  special  action  upon  the  uterus 
has  been  discovered  under  its  use.  (See  Avena  fatua^  HoV' 
deu7n^  Triticum^  and  Zea  mays.) 

ERIANTHUS  JAPONICUS.— •£  (Mang).  This  is  a 
grass,  also  called  "g  "^  (Pa-mang)  or  "^  ^  (Pa-mao),  and  used 
for  making  screens  and  fences.  In  Hupeh  it  is  called  A  i  ii^ 
(Pa-wang-ts'ao).  It  is  also  used  to  make  ropes,  boxes,  and 
shoes,  and  the  awns  are  used  for  brooms.  The  stem  is  used 
in  decoction,  or  the  juice  of  the  green  plant  is  employed,  as  a 
dressing  in  animal  bites  and  to  promote  the  absorption  of 
extra vasated  blood.  It  is  claimed  that  worn  out  boxes  made 
of  this  grass  may  be  employed  in  the  preparation  of  the  decoc- 
tion with  wine,  equally  well  as  the  plant  itself,  and  it  is  there- 
fore to  be  presumed  that  old  shoes  and  ropes  made  of  the 
substance  would  be  found  similarly  useful  for  this  purpose. 

is  the  same  as  Erigeron  acre.  It  is  a  very  common  weed  of 
north  China  and  Mongolia,  but  strange  to  say  it  is  not  de- 
scribed in  any  of  the  Chinese  medical  works  consulted.  In 
Japan  the  same  character  is  used  for  Coiiyza  atnbigua.  This 
being  a  "tumble  weed,"  blown  about  by  the  winds,  it  is  to 
be  presumed  that  the  Chinese  would  have  thought  it  useful 
to  quicken  the  circulation  or  give  sprightliness  to  the  muscles, 
or  something  of  thatsort. 

ERIOBOTRYA  JAPONICA.— tifc  fa  (P'i-p'a).  This  is 
the  "loquat,"  or  Japanese  w^'^f^/^^r.  Its  Chinese  name  is  said 
to  be  derived  from  the  shape  of  the  leaves,  which  are  likened 
to  that  of  the  Chinese  guitar,  ||  ^  (P'i-p'a).  The  term 
joquat,   however,  is  a  transliteration  of  the    Cantonese   sound 


of  J^  ;f^  rLu-cliu),  which  is  another  name  for  the  *'  cumquat,*' 
or  golden  orange.  Just  how  this  name  came  to  be  applied  by 
foreigners  to  the  fruit  of  the  Eriobotrya  is  uncertain,  as  the 
Chinese  books  do  not  indicate  any  such  use.  However,  it 
seems  that  this  term  has  gained  currency  in  California,  where 
this  fruit  is  now  extensively  grown.  The  fruit,  leaves,  flowers, 
and  inner  bark  of  the  tree  are  used  in  medicine.  The  fruit,  if  too 
freely  eaten,  is  thought  to  injure  the  spleen,  and  if  taken  with 
roast  meat  and  hot  bread  will  produce  jaundice.  Medicinally, 
it  is  employed  to  relieve  thirst  and  nausea  and  to  palliate 
cough.  The  most  important  medicinal  virtues  are  ascribed  to 
the  leaves  (1012).  In  decoction,  they  are  used  to  relieve  vomit- 
ing and  cough,  as  well  as  in  local  application  to  ulcers,  nose- 
bleed, wine  nose,  chapped  face,  and  smallpox  ulcers.  The 
flowers  are  used  in  coryza.  If  the  bark  is  chewed  and  the  juice 
swallowed,  it  is  said  to  relieve  nausea  and  vomiting. 

ERIOCAULON.— ^  ^  %  (Ku-ching-ts'ao),  619.  Sev- 
eral species  of  this  genus  go  under  the  same  Chinese  name. 
That  mentioned  in  the  P^ntsao  is  a  troublesome  weed  in  fields 
springing  up  after  the  grain  has  been  harvested,  and  supposed 
to  be  produced  spontaneously  from  the  aura  of  the  grain  ;  hence 
its  name,  "grain  essence  grass."  It  bears  small  leaves  and 
tiny,  star-shaped  flowers,  and  in  reference  to  this  last  fact  it 
receives  several  names.  The  plant  is  fed  to  horses,  with  a 
view  to  preventing  or  curing  intestinal  worms.  The  flowers 
are  used  in  medicine,  especially  in  hemicrania  and  other  head- 
aches. They  are  also  used  as  an  astringent  in  nosebleed 
opacity  of  the  cornea,  especially  that  following  smallpox,  and 
as  an  anodyne  in  cephalic  diseases  and  sunstroke.  The  drug, 
as  described  in  the  Customs  list,  comes  in  bundles  of  the  dried 

ch'ang-ts'ao).  This  is  the  same  as  TrigoiiHis  pedtmc7ilaris. 
It  is  a  common  plant  in  gardens  and  courtyards.  Children 
express  the  juice  of  the  plant  and  mix  it  with  spider  web  to 
use  for  catching  cicadas.  When  chewed,  the  plant  produces 
a  very  viscous  juice.     It  is  used  in  medicine  as  a  diuretic,  and 


as  an  emollient  application  in  wounds.  It  is  also  recom- 
mended as  a  bland  remedy  in  diarrhoea  and  the  dysenteries  of 

EUCOMMIA  ULMOIDES.— ;^  i^  (Tu-chnng),  1362. 
This  tree  is  found  in  Hupeh,  Konan,  Shensi,  and  Sliansi,  and 
has  been  so  identified  by  Oliver  and  at  Kew.  In  Japan  it  is 
Eaonymiis  jap07iiais.  Another  name  is  Tf;  f^  (Mu-mien),  which 
is  the  same  as  that  of  the  cotton  tree,  Bonibax  nialabariciim. 
This  name  refers  to  the  fact  that  on  breaking  the  bark,  and 
drawing  the  fractured  edges  asunder,  a  delicate,  silvery,  silky 
fibre  is  seen,  which  may  be  drawn  out  to  the  length  of  almost 
an  incli  without  breaking.  The  leaves  of  the  tree  are  eateu 
when  young,  and  the  wood  was  formerly  used  to  make  pattens. 
The  bark  is  the  part  used  in  medicine,  and  is  met  with  in 
quilled  or  shrivelled  pieces  of  four  to  five  inches  in  length. 
The  brown,  roughened  cuticle  is  often  removed  in  greatest 
part,  exposing  the  dark  brown  liber.  The  flowers,  fruit,  and 
wood  are  astringent,  and  may  be  used  in  medicine.  The  action 
of  the  bark  is  considered  to  be  tonic,  arthritic,  diuretic,  and 
depurative,  and  is  especially  prescribed  in  difficulties  of  the 
liver,  kidneys,  puerperal  diseases,  and  excessiv^e  perspirations. 
The  use  of  the  young  leaves  (called  ^  ^,  Mien-ya)  as  food,  is 
thought  to  promote  the  elimination  of  poisonous  effluvia,  and  to 
prevent  hemorrhoids. 

EUGENIA  CARYOPHYLLATA.— T  #  (Ting-hsiang), 
875,  1305.      See  Ca}yophyllus  aroviaticus. 

This  is  the  same  as  Etioiiymus  alahis.  Other  names  for  it  are 
^  ^  (Kuei-chien),  "devils'  arrow,"  and  %^  ^  (Shen-chien), 
"angels'  arrow."  It  grows  in  the  mountains,  and  is  a  shrub 
with  quadrangular,  winged  branches,  and  is  known  where  it 
grows  by  the  name  of  jzg  |^  ©  (Ssii-leng-shu),  "four-angled 
tree,"  and  also  as  :^  ^  ^  (Ch'a-yeh-shu),  "tea-leaf  tree." 
An  infusion  of  the  flowers  is  used  as  a  substitute  for  tea.  The 
wood  of  the  tree  is  called  fSj  ^  (Kou-ku^,  "dog's  bone,"  and 
is  used  only  for  fuel.     Apparently  the  branches  are  the  part 


used  in  medicine.  Astringent,  anodyne,  anthelmintic,  and  cor- 
rective powers  are  ascribed  to  the  drug,  and  it  is  especially 
prescribed  in  menstrual  and  post-partum  hemorrhages,  and  iu 
pernicious  malaria. 

EUPATORIUM.— ^  m  (Tse-lan),  1355,  ff  ]^  Han- 
ts'ao).  Faber  makes  the  latter  of  these  to  be  Eupatorium 
lindlcyanuni.  The  species  of  the  former  is  unidentified,  and 
the  term  may  refer  to  more  than  one  species.  In  the  Pentsao^ 
which  discusses  the  two  under  separate  headings,  a  large 
number  of  synonymous  names  is  given  in  each  case  ;  in  some 
instances  the  same  name  being  found  under  both  headings.  Li 
Shih-chen  says,  "  TheZ^/z-Z-yV^and  the  7j-<^-/«;7  are  two  species 
of  the  same  genus,  and  both  grow  on  the  borders  of  water 
courses  or  in  swamps.  They  have  perennial  roots,  purple, 
branched  stems,  with  red  joints,  and  opposite,  slightly  serrated 
leaves  issuing  from  the  joints.  But  the  Lan-ts^ao  has  a  round 
stem,  long  joints,  and  glabrous  leaves,  whilst  the  Ts^-Ian  has  a 
nearly  square  stem,  short  joints,  and  leaves  covered  with  hair. 
The  flowers  are  in  spikes,  and  are  reddish-white."  The  parts 
used  medicinally  in  each  case  are  the  leaves.  Diuretic,  anthel- 
mintic, and  restorative  properties  are  ascribed  to  the  leaves  of 
the  Lan-ts' ao^  and  they  are  used  in  colds  and  general  debility. 
They  are  also  considered  to  be  antidotal  to  various  poisons, 
and  when  made  into  a  pomade  will  promote  the  growth  of  the 
hair.  The  leaves  of  the  Tse-lan  have  similar  properties,  and 
are  used,  as  well,  as  an  anodyne  and  nerve  sedative  in  the 
disturbances  of  pregnancy  and  the  puerperal  condition.  They 
are  highly  recommended  for  their  constructive  properties.  The 
roots,  which  are  called  j^  ^  (Ti-sun),  and  are  sometimes 
eaten  for  food,  are  considered  beneficial  to  the  circulation,  and 
restorative  to  women  after  child-birth.  The  seeds  are  prescribed 
for  the  thirty-six  diseases  of  women. 

EUPHORBIA  HELIOSCOPIA.— P  f^  (Tse-ch'i).  This 
is  the  same  as  Euphorbia  liumlata.  The  Chinese  name  means 
"marsh  varnish,"  and  refers  to  the  white,  viscid  juice  which 
the  plant  contains.  It  is  a  common  wayside  plant  in  mid- 
China.     The  floral  leaves  are  round  and  yellow,  resembling  the 


pupil  of  a  cat's  eye,  and  for  this  reason  the  plant  is  called  |g 
51,  IIS  3h  ;^(Mao-erh-yen-ching-ts'ao).  On  account  of  its  green 
leaves  and  green  flowers  it  is  also  called  ^  M  M  ^  M  (Lh-yeh- 
lii-hua-ts'ao).  The  stalk  and  leaves  are  the  parts  used  in 
medicine.  They  are  prescribed  in  fevers,  dropsies  (especially 
anasarca"),  malaria,  and  as  an  anthelmintic.  The  young  shoots 
of  the  plant  are  sometimes  eaten  as  food. 

EUPHORBIA  HUMIFUSA.— Ji^  M  (Ti-chin).  This 
plant  has  a  large  number  of  common  names,  referring  to  such 
thino-s  as  its  nocturnal  blooming  habit,  the  form  of  its  flower, 
the  use  to  which  it  is  put  medicinally,  and  the  like.  It  is  a 
very  common  creeping  plant,  found  in  fields  and  gardens,  has  a 
reddish  stalk,  and  bears  a  reddish-yellow  flower.  The  whole 
plant  is  employed  in  medicine  ;  its  chief  uses  being  that  of  an 
anthelmintic  remedy,  and  in  menorrhagia,  dysentery,  corroding 
ulcers,  hematuria,  and  hemorrhages  from  the  bowels.  All 
sorts  of  discharging  wounds  and  sores  seem  to  be  treated  with 
it.  It  is  also  used  topically  in  decoction  for  the  treatment  of 
impetigo,  scabies,  and  other  skin  diseases. 

EUPHORBIA  LATHYRIS.— if  ^  (Ui-ju).  In  Japan 
this  is  Euphorbia  sieboldiana^  and  another  species  which  is 
given  in  the  Pentsao  wvl^^x.  this  same  title,  and  called  i^  ]{|]  ^ 
(Ts'ao-lii-ju),  is  there  EupJiorbia  pahistris.  In  the  Customs  lists 
(115)  is  given  a  product  called  ^  ^'^  (Ch'ien-chin-ts'ao)  for 
which  this  identification  is  suggested.  The  plant  is  mentioned 
in  the  appendix  to  the  Peiitsao^  where  its  resemblance  to  the 
spurges  is  pointed  out.  The  flowers,  seeds,  and  herbage  are 
all  prescribed  in  diarrhoeas.  There  is  also  another  mentioned, 
called  ^  p^  !^  (P^'ei-yang-ts'ao),  299,  identified  as  Euphorbia 
pihdifera^  but  this  has  not  been  found  in  the  books.  The  Lil-jii  is 
a  common  mountain  plant,  growing  from  two  to  three  feet  high, 
and  has  a  large  long  root  like  that  of  the  radish,  sometimes 
forked,  with  a  yellowish-red  skin,  and  white  flesh  containing 
a  yellow  sap.  The  stem  and  leaves  resemble  those  of  other 
spurges,  and  when  broken  they  discharge  a  white  sap.  The 
flowers  are  purple,  the  fruit  the  size  of  a  pea.  The  root  is 
the  part  used  in  medicine,   and  is    thought    to    have    slightly 


poisonous  properties.  It  is  considered  to  be  antiseptic  and  anti- 
putrefactive, and  is  used  in  decoction  as  a  wash  for  foul  ulcers, 
gangrenous  throat,  and  skin  diseases.  It  is  not  much  used 

EUPHORBIA  PEKINENSIS.— :^  $^  (Ta-chi),  1215. 
In  Japan  this  is  Eiipharhia  lasiocaiila.  It  is  a  common  marsh 
plant,  growing  to  the  height  of  two  or  three  feet,  and  having 
a  hollow  stem.  The  stem,  when  broken,  discharges  a  white 
juice.  The  purple  plant  of  Hangchow,  539,  is  considered  to 
be  the  best  for  medicinal  purposes.  The  root  is  the  part  used 
in  medicine,  is  thought  to  be  poisonous,  and  has  a  bitter  acrid 
taste,  causing  a  sensation  of  scratching  in  the  throat.  It  is  a 
favorite  remedy  with  the  Chinese  for  the  kit  (^1  disease, 
dropsies,  persistent  nausea  and  vomiting,  and  for  diarrhoeas. 
It  is  thought  to  have  specific  action  on  the  bowels  and  kidneys, 
and  to  quiet  the  uterus  in  pregnancy.  A  number  of  popular 
prescriptions  contain  this  as  the  principal  ingredient.  The 
acrid  juice  secured  from  the  stem  of  the  plant  is  said  to  cure 

EUPHORBIA  SIEBOLDIANA.— #  51  (Kan-sui),  584. 
This  is  a  Japanese  identification,  which  Faber  follows.  Henry 
called  it  Wickstrcemia^  which  again  Faber  adopts.  Tatarinov 
considered  it  to  be  Passerina^  in  which  he  is  followed  by 
Porter  Smith.  This  plant  is  also  a  common  weed  found  grow- 
ing in  mid-China,  especially  in  Shensi  and  Kiangsu.  The 
stem  and  leaves  contain  the  same  kind  of  milky  juice  as  is 
found  in  other  spurges.  The  root  has  a  reddish  skin  and  white 
flesh.  It  is  cylindrical,  or  eliptical,  in  shape,  and  smells  some- 
what like  ginger.  As  sold  on  the  market,  the  tubers  are 
usually  separated,  and  as  a  rule  much  worm-eaten.  They  are 
administered  in  anasarca,  ascites,  tympanitis,  hernia,  hydrocele, 
and  dysuria.  The  drug  is  also  applied  to  aching  parts  to 
relieve  pain  and  numbness,  and  is  thought  to  relieve  deafness. 

EURYALE  FEROX.— ^  ^  (ChMen-shih),  125.  Tlais 
plant,  of  the  order  of  water  lilies,  has,  like  the  lotus,  been 
cultivated  throughout  China  from  remote  antiquity.      Its  fariu- 


aceons  seeds  are  i\sed  as  food.  The  popular  name  is  '|f  g^  (Chi- 
t'ou),  from  the  resemblance  of  the  flower  to  a  cock's  head.  A 
number  of  similar  names,  having  reference  to  the  shape  of  the 
flower,  are  given  in  the  P^ntsao.  The  whole  plant  is  covered 
■with  prickles,  and  has  large  leaves,  with  prominent,  spiny 
veins.  It  is  much  cultivated  for  the  sake  of  its  stems,  rhizomes, 
and  seeds,  all  of  which  contain  much  starch  and  are  used  as 
food.  A  kind  of  dry  biscuit  is  often  prepared  from  the  meal  of 
the  kernels.  The  large,  pear-shaped,  indehiscent  fruits  are 
many  celled  and  filled  with  the  oval  seeds,  which  are  compared 
by  the  Chinese  to  the  eyes  of  fish.  These  seeds  are  of  a 
reddish  color,  mottled  and  veined  with  a  whitish  marbling, 
and  are  pale  at  the  hilum.  The  interior  is  white,  hard,  and 
starchy,  and  has  a  roughish  taste.  All  parts  of  the  plant  are 
used  in  medicine,  and  are  considered  to  be  tonic,  astringent, 
and  deobstruent  in  their  action.  They  are  recommended  in 
polyuria,  spermatorrhoea,  and  gonorrhoea.  The  biscuit  are 
fed  to  children  suffering  from  the  kan  (^j  disease. 

EVODIA  RUT^CARPA.     See  Boymia  riitcecarpa. 

EXIDIA  AURICULA  JUD^.— /f;  5  (Mu-erh).  This 
is  the  same  as  Hii'iieola  polytricha  and  Peziza  auricula^  and 
is  a  common  mushroom,  or  lichen,  growing  upon  trees.  The 
Chinese  choose  those  which  grow  upon  five  kinds  of  trees — the 
mulberry,  the  Sophera,  the  paper  mulberry,  the  elm,  and  the 
willow — of  which  that  growing  upon  the  mulberry  is  considered 
to  be  poisonous.  The  other  four  are  used  as  food.  Their 
action  upon  the  system  is  considered  to  be  very  beneficial, 
giving  lightness  and  strength  to  the  body  and  strengthening 
the  will.  They  are  thought  to  aid  in  the  cure  of  hemorrhoids 
and  to  prevent  other  hemorrhages.  The  mulberry  epiphytes 
are  considered  to  be  especially  useful  for  this  purpose,  and 
are  prescribed  in  all  sorts  of  hemorrhages.  Those  growing 
upon  other  trees  are  thought  to  have  medical  virtues  some- 
what similar  to  those  of  the  tree  upon  which  they  are  found, 
but  these  will  be  mentioned  under  the  appropriate  article  in 
each  case. 



FAGOPYRUM  ESCULENTUM.— ^  ^(Ch'iao-mai),  87. 
Other  names  are  '^  ^  (Cli'iao-mai),  ,|^  ^  (VVu-mai),  and  :j^  ^ 
(Hua-ch'iao).  It  is  sometimes  called  vulgarly  ^^  ^  (T'ien- 
ch'iao),  "sweet  buckwheat,"  to  distinguish  it  from  ^  ^  (K'u- 
ch'iao),  "bitter  buckwheat,"  spoken  of  in  the  next  article. 
Buckivheat  is  an  important  crop  in  the  central  provinces  of 
China,  being  much  depended  upon  as  food.  It  is  therefore 
classed  by  the  Chinese  among  the  cereals,  although  it  is  a 
polygonaceous  plant.-  The  small,  triangular,  uut-like  fruits  of 
this  plant  are  very  sweet  and  oily.  When  ground  they  make 
a  very  nourishing  and  digestible  food.  Pastry  made  from  the 
dark  colored  dough  of  this  flour  is  commonly  sold  in  the  streets. 
The  crop  must  be  cut  before  the  frost,  as  the  plant  is  very 
susceptible  to  cold.  The  use  of  buckv/heat  as  food  is  considered 
to  be  highly  beneficial  to  all  of  the  viscera,  giving  spirit  and 
strength  to  the  body.  It  is  recommended  as  a  diet  in  colic, 
choleraic  diarrhoea,  fluxes  of  all  kinds,  and  abdominal  obstruc- 
tions. Gravel,  gonorrhoea,  and  eruptions  in  children  are  also 
thought  to  be  benefited  by  its  use.  It  is  supposed  to  affect  the 
growth  of  the  hair,  and  a  poultice  of  the  meal  is  very  effica- 
cious as  an  application  to  abscesses,  carbuncles,  and  the  like. 
The  leaves  and  the  stalks  are  also  used  in  medicine  ;  the  former 
being  considered  to  be  carminative,  but,  if  taken  in  excess,  to 
produce  an  eruption.  The  ashes  of  the  latter  are  used  in  combi- 
nation with  lime  as  an  application  to  virulent  sores,  unhealthy 
granulations,  and  to  the  relief  of  centipede  bites. 

FAGOPYRUM  TARTARICUM.— ^  ^  ^  (K'u-ch'iao- 
mai).  This  "bitter  buckwheat"  is  similar  to  Fagopyrian  escu- 
leniujUy  but  is  considered  by  the  Chinese  to  be  slightly  poisonous, 
injuring  the  stomach  and  producing  jaundice,  if  taken  in 
excess.  Its  only  use  is  found  in  the  scraped  bark  being  taken 
in  combination  with  beau  hulls,  the  seeds  of  Cassia  tora^  and 
orange  peel  for  making  a  pillow.  This  pillow,  being  habit- 
ually used  on  the  bed,  is  considered  to  have  a  beneficial  action 
on  the  eyes. 


FALLOPIA  NERVOSA.— p  ^  %  (Hsieh-pao-yeh).  A 
plant  described  as  a  tall  shrub,  found  growing  wild  at  ?^Iacao 
and  Canton,  and  furnishing  a  tea  leaf,  is  thus  identified  by 
Loureiro  and  Bridgeman.  It  is  not  found  in  the  Pentsao. 
The  name,  f^  [Jj  :^  (Hou-shan-ch'a),  which  is  also  given  to  it, 
is  probably  local,  and  does  not  iudentify  it  with  the  ^J  )^ 
(Shan-ch'a),  Camellia  oleifera. 

FARFUGIUM  K^MPFERL— ^  ^  (T'o-wu).  This 
plant  is  so  identified  in  Japan,  but  is  described  in  the  Phitsao 
under  Titssilago  farfara^  and  is  not  discriminated  from  this 
latter.  Its  medicinal  uses,  therefore,  will  be  referred  to  the 
article  on  Tussilago. 

FATSIA  PAPYRIFERA.— jf  ^  %  (T'ung-t'o-mu),  % 
;^  fT'ung-ts'ao),  1405.  The  second  name  given  above  is  the 
common  name  of  the  plant,  but  it  is  also  the  term  under  which 
Akebia  quinata  is  described  in  the  Pdntsao.  To  prevent  con- 
fusing these,  this  fact  must  be  borne  in  mind.  This  aralia- 
cious  plant,  which  is  the  same  as  Aralia  papyri/era^  has  been 
identified  by  Sir  W.  Hooker  as  the  source  of  the  rice  paper 
used  by  Chinese  women  in  the  making  of  artificial  flowers. 
This  paper  is  also  used  by  Chinese  artists,  who  make  brilliant 
paintings  upon  it.  The  plant  is  herbaceous,  but  some- 
times has  a  tree-like  appearance.  It  grows  plentifully  ia 
Formosa,  and  has  been  found  in  Hupeh  and  Szechuan.  Diu- 
retic, pectoral,  galactagogue,  anthelmintic,  deobstruent,  and 
antidotal  properties  are  attributed  to  the  plant.  A  decoction 
is  used  for  washing  sore  heads.  The  pollen  found  upon  the 
flowers  is  considered  to  be  a  specially  efficacious  application  to 
infectious  sores,  hemorrhoids,  and  in  consumption.  The 
broken  rice  paper,  called  5^  !^  ^  (T'ung-ts'ao-p'ien),  and 
the  rice  paper  cuttings,  called  jii  ]^  ^  (T'uug-ts'ao-sui;,  are 
used  to  absorb  discharges  from  wounds. 


FERNS. — A  large  number  of  different  kinds  of  ferns  is 
found  in  China,  but  they  have  not  been  much  studied,  and 
only  a  few  are  mentioned  in  the  Pe?itsao.  Under  the  name 
of  ^    (Chileh)   and    ^  (Wei)  the  Pentsao  discusses  the  more 


common  kinds,  which  are  Pteris^  Osniunda^  and  Jlncetoxicum^ 
and  they  will  be  further  discussed  under  these  titles.  The 
young  shoots  of  some  kinds  are  eaten,  and  a  kind  of  arrow-root 
is  made  from  the  rhizomes,  which,  after  proper  washing  and 
cooking,  are  also  eaten,  in  spite  of  their  bitterness.  Of  course 
these  things  are  only  used  as  substitutes  for  food  in  times 
of  famine,  which  is  an  index  of  the  sad  distress  of  the  country 
at  such  times.  Demulcent,  diuretic,  soporific,  and  vulnerary 
properties  are  ascribed  to  these  roots. 

FERN  and  LYCOPODIUM  SPORES.— 5^  ^  i<I?  (Hai- 
chin-sha),  344,  ft  S  '^-  (Chu-yiien-sui).  The  fern  which  pro- 
duces these  spores  is  found  in  all  of  the  Yangtse  provinces, 
from  Szechuan  to  the  sea.  The  fern  grows  in  hilly  districts 
in  shady  places,  preferably  among  trees.  Hence  the  second 
name  above  given,  "bamboo  garden  coriander."  The  product, 
which  is  commonly  called  by  the  Chinese  "golden  sea-sand," 
is  an  exceedingly  light,  fine,  reddish-brown  powder,  which 
burns  almost  as  readily  as  Lycopodium  powder.  Its  medicinal 
action  is  considered  to  be  diuretic,  antilithic,  and  sedative,  and 
it  is  given  in  fevers,  dysuria,  hematuria,  and  other  urinary 
disorders.  It  is  suggested  that  it  might  be  used  as  a  substitute 
for  lycopodium  powder  in  pill  making. 

FERULA.— M  II  fA-wei),  ^  ]g  (A-yii),  ^  1  (Hsiin- 
ch'ii),  P^  #  't/g  (Ha-hsi-ni).  The  Pentsao  says  that  the  first 
character  given  above  is  the  equivalent  of  the  interjection 
"Oh  !"  supposed  to  be  uttered  over  this  stinking  gum  resin. 
The  second  name  given  is  the  Persian  equivalent,  while  in 
India  it  is  called  ^  |g  (Hsing-ch'u),  Sanscrit  Hingu ;  and 
another  name  said  to  be  used  in  western  Asia  is  ^  ^  (Yang- 
kuei).  The  last  name  given  at  the  head  of  this  article  is  the 
Mongolian,  or  Turkic,  equivalent.  The  countries  of  Central 
Asia  seem  to  be  the  source  of  supply,  but  it  is  said  to  be  found 
growing  also  in  the  Kunlun  mountains.  As  is  the  case  with 
the  European  supply,  the  drug  is  probably  derived  from  Ferula 
narthex  and  Ferula  scorodosma^  as  well  as  from  other  species. 
A  very  good  description  of  the  drug  and  its  preparation  are 
given  in  the  Pentsao^  where  the  rarity  of  the  genuine  article 


is  also  spoken  of.  There  is  a  saying  to  the  effect  that  "of 
assaf(vfida  there  is  none  genuine  ;  of  skullcap  (a  common  herb> 
there  is  none  sophisticated."  Garlic,  together  with  the  pla- 
centa of  a  lying-in  woman,  or  a  dead  foetus,  is  actually  boiled 
in  water  and  evaporated  to  produce  an  abominable  compound 
as  a  substitute  for  this  stinking  drug.  The  Mongols  use  as- 
safoetida  with  meat  as  a  condiment.  The  drug  is  said  to  be 
the  exudation  from  both  an  herb  and  a  tree.  That  prepared  by 
pounding  and  boiling  down  the  root  is  deemed  superior  to  the 
simple  exudation  of  the  cut  root.  The  yellow  grained  samples 
are  said  to  be  the  best.  Siamese  and  Sumatran  assafoetida  are 
said  to  be  collected  Wke  ga>nboge^  with  which  they  are  perhaps 
confounded.  Several  tests  for  proving  the  genuineness  of  the 
drug  are  given  in  the  PSfitsao  ;  one  being  that  it  should  leave 
a  white  mark  on  a  copper  vessel  after  being  kept  in  it  over 
night.  Deodorizing,  anthelmintic,  carminative,  cordial,  altera- 
tive, antispasmodic,  deobstruent,  alexipharmic,  and  antiperiodic 
properties  are  ascribed  to  it.  It  is  said  to  assist  in  the  diges- 
tion of  every  kind  of  meat,  and  to  correct  the  poison  of  stale 
meats,  meats  of  animals  that  have  died  of  disease,  and  of  edible 
mushrooms  and  herbs.  Possibly  one  of  the  ascribed  virtues 
which  would  prove  most  useful  to  ordinary  humanity  is  that 
of  suppressing  the  devil  and  driving  out  evil.  The  Pentsao 
does  not  say  whether  this  is  a  result  of  the  odor,  or  of  an  astral 
aura  emanating  from  the  second  character  of  the  name.  This 
character  is  properly  written  ^  (Wei).  It  is  possible  that 
galbanum  is  also  sometimes  confounded  with  assafoetida. 

FICUS  CARICA.— ^  -^  ^  (Wu-hua-kuo),  R^  B  :|| 
(Ying-jeh-kuo;,  @  #  i^  (Yu-t'an-po),  PnJ  |a  (A-tsang).  The 
first  two  names  given  above  are  the  common  names  of  the 
ordinary  Chinese  fig,  and  the  third  and  fourth  names  are  said 
to  be  those  of  the  Cantonese  and  Persian  varieties  respectively. 
The  Chinese  fig,  the  natural  habitat  of  which  is  probably  the 
Yangtse  valley,  is  a  small,  irregular  shrub,  bearing  a  fruit  very 
'much  smaller  and  inferior  in  quality  to  the  Persian  variety. 
'"  In  the  article  on  this  subject  in  the  Pentsao^  three  other  fig- 
like plants  are  spoken  of.  One,  the  '%  %  %.  (Wen-kuang- 
kuo),    Faber   identifies   as   Xanthoceras  sorbifolia.      Another, 


called  ^  f[[i  ^  (TMen-hsien-kuo),  is  Firus  erecta ;  while  the 
third,  whicii  is  unidentified,  is  called  '^  )§,  -^  (Kii-tii-tza). 
Stomachic  and  corrective  qualities  are  ascribed  to  the  fig, 
which  is  sometimes  called  ufc  |g  ^  ( Mu-man-t'ou),  as  is  also 
the  fruit  ot  Ficus  pumila.  The  leaves,  which  are  thought 
to  be  slightly  poisonous,  are  recommended  to  be  used  to 
steam  painful  and  swollen  piles.  Mr.  Eitel  (Handbook  of 
Chinese  Buddhism)  gives  ^^^>^i^  (Yu-yiin-po-lo)  as  the  name 
of  a  tree,  the  Udumbara  of  the  Buddhists,  which  is  Finis 
glomerata.  This  may  be  the  fig  referred  to  by  the  third  name 
at  the  head  of  this  article. 

FICUS  PUMILA,— ;fC  ^  (Mu-lien),  ^  ^  (Pi-li),  /f; ||  p| 
(Mu-man-t'ou),  %  |^  B|  (Kuei-nian-t'ou).  Tlie  Chinese  names 
given  to  this  plant  are  also  applied  to  other  plants.  The  first 
above  given  is  used  for  the  Magnolia^  while  the  third  is  equally 
applied  to  Fiats  stipiilata^  and  probably  also  to  Ficits  carica. 
Probably  the  most  distinctive  name  is  the  second.  The  leaves 
are  large  and  round,  and  if  bruised,  exude  a  white  juice,  like 
varnish.  This  suggests  its  similarity  to  the  Ficus  indica^  the 
source  of  guyn  lac.  The  plant  is  a  creeper,  and  bears  a  hollow 
*'  fruit  "  of  red  color.  This  product  is  much  esteemed  by  the 
birds,  which  eat  of  it  with  great  avidity.  The  leaves  are  used 
in  medicine  in  the  treatment  of  dysentery,  hematuria,  and 
locally  as  an  application  to  carbuncle.  The  juice  of  the  vine 
is  also  employed  in  the  treatment  of  skin  diseases.  The  whole 
plant  is  thought  to  have  a  beneficial  action  upon  the  virile 
powers,  and  is  therefore  used  in  the  treatment  of  spermator- 
rhoea, and  as  a  galactagogue.  The  plant,  when  eaten,  is  said  to 
remove  pain  in  the  heart. 

FICUS  RETUSA.— ;^  (J"ng).  This  is  the  Banyan  tree, 
of  which  the  adventitious  rootlets,  called  |^  ^  (Jung-hsii),  are 
used  in  medicine.  The  Pentsao  speaks  of  the  varnish-like 
juice  which  exudes  from  the  tree,  but  does  not  mention  its 
being  used  in  medicine.  The  tree  is  found  in  China  inost 
plentifully  in  the  province  of  Fukien.  A  good  description  is  " 
given  in  the  appendix  to  the  Pentsao.  The  only  use  to  which 
the  rootlets  seem   to  be   put   is  in  the  treatment  of  toothache, 


for  which  purpose  they  are  mixed  with  salt,  thoroughly  dried 
and  powdered,  and  applied  to  the  decayed  or  aching  tooth. 
They  are  considered  to  be  a  sovereign  remedy. 

FICUS  STIPULATA.— ^  ^  ^  (Ai-yii-tzu),  9.  The 
^  (Ai)  is  a  delicate  climbing  plant  of  Formosa  and  the  south- 
eastern provinces,  which  bears  a  fig-like  fruit.  The  plant  is 
not  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao^  nor  in  any  other  medical  work 
examined.  Kanghsi's  Dictionary  mentions  it,  but  is  very 
indefinite  in  its  description.  That  mentioned  in  the  Customs 
lists  came  from  Formosa  and  was  exported  to  Java,  Porter 
Smith  describes  the  exported  article  as  hard,  dried,  woody, 
immature,  tasteless  fruits,  generally  attached  to  their  stalks, 
or  sometimes  separated,  and  cut  into  two,  showing  the  charac- 
teristic fructification  of  the  genus.  The  fruits  are  also  called 
11  M  ^  (Man-t'ou-lo)  and  /JC  ^  5f  (Mu-man-t'ou).  To  what 
use  they  are  put  does  not  appear,  but  it  has  been  suggested  that 
they  may  be  employed  in  decoction  as  a  fomentation  for  painful 
piles  and  ulcers. 

FCENICULUM  VULGARE.— -^  M.  ^Shih-lo),  %  fl  fj 
(Tzu-mo-lo  ,  >J>  "^  ^  (Hsiao-hui-hsiang),  438.  The  first  of 
the  names  is  from  the  Persian  sila^  or  zira.  The  second  is  also 
of  foreign  origin,  but  from  what  language  is  not  known.  The 
third  refers  to  the  origin  of  the  drug  from  a  Mohammedan 
country.  The  stalks  and  leaves  of  the  plant  are  eaten  in 
China,  and  the  seeds  are  in  frequent  demand  as  a  condiment. 
The  fennel  is  sometimes  confounded  with  star-anise.  The 
fruits,  commonly  called  seeds,  are  greyish-brown,  slightly 
curved,  beaked,  with  five  prominent  ridges,  and  have  the 
characteristic  aroma  of  the  fennel.  The  shoots  of  the  young 
plant  are  considered  to  be  carminative  and  respiratory.  The 
fruits  are  prescribed  influxes,  dyspepsia,  colic,  and  other  abdom- 
inal disorders  of  children.  Made  into  a  Spirit  of  Fennel.,  it  is 
used  locally  for  backache  and  toothache.  The  leaves  and  stems 
may  be  similarly  employed.  A  number  of  other  fennel-like 
plants  are  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao  under  this  article.  Some 
of  these  are  used  for  food  in  their  natural  habitat,  and  the  me- 
dicinal virtues  of  all  are  regarded  as  similar  to  those  of  fennel. 


FORSYTHIA  SUSPENSA.— jg  %  (Lien-ch'iao),  719. 
This  is  spoken  of  in  the  classics  as  jg  (Lien)  and  ^  ^ 
(I-ch'iao).  In  the  Erhya  ^  'M  ^  (Han-lien-tzii)  is  given 
as  a  synonym,  but  this  is  also  given  in  the  Pentsao  as  a 
synonym  for  Sf  !j§  (Li-ch'ang),  which  is  Eclipta  alba.  ^^^ 
(Han-lien-ts'ao)  is  mentioned  in  the  Customs  lists  (359),  but 
this  probably  refers  to  Eclipta  alba  or  IVedelia  caleiidiilacea. 
Strange  to  say,  Braun,  in  the  Hankow  list,  identifies  this 
latter  with  dried  lilies.  In  this  he  has  probably  been  misled 
by  the  first  two  characters.  Another  name  given  in  the 
Pentsao  for  the  Forsythia  is  |^  $  (Lan-hua),  which  is 
properly  a  name  applied  to  several  orchidaceous  plants. 
The  Peilu  also  gives  H  jH  (San-lien),  and  the  root  is  called 
5^  ^g  (Lien-yao)  and  ft  j^  (Chu-ken).  This  shrubby  plant 
grows  in  marshy  places.  There  is  also  said  to  be  a  smaller 
variety  which  grows  on  high  mountains.  The  fruit  is  a  cap- 
sule, and  it  is  the  valves  of  this  which  appear  in  commerce. 
These  are  little,  boat-shaped,  brown  bodies,  a  half  to  three- 
fourths  of  an  inch  in  length,  with  a  thin  longitudinal  parti- 
tion. They  originally  contained  a  few  dark,  pendulous  seeds, 
which  have  an  aromatic  taste.  The  seeds  are  not  mentioned 
in  the  Chinese*  medical  books.  The  valves  are  reputed  to  be 
antiphlogistic,  antiscrofulous,  laxative,  diuretic,  and  emmen- 
agogue.  They  are  prescribed  also  for  deafness,  and  as  an 
anthelmintic  in  pin-worms.  The  stalks  and  leaves  are  thought 
to  be  antifebrile,  with  special  action  on  the  lungs  and  heart. 
They  are  used  in  poultice  as  an  application  to  ulcerated 
glands  and  piles.  The  root  is  regarded  as  slightly  poisonous. 
Besides  its  antifebrile  action,  its  use  is  thought  to  have  an 
exceedingly  beneficial  influence  on  the  circulation,  improving 
the  appearance  of  the  body,  and  giving  life  and  force.  It  is 
also  prescribed  in  colds  and  jaundice.  A  decoction  of  the  root 
is  used  for  washing  cancerous  sores. 

FRAG  ARIA  INDICA.— gg  ^  (She-mei),  ^  ^  (Ti-mei). 
Both  names  refer  to  the  creeping  habit  of  the  plant.  It  is 
quite  common  \\\  neglected  gardens  and  along  the  roadsides. 
It  bears  yellow  flowers  and  a  bright  red  fruit,  and  the  leaves, 
together  with  the  root,   are    used  in    medicine.     The  fruit   is 


also  thought  to  be  slightly  poisonous,  and  the  juice  is  taken  in 
fevers  and  to  counteract  arrow  poison  and  snake  bite.  It  is 
considered  to  be  antiseptic,  and  is  therefore  applied  to  aphthous 
sore  mouth  and  fever  sores. 

FRAGARIA  WAIvLICHIL— M  ^  ^  (Ti-yang-mei). 
This  plant  grows  north  of  the  Yangtse  in  moist,  shady  places, 
and  in  the  fourth  and  fifth  months  there  is  fruit.  Nothing 
farther  is  said  in  regard  to  it  in  the  Pentsao.  The  stem  of  the 
plant  is  used  in  dysentery  and  chronic  diarrhoea. 

FRAXINUS  PUBINERVUS.— ^  ^  (Ch'in-p'i),  172. 
The  first  character  is  properly  written  :j^  (Chin),  Another 
name  is  ^  :^  (K'u-li),  but  this  name  is  applied  in  the  Peking 
mountains  to  Fi'aximis  Imngeana^  which  is  one  of  the  plants 
upon  which  the  wax  insect  lives.  The  ChHn-pH  is  a  tree  with 
a  green  bark.  It  is  not  distinguished  by  the  Chinese  from 
some  varieties  of  Querais.  The  bark,  when  steeped  in  water, 
is  said  to  produce  a  bluish  indelible  ink.  The  common  name 
of  the  wood  is  j^  ;j^  /fc  (Pai-hsiin-mu).  The  bark  is  the 
part  used  in  medicine,  and  its  virtues  seem  in  the  main  to  be 
those  of  an  astringent.  It  is  prescribed  in  catarrhal  fever, 
inflamed  eyes,  fluxes,  and  in  decoction  to  wash  snake  and 
insect  bites.  It  is  also  regarded  as  tonic  to  the  genito-uriuary 

FRITILLARIA  ROYLKL— ^  #  (Pei-mu),  993.  This 
liliaceous  plant  grows  in  different  parts  of  China.  It  is  culti- 
vated in  Chekiang  and  exported  from  Ningpo.  It  is  also  much 
cultivated  in  Szechuan,  and  this  variety  is  regarded  as  much 
superior  to  any  other.  The  Reports  of  Trade  for  1869  and  1880 
give  interesting  notices  of  this  drug.  The  Hankow  reports  for 
1879  also  speak  of  the  Szechuan  drug.  Father  David  mentions 
the  Pei-mu  as  growing  in  the  high  mountains  of  Thibet,  having 
yellow  flowers,  and  the  corms  being  used  in  medicine.  That 
growing  in  Chekiang  has  grayish-white  flowers.  According  to 
Henry,  the  name  Pei-imi  is  applied  in  Hupeh  to  an  orchid, 
which  is  not  the  same  as  the  Szechuan  drug.  Porter  Smith's 
identifications  of  this  drug  are  all  wrong,  unless  that  of  Uvu- 


laria  grandiflora  may  be  correct  in  some  parts  of  China.  These 
genera  are  closely  allied  and  somewhat  difficult  to  distinguish. 
The  classical  name  of  the  plant  is  '^  (Meng)  or  ^  (Meng).  The 
first  character  of  the  common  name  is  also  written  ]^.  This 
name  has  reference  to  the  bulbs  resembling  a  bunch  of  cowry 
shells.  The  corms  are  dug  up  in  the  spring  and  autumn,  so 
that  the  difference  in  size  depends  not  only  on  the  difference  ia 
species,  but  also  on  the  stage  of  development  of  the  corm. 
Those  coming  from  Chekiang  are  usually  as  large  as  a  good 
sized  marble.  The  Szechuan  variety  is  smaller  and  held  in 
more  esteem  than  the  others,  and  commands  a  higher  price. 
These  corms  are  naked,  of  a  white,  or  yellow  color,  and  may 
be  broken  into  two  or  more  segments,  disclosing  the  central 
shoot.  They  are  easily  crushed  by  the  teeth  to  a  white, 
starchy,  and  almost  tasteless  powder.  The  likeness  of  this 
product  to  the  oriental  Hermodactyls  and  Colchiciim  is  suggest- 
ed. The  corms  are  used  by  the  Chinese  in  medicine,  and  are 
prescribed  in  fevers,  coughs,  dysuria,  hemorrhages,  deficiency 
of  milk,  threatened  mammary  abscess,  lingering  labor,  rheumat- 
ism, and  diseases  of  the  eye.  They  are  regarded  as  having 
specially  favorable  action  on  the  viscera  and  the  bone  marrow. 
They  are  also  highly  recommended  in  spider,  snake,  and 
scorpion  bites. 

FUCUS  SACCHARINUS.     See  Algcs. 

FUMARIA  OFFICINALIS.—^  I^Ji  \%  T  (Tzu-hua-ti- 
ting),  141 1  (  ? ).  This  is  a  common  roadside  weed  in  China, 
described  in  the  Pentsao  as  of  two  varieties  :  one  having  purple, 
and  the  other  white  flowers.  The  herbage  of  these  plants  is 
used  in  decoction  as  an  application  to  glandular  swellings, 
strumous  sores,  carbuncles,  and  every  kind  of  abscess.  It  is 
also  taken  internally  for  jaundice,  and  to  remove  wheat  awns 
from  the  throat. 

FUNGI.— ^*  ffi  m  (Chih-erh-lei).  Fungi  growing  on 
trees  (TfC  3,  Mu-erh,  "wood-ears")  are  preferred  by  the 
Chinese  to  the  more  delicate  mushrooms.  Many  of  the  latter 
are  apparently  poisonous,  and  some  of  the  more  delicate  varie- 


ties  are  not  grown  in  China,  which  facts  lead  the  Chinese  to  the 
same  result.  See  Epiphytes^  Dcndrobiuin^  Exidia^  Loraiithus^ 
Miishrooms^  Pachyma  cocos^  and  Viscuni. 

FUNKIA  SUBCORDATA.— ^  ^  (Yii-tsan),  j^  t|  1il| 
(Pai-hao-hsien).  This  is  a  common  cultivated  plant  of  the 
Chinese  gardens,  growing  to  the  height  of  a  foot  or  so,  having 
large,  round  leaves,  which  are  dark  on  the  under  side.  The 
stem  of  the  plant  is  bracted,  and  the  flowers  grow  in  the  axils 
of  the  bracts.  They  are  white  and  pearly,  giving  origin  to 
the  Chinese  name.  The  root  and  leaves  are  used  in  medicine  ; 
both  being  regarded  as  poisonous.  The  expressed  juice  of  the 
root  is  considered  to  be  a  connter  poison  to  infectious  abscesses 
and  cancerous  sores.  It  is  prescribed  in  the  early  stages  of 
cancer  of  the  breast,  abortion,  to  overcome  cantharidal  poison- 
ing, and  as  an  anodyne  in  fish  bone  lodged  in  the  throat, 
fractures,  and  the  extraction  of  teeth.  The  bruised  leaves  are 
applied  in  insect  bites,  and  a  spirit  is  taken  or  applied  in  car- 
diac pain.  The  flowers  are  now  distilled  and  a  perfumery  made, 
which  is  used  in  cosmetics.  They  are  also  prescribed  in  sup- 
pression of  urine  or  dysuria,  as  well  as  being  added  to  prescrip- 
tions for  the  treatment  of  skin  diseases  and  wounds. 

■  >.i<*eoo*>i'<« 



GALANGA. — See  Alpinia  oficinariim. 

Gx\LBx\NUM. — It  is  entirel}-  probable  that  this  drug  is 
imported  into  China,  as  it  comes  from  a  region  which  supplies 
many  such  products  to  the  Chinese  markets.  But  under  what 
name  it  may  come  has  not  yet  been  ascertained.  It  is  possible 
that  in  some  cases  it  may  be  confounded  with  assafoetida. 

GAUUM  APARINE.— It  f^^^(Chu-yang-yang).  This 
cleavers  is  thus  identified  by  Faber,  but  it  is  not  found  in  the 
Pentsao.  The  Kua7ig-chihi-fa7ig-pii  places  it  among  green  vege- 
tables, but  nothing  is  said  in  regard  to  it  except  that  pigs  are 
very  fond  of  it,  and  that  it  is  used  as  a  vegetable  in  the  spring. 

GALLA.— |ffi  %  ^  (Wu-shih-tzii),  t^  ;&  •?  (I\Iu-shih- 
tzu),  874,  M  S"  T^  v-Mo-shih-tzii),  Jp  ^  ^f  (Mo-t'u-tse).  The 
most  of  the  names  above  given  are  attempts  to  reproduce  the 
Persian  name  Mazii.  Efforts  to  explain  the  Chinese  names  in 
any  other  way  are  scarcely  warranted,  however  plausible  some 
of  these  explanations  may  seem.  The  description  of  the  tree 
given  in  the  Pentsao  is  very  vague,  and  the  Chinese  seem  to  be 
ignorant  of  the  origin  of  these  galls,  which  they  suppose  to  be 
a  fruit  of  the  tree  alternating  with  the  proper  fruit.  Those 
coming  from  Persia  and  Arabia  have  long  been  prized  in 
China.  These  galls  are  not  essentially  different  from  those 
found  in  the  European  markets,  as  they  practically  come  from 
the  same  place.  The  Chinese  books  direct  that  the  galls  shall 
be  pierced,  and  dried  in  a  sand  bath  until  they  assume  a 
brownish-black  color,  when  they  are  ready  for  use  in  medicine. 
Their  use  in  making  ink  seems  to  have  been  formerly  known 
in  China,  as  also  their  use  as  a  hair  dye.  They  are  powdered 
and  given  in  dysentery,  chronic  diarrhoea,  nocturnal  sweating, 
seminal  emissions,  toothache,  and  the  kan  (^)  disease  in 
children.  They  are  applied  to  sores  and  skin  affections  as  a 
stimulant  and  astringent.  Galls  have  been  successfully  em- 
ployed in  some  parts  of  India  in  very  mild  and  chronic  forms  of 


inteniiittent  fever.  Modern  Chinese  seem  to  understand  the 
antiperiodic  effect  of  this  drug,  although  the  Cinchona  salts 
have  superseded  all  other  forms  of  treatment  for  malarial  fevers. 

GALIvA  SINENSIS.— S  ^  ^  (Wu-pei-tzu),  1466. 
These  are  the  galls  that  are  produced  upon  the  leaves  or  leaf- 
stalks of  Rhus  semialata  by  an  insect,  which  is  probably  an 
aphis.  The  tree  is  of  the  same  genus  as  that  which  yields  the 
Chinese  and  Japanese  varnish  or  lacquer.  In  India  the  excres- 
cence is  called  Kakra-singie^  and  sometimes  attains  to  the  size 
of  a  man's  fist.  The  galls  are  usually  met  with  as  hard,  brittle, 
oblong,  horn-like,  contorted  bodies,  about  an  incli  and  a  half 
long,  and  resembling  a  seashell.  They  are  pointed,  or  taper- 
ing, at  either  end,  or  triangular,  irregular,  and  tuberculated. 
The  outer  surface  is  velvety,  of  a  yellowish  or  light  brown 
color,  the  thin  walls  somewhat  translucent,  and  the  interior 
smooth,  and  occupied  by  the  remains  of  the  insect.  They 
contain  between  seventy  and  eighty  per  cent,  of  tannin.  They 
are  collected  for  the  most  part  in  Manchuria  and  the  province 
of  Szechuan.  There  is  a  Japanese  kind  which  is  smaller,  and 
that  from  India,  produced  upon  the  Rhus  succedanea^  is  more 
cylindrical.  These  galls  are  used  by  dyers  and  tanners  to  pro- 
duce a  black  color,  or  are  mixed  with  cochineal  and  other 
coloring  substances  (according  to  Dr.  Williams)  to  produce  grey, 
brown,  and  fawn  tints.  They  are  the  principal  ingredient  in  a 
kind  of  imperial  electuary,  which  is  very  highly  rated  and  only 
obtainable  as  a  gift  from  the  throne.  The  Chinese  use  them 
medicinally  as  an  expectorant,  astringent,  and  corrective 
remedy,  and  they  are  applied  topically  to  chancres,  swellings, 
and  wounds.  The  second  character  in  the  name  at  the  head  of 
this  article  is  properly  written  |§  (P'ei). 

Faber  speaks  of  the  Galls  of  Celtis  smettsis^  which  he  calls 
Tic  t^  5i  (Mu-t*ao-erh),  but  these  are  not  mentioned  in  the 

GAMBIR. — See  Ar'eca  catechu  and  Uncaria  gambir. 

GARCINIA  MORELLA.— fi  %  (T'eng-huang).  These 
characters  are  sometimes  wrongly  written  |jg  ^  (T'ung-huang). 
This  is  the  same  as  Garcinia  hanburiiy  and  the  drug  produced, 


which  is  the  inspissated  juice,  derived  from  incisions  made  into 
the  bark  of  the  tree,  and  collected  in  a  hollow  bamboo,  is  the 
Siamese  gamboge  of  commerce.  The  tree,  which  is  common  in 
Hunan  and  Shensi,  is  called  ^  ff  (Hai-t'eng).  When  the 
juice  exudes  from  the  bark  and  drops  upon  the  stones,  it  is 
called  ^  ^  (Sha-huang).  That  which  exudes  from  the  tree 
and  congeals  on  the  bark  is  called  )||j  i^  (Iva-huang).  We  are 
indebted  to  Hanbury  for  his  careful  observations  upon  this 
substance.  A  full  account  will  be  found  in  his  Science  Papers, 
page  326  et  seq.  Gamboge,  as  it  appears  in  the  Chinese  mar- 
ket, consists  of  short  cylindrical  pieces  of  the  shape  of  the 
bamboo  tube  in  which  it  has  been  prepared.  Irregular  masses 
are  also  found.  Chinese  draughtsmen  use  it  as  a  pigment.  Its 
medicinal  use  is  limited  to  external  application  ;  its  purgative 
properties  either  not  being  known,  or  else  considered  of  too 
violent  a  character  for  safety.  The  Chinese  regard  it  as  very 
poisonous.  It  is  used  both  alone  in  powder,  and  as  an  ingre- 
dient in  a  large  number  of  prescriptions,  for  the  treatment  of 
wounds  of  all  kinds,  cancerous  sores,  and  to  cause  decayed  and 
painful  teeth  to  drop  out.  Its  irritant  and  stimulant  action 
upon  the  skin  is  fully  taken  advantage  of  in  the  treatment  of 
indolent  ulcers. 

GARDENIA  FLORIDA.— ;jf  ^  (.Chih-tzits  639.  There 
are  several  kinds  of  this  shrub  in  China,  and  these  have  been 
divided  into  species  by  various  observers,  such  as  the  one  here 
given.  Gardenia  radica7is^  Gardenia  grandifiora^  Gardenia 
rubra^  and  the  like.  Btit  great  confusion  exists  in  regard  to 
these  identifications,  and  as  the  uses  of  the  various  drugs 
derived  from  these  plants  are  practically  the  same,  and  as  the 
Phtfsao  discusses  them  all  under  one  head,  they  will  not  be 
separated  here.  Generally  speaking,  two  kinds  of  dried  fruits 
from  these  plants  are  found  in  Chinese  medicine.  One,  the 
larger,  is  called  simply  1^  ^  (Chih-tzu),  while  the  other  and 
smaller  is  called  ill  ^  ^  iShan-chih-tzu).  The  larger  occurs 
as  a  smooth,  oblong,  orange-brown,  or  yellowish,  imperfectly 
two-celled  berry,  from  one  to  two  inches  in  length,  strongly 
marked  with  six  ribs  which  terminate  in  the  superior  perma- 
nent calyx,  which  generally  crowns  even  the  dried  fruit  of  the 


shops.  The  pericarp  is  fragile  and  horn}',  marked  internally 
by  two  narrow,  projecting  receptacles.  The  seeds  are  numer- 
ous and  embedded  in  a  dark  orange  pulp.  The  smaller  fruits 
are  met  with  as  ovoid,  smooth,  six-ribbed,  light  or  dark  brown, 
or  even  black  berries,  crowned  with  more  of  the  calyx  than  are 
the  larger  fruits.  They  vary  from  one-half  to  an  inch  or  more 
in  length.  These  are  the  berries  which  are  more  frequently 
used  in  medicine  than  are  the  large  ones.  In  the  Customs  lists 
several  different  kinds  of  the  drug  are  mentioned  as  appearing 
in  commerce.  M  M  "?  (Huang-chih-tzu),  512,  is  given  as  the 
principal  term  for  this  product,  while  ^  ;|^  (Chien-chih),  103, 
is  a  kind  from  Chienchang  prefecture  in  Kiangsi.  The  name 
^  iiJi  ■?  '  Huang-chih-tzii)  is  not  found  in  the  Pintsao^  but  is 
mentioned  in  other  Chinese  medical  works.  It  seems  to  be 
identical  with  the  common  ^  ^  (Chih-tzii).  ill  t^  -?  (Shan- 
chih-tzU)  and  jjj  M  ;|^  (Shan-hei-chih),  1092,  are  given  as 
names  for  the  variety  yielding  the  small  fruit.  The  Hankow  list 
speaks  of  the  ^X  Wi  'P  (Hung-chih-tzu)  as  a  species  of  Gardenia 
from  Szechuan.  All  of  these  fruits  are  used  for  dyeing  pur- 
poses, producing  a  beautiful  yellow  color,  but  there  is  some 
difference  in  the  value  of  the  different  fruits  for  this  purpose  ; 
the  Szechuan  variety  producing  a  reddish  yellow  or  orange  color. 
The  flowers  of  the  plant  are  very  fragrant,  and  are  used  for 
flavoring  tea  and  in  cosmetic  preparations.  In  the  season  when 
they  are  in  bloom,  they  are  much  Avorn  by  Chinese  women  as 
hair  ornaments.  The  medicinal  uses  of  the  smaller  fruits  are 
various  ;  they  being  prescribed  in  fevers,  fluxes,  dropsies,  lung 
diseases,  jaundice,  and  externally  as  a  vulnerary  remedy.  The 
larger  fruits  are  more  particularly  used  externally  ;  the  pulp 
being  applied  to  swellings  and  to  injuries,  and  to  such  diffi- 
culties as  wine-nose,  dog  bite,  slight  burns  and  scalds,  and  the 
like.  Other  names  given  for  this  plant  are  Tf;  j^  (Mu-tan),  ^  |)B 
(Yiieh-t'ao),  and  ^  -^  (Hsien-chih).  In  the  Customs  lists  the 
root  of  this  plant,  |)|  -J*  ;^  (Chih-tzu-ken),  140,  is  spoken  of  as 
an  article  of  commerce,  but  this  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao. 

GASTRODIA  ELATA.  —  7^;  ^  rCh'ih-chien),  ^  % 
T'ien-ma),  1296.  This  orchidaceous  plant,  called  "red- 
arrow"    by    the   Chinese,    grows   in   the   plains  of  the  central 


provinces.  Pao  P'o-tzu  says  that  the  plant  moves  even  when 
the  air  is  still;  while  T'ao  Hung-ching  goes  one  better,  and 
says  that  it  is  not  moved  by  the  wind,  and  moves  only  in  still 
air  !  The  central  root  is  large,  and  it  is  said  to  always  have 
twelve  smaller  tubers  of  the  size  of  a  hen's  egg  on  the  side. 
These  tubers  are  much  used  for  food,  both  raw  and  steamed. 
The  best  sort  comes  from  Shantung.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that 
an  Australian  species  of  this  plant,  Gastrodia  sesamoides^  has 
a  root  which  is  full  of  starch,  and  which  is  used  as  food  by 
the  natives.  The  tubers,  dried  and  shrivelled,  are  found  in 
the  Chinese  medicine  shops.  They  are  in  the  form  of  flat, 
yellowish-brown  pieces,  irregularly  oblong,  and  measuring  from 
two  to  two  and  a  half  inches  long  by  one  inch  and  a  half 
broad.  This  drug  is  considered  to  have  very  beneficial  prop- 
erties, expelling  all  kinds  of  poisonous  effluvia,  giving  strength 
and  virility  to  the  body,  improving  the  circulation,  and  strength- 
ening the  memory.  It  is  prescribed  in  rheumatism,  neural- 
gia, paralysis,  lumbago,  headaches,  and  other  neuralgic  and 
nervous  affections.  The  stalk  of  the  plant,  which  is  called 
^  M  "?  (Huan-t'ung-tzu),  is  also  considered  to  be  tonic  and 
aphrodisiac.  The  plant  also  produces  a  fruit,  which  becomes 
yellow  and  ripe  as  the  leaves  begin  to  shrivel  up  and  fall  ofif. 
It  contains  seeds,  the  kernels  of  which  are  starchy. 

GELSEMIUM  ELEGANS.  —  fi^i  |^  (Kou-wen).  This 
identification  is  not  quite  certain.  Faber  uses  this  same  Chi- 
nese name  also  for  Rhus  toxicodendron.  But  in  an  article  on 
Chinese  Drugs,  published  in  the  China  Review  (Vol.  XV,  page 
214),  it  is  proved  that  the  plant  Kott-wen  of  the  Pentsao  is 
Gelseniiu7?i  elegans.  It  is  known  at  Hongkong  under  the 
names  of  ^  ^  5g  (Hu-wan-ch'iang),  %%%.  (Tuan-ch'ang- 
ts'ao),  and  ;/c  ^  ^  ^  (Ta-ch'a-yeh-t'eng),  the  two  former  of 
which  are  names  found  in  the  Pentsao  2iS  synonyms  oi  Kou-w^n. 
In  Japan  it  is  Rhus  toxicodendron^  but  K  '^  ^  ^Al  P^  (Huang- 
tsing-yeh-kou-wen)  is  given  as  an  equivalent  term,  and  this  is 
also  assigned  to  Croomia  japonica.  The  extremely  poisonous 
character  of  this  plant  is  well  recognized  by  the  Chinese,  and 
one  of  the  names  given  to  it  is  ^  j^^  (Tu-ken),  "poison  root." 
Li  Shih-cheu  says  :     "When  people  happen  by  mistake  to  eat 


the  leaves  mixed  with  vegetables,  they  die  in  the  course  of 
half  a  day."  The  plant  is  also  called  g^  Hi  ^  (Tuan-ch'ang- 
ts'ao)  and  -^  f|§  i^  (Lan-ch'ang-ts'ao),  because  when  it  comes 
in  contact  with  the  bowels  of  man  or  beast,  they  become  black 
and  gangrenous  in  a  short  time.  The  younger  leaves  in 
spring  and  summer  are  especially  dangerous.  The  old  leaves 
in  autumn  are  less  injurious.  The  counter-poison  recommend- 
ed by  the  Phiisao  is  the  blood  of  a  white  goose  or  duck. 
Medicinally  the  root  is  used,  and  it  is  recommended  for 
wounds,  caked  breast,  perspiring  feet,  and  skin  eruptions.  In 
these  cases  it  is  presumed  that  it  is  used  locally.  It  is  also 
said  to  be  useful  in  coughs  and  poisonous  effluvia,  as  well  as 
in  difficulties  of  the  vocal  organs.  How  it  is  administered  in 
these  cases  is  not  mentioned.  The  substance  is  also  used  for 
killing  birds  and  other  animals.  So  exceedingly  fearful  are 
the  Chinese  of  its  poisonous  properties,  that  full  directions  are 
given  for  counteracting  its  effects.  It  would  seem  that  fuller 
directions  as  to  its  administration  and  dosage  would  have  been 
equally  advantageous. 

GENTIANA  SCABRA.— M  ^  (Lung-tan),  791.  ^  ^ 
(Ling-yu)  is  another  name.  The  first  Chinese  name  is  used 
for  more  than  one  species  of  Gentiaji.  Indeed  the  Index 
Florae  Sinensis  enumerates  fifty-seven  species  of  this  genus, 
many  of  which  are  called  by  this  one  name.  Morrison,  in 
his  dictionary,  applies  this  name  also  to  Dictamnus  albiis^  and 
according  to  Porter  Smith,  this  substance  has  been  found  iu 
the  markets  under  this  Chinese  name.  The  plant  is  common 
in  mid-China,  growing  in  mountain  valleys.  It  has  a  blue, 
bell-shaped  flower,  and  a  perennial  root,  which  in  the  recent 
state  is  almost  white.  As  it  appears  in  the  shops,  it  consists  of 
long,  reddish-brown,  numerous  rootlets,  attached  to  a  short, 
twisted  rhizome^  which  is  seen  on  section  to  be  much  closer  and 
more  of  a  brown  color  than  the  European  gentian  root.  The 
taste  is  agreeably  bitter.  It  is  prescribed  in  fevers,  rheumat- 
ism, poisonous  effluvia  of  the  viscera,  fluxes,  and  general 
debility.  Its  use  is  thought  to  benefit  the  liver,  strengthen  the 
memory,  and  give  lightness  and  elasticity  to  the  body.  It  is 
used  locally  in  skin  diseases  and  ulcers,  and  iu  affections  of  the 


throat.  Its  anthelmintic  properties  are  also  recognized.  It 
is  specially  recommended  in  nocturnal  sweating,  hematuria, 
and  ophthalmia. 

GERANIUM  NEPALENSE.— ^  ^  (Niu-pien).  This 
identification  is  exceedingly  doubtful.  The  Japanese  identify 
it  as  Aconitu7n  lycoctomim^  but  Faber  identifies  that  found  here 
in  China  as  this  cranesbill.  The  plant  grows  in  marshy  places 
in  river  valleys  ;  the  leaves  resembling  aconite  leaves.  Both 
the  leaves  and  root  are  used  in  decoction  for  washing  sores, 
and  especially  for  destroying  lice  and  maggots  on  cattle.  The 
plant  is  not  poisonous,  although  the  root  is  considered  to  be 
slightly  deleterious.  The  Pentsao  speaks  of  another  plant 
under  this  head,  which  is  also  used  for  killing  pediculi.  This 
is  called  %^'^%.  (Shih-chien-ts'ao).     It  has  not  been  identified. 

GEUM  DRYADOIDES.— ^  ^  (She-han),  ^  fg  (She- 
hsien),  f|  \^  (Lung-hsien).  This  plant  grows  in  mountain 
valleys  and  on  stony  ground.  It  has  small  leaves  and  yellow 
flowers.  It  is  said  to  be  cultivated  in  Szechuan  for  medicine. 
Snakes  are  reported  to  dislike  it.  The  stem  and  leaves  are 
used  medicinally.  It  is  regarded  as  a  special  drug  for  children, 
and  is  even  recommended  to  be  taken  by  the  mother  during 
the  foetal  life  of  the  child.  It  is  prescribed  in  convulsive  dis- 
orders, nervous  irritability,  and  as  an  anodyne  in  wounds  and 
sores.  The  fevers  of  children  are  specially  susceptible  to  its 
good  influences.  It  is  prescribed  for  the  bleeding  of  wounds, 
obstinate  skin  diseases,  and  the  bites  of  centipedes  and 

GEUM  JAPONICA.— 7^  %  |i$  (Shiii-yang  mei),  %  ^ 
(Ti-chiao).  This  is  a  variety  of  the  well  known  water  avens. 
It  bears  a  fruit,  shaped  like  the  pepper  fruit  ;  hence  the  second 
name.  It  does  not  seem  to  be  used  internally  as  medicine, 
although  it  is  not  regarded  as  poisonous.  The  fruit  is  applied 
externally  to  boils  and  abscesses. 

GINKO  BILOBA.— 1^  ^  (Yin-hsing),  j^  %  (Pai-kuo), 
952.      See  Salisburia  adiantifolia. 


GLEDITSCHIA  CHINENSIS.— ^  'M  (Tsao-chia),  ^  H 
(Tsao-chio),  1331.  This  leguminous  tree  is  met  with  through- 
out China  and  Cochin  China.  It  bears  a  pod  which  in  some 
specimens  attains  to  a  length  of  fully  two  feet.  This  is  thin  and 
knife-like  in  appearance,  and  contains  many  flat,  brown  seeds^ 
which  are  used  in  bathing  and  in  washing  clothes.  The  tree  is 
thickly  beset  with  thorns,  which  are  called  ^  T  (T4en-ting). 
At  the  proper  time  for  the  seeds  to  drop,  the  people  surround  the 
tree  with  bamboo  baskets,  and  all  of  the  seeds  are  said  to  fall 
from  the  tree  in  one  night,  Li  Shih-chen  says  that  sometimes 
when  a  tree  does  not  produce  fruit,  the  people  bore  a  hole  in 
the  trunk,  fill  it  with  from  three  to  five  pounds  of  cast  iron,  and 
cover  the  opening  with  mud.  Then  it  will  bear  fruit.  At  Peking, 
this  beautiful  tree  is  called  by  the  second  name  given  above. 
It  bears  small,  greenish-yellow,  scented  flowers,  and  is  much 
prized  as  a  lawn  tree.  The  medical  uses  to  which  the  Chinese 
put  the  dififerent  parts  of  the  tree  are  very  numerous.  The  pods 
are  considered  to  be  expectorant,  emetic,  and  purgative.  They 
are  prescribed  in  coughs,  flatulence,  chronic  dysentery,  and 
prolapse  of  the  rectum.  The  seeds  and  pods  are  used  in  the 
form  of  a  bolus  as  an  antidote  in  case  of  metalic  poisoning.  The 
coarse  powder  is  blown  into  the  nostrils,  or  put  into  the  rectum, 
of  the  victims  of  accidental  drowning  and  hanging.  It  is  said  to 
extract  the  water  and  to  open  the  passages  of  the  body.  Various 
other  difficulties,  remarkable  in  their  character,  are  treated  with 
these  seeds,  such  as  difficult  labor,  dribbling  saliva  in  children, 
decayed  teeth,  chronic  consumption,  and  cancer  of  the  rectum. 
The  thorns  are  used  as  an  anthelmintic,  in  decoction  as  a  wash  to 
ulcers,  skin  diseases,  caked  breast,  and  retained  placentae.  They 
are  also  used  as  needles  in  opening  abscesses,  and  as  counter- 
irritants  in  tumors  and  growths.  The  bark  of  both  the  stem  and 
the  root  is  used  as  an  anthelmintic  and  antifebrile  remedy.  The 
leaves  are  used  in  decoction  for  washing  sores.  Another  species 
or  variety  of  this  plant,  called  ^  ^  ^  (Kuei-tsao-chia),  is  men- 
tioned.     It  is  used  for  the  treatment  of  ulcers  and  skin  diseases. 

GLEDITSCHIA  JAPONICA.— It  ^  ^"^  (Chu-ya-tsao- 
chia),  ^  ^(Ya-chia),  ^  j|  (Ya-tsao),  1487.  This  a  Japanese 
identification  of  a  species  of  Glediischia  differing  from  Gledits- 


chia  chinensis  in  some  respects.  In  the  Pentsao^  Sukiing  says 
in  regard  to  it  :  "It  is  an  inferior  sort.  The  pod  is  crooked, 
thin,  uncomely,  and  not  succulent.  When  used  for  washing, 
it  does  not  remove  the  dirt.  The  pods,  which  are  two  feet 
long,  are  coarse  and  dry.  The  best  are  those  which  are  only 
from  six  to  seven  inches  long."  Hanbury  received  some  of 
these  pods,  and  he  described  them  as  follows:  "They  are 
from  two  to  four  inches  long,  and  from  3/10  to  5/10  of  an  inch 
broad,  more  or  less  sickle-shaped  and  compressed,  their  upper 
edge  prolonged  into  a  narrow  wing.  The  anterior  extremity 
is  pointed,  the  posterior  attenuated  into  a  short  stalk.  The 
pods  are  indehiscent,  and  have  thick,  pulpy  valves,  which  are 
extremely  smooth  and  of  a  deep  brown.  The  substance  of  the 
pod,  when  chewed,  even  in  very  small  quantity,  produces  an 
extremely  disagreeable  sense  of  acridity  in  the  fauces."  He 
suggests  Prosopis  as  an  identification.  The  medical  uses  of 
these  pods  are  not  distinguished  from  those  of  Gleditschia 
chinensis^  although  they  are  regarded  as  inferior  to  the  latter. 

GLYCINE  HISPIDIA.  — :1c  %  (Ta-tou),  :^,  |^,  and  ^ 
(Shu),  ^  W,  (Jen-shu),  ^  H  (Jung-shu),  J\  j£  (Shih-tou), 
H  %  (Hei-tou),  '%  "^  (Huang-tou).  This  is  the  same  as  Soja 
hispidia  and  Dolichos  soia^  and  is  the  Chinese  and  Japanese 
soy  bean.  It  has  been  known  in  China  from  ancient  times, 
and  has  always  been  considered  by  the  Chinese  as  the  most 
important  of  the  cultivated  leguminous  plants.  A  very  large 
number  of  varieties  is  found  throughout  the  Empire,  especially 
in  the  north.  The  name  "great  bean"  applies  to  the  plant, 
not  to  the  seeds,  as  these  are  quite  small.  It  is  employed  in 
China  and  Japan  in  the  preparation  of  three  products  which 
are  of  almost  universal  use  in  oriental  cookery.  These  are 
"beau  oil,"  "bean-curd,"  and  "soy."  There  are  many  varie- 
ties of  this  bean,  which  the  Chinese  distinguish  by  the  color 
of  the  seeds  ;  these  being  black,  white,  yellow,  gray,  azure,  and 
spotted.  The  black  sort  is  used  in  medicine,  and  the  yellow 
is  specially  valued  in  the  preparation  of  bean-curd  and  soy. 
The  black  kind  is  not  much  used  as  food,  as  it  is  thought  to 
render  the  body  heavy.  The  Chinese  regard  those  things 
which  give  lightness  to  the  body  with  more  favor  than  those 


which  promote  flesh  and  sluggishness.  The  characters  ;^,  ^^ 
or  ^^  (Shu)  are  the  classical  name,  while  ^  ^^  (Jen-shu)  and 
^  M  (J^^"g-shu)  are  equally  ancient  compound  names  for  this 
plant,  sk  al  (Shih-tou),  *' bean-relish  bean,"  indicates  its 
use  in  making  the  bean  relish  and  soy. 

Medicinally,  the  black  beans  are  considered  to  have  much 
value.  Their  frequent  use  is  thought  to  have  a  most  beneficial 
effect  upon  the  body,  giving  strength  and  vigor,  albeit  with 
heaviness.  This  latter  fact  is  the  only  objection  offered  to  the 
use  of  these  beans.  They  are  regarded  as  an  admirable  counter- 
poison  against  most  of  the  vegetable  poisons,  such  as  Aconite 
and  Croton  iiglii.  Carminative  and  quieting  properties  are 
also  ascribed  to  them.  They  are  pescribed  in  a  large  number 
of  difficulties,  notably  post-paitum  and  sexual  disorders  ;  but 
as  they  are  always  in  combination  with  other  active  drugs,  it 
may  be  readily  supposed  that  the  beans  play  no  very  important 
part  in  these  prescriptions.  The  green  bean  hulls,  1317, 
chewed  into  a  pulp,  are  applied  to  smallpox  ulcers,  corneal 
ulcer,  and  the  excoriation  produced  in  children  by  urine.  The 
bruised  leaves  of  the  plant  are  used  as  a  local  application  in 
snake  bite.  The  flowers,  13 10,  are  used  in  blindness  and 
opacity  of  the  cornea. 

The  bean  sprouts^  called  ::^  ^  H  ^  (Ta-tou-huang-chiien) 
and  ^1^  (Tou-nieh),  are  also  mentioned  in  the  PS fiisao.  Bean- 
sprouts  {^  ^'',  Tou-ya)  are  a  common  article  of  diet  with  the 
Chinese,  but  these  former  are  made  of  the  black  bean,  and  are 
especially  used  in  medicine.  Li  Shih-chen  gives  the  following 
mode  of  preparation  :  "On  a  water  day  (^  ^  H  j  soak  black 
beans  in  clear  water,  and  after  the  sprouts  have  grown,  take 
off  the  hulls  and  dry  the  sprouts  in  the  shade."  Their 
medical  properties  are  considered  to  be  laxative,  resolvent,  and 
constructive.  They  are  reputed  to  have  special  influence  upon 
the  growth  of  the  hair,  and  to  be  curative  in  ascites  and 

The  yellow  variety  of  beans  is  also  given  a  separate  dis- 
cussion in  the  Pentsao.  As  was  before  said,  these  are  used  for 
the  most  part  in  the  preparation  of  bean  oil,  bean-curd,  and 
soy.  The  beans  and  pods  of  this  variety  are  larger  than  those 
of  the  black   kind,   and  in   the  green  state   they   are   highly 


esteemed  by  the  Chinese  as  an  article  of  food.  But  they  are 
also  considered  "heavy/'  and  if  partaken  of  too  freely  they 
are  thought  to  produce  jaundice.  They  are  considered  to  be 
carminative  and  deobstruent,  and  are  recommended  in  ascites. 
Locally  they  are  applied  to  smallpox  ulcers.  The  ashes  of 
bean  stalks  are  specially  recommended  as  an  application  to  un- 
healthy granulations  in  hemorrhoids  (possibly  fungous  growths 
of  the  anus). 

The  oil,  ^  f^  (Tou-yu),  is  considered  to  be  very  slightly 
deleterious,  and  is  used  as  a  local  application  to  ulcers  and 
skin  diseases,  and  for  removing  bandoline  from  the  hair.  This 
oil  is  maniifactured  in  large  quantities,  especially  in  Manchuria, 
and  is  shipped  to  every  part  ot  China.  It  is  used  as  food, 
chiefly  by  the  poorer  people,  and  was  formerly  used  as  a  burn- 
ing oil  ;  but  kerosene  has  now  almost  superseded  it  for  this 
latter  purpose.  It  is  usually  dark  colored,  and  has  a  not  very 
pleasant  odor. 

Bean  relish  (Salted  Beans)^  "5^  %  '^  (Ta-tou-shih), 
1318,  is  a  product  much  valued  by  the  Chinese.  The  mean- 
ing of  the  character  '^  (Shih)  is  difficult  to  render  in  English. 
It  refers  to  salted  and  fermented  beans,  and  is  applied  to  both 
the  prepared  beans  themselves  and  to  other  preparations  made 
from  them,  some  of  which  are  in  liquid  form.  For  this  last 
reason,  this  character  is  sometimes  thought  to  refer  to  "soy." 
But  the  term  "relish"  will  be  used  for  this  product  to  distin- 
guish it  from  soy,  which  will  be  found  described  a  little  later. 
Tao  Hung-ching  (V  Century)  says  that  Puchou  (-^  ]\\)  in 
Shansi  and  Shenchou  (^  jlj)  in  Honan  were  places  noted  for 
the  excellence  of  this  product.  He  says  that  at  Shenchou 
there  is  produced  a  liquid  bean  relish  which  in  ten  years  will 
not  spoil,  but  for  medical  purposes  it  is  not  so  good  as  other 
kinds,  as  no  salt  was  used  in  its  manufacture.  On  the  other 
hand,  Meng  Shen  (VII  Century)  says  that  the  Shenchou  liquid 
bean  relish  is  better  than  the  ordinary  kind.  He  gives  its 
composition  as  follows:  "Use  Hispidia  beans  which  have 
been  fermented,  first  steaming  them  soft.  To  each  peck  add 
of  salt  four  pints,  pepper  (|^),  four  ounces.  In  the  spring 
time,  let  stand  three  days  ;  in  summer,  two,  when  it  will  be 
half  ripe.     Then  add  five  ounces  of  ginger  {^  ^),    and  let 


stand  to  clarify.  Use  only  the  clear  part,"  Li  Sliih-chen 
says  :  "All  sorts  of  beans  can  be  used  in  making  this  product, 
but  that  made  from  the  black  bean  is  used  in  medicine.  There 
are  two  kinds  of  this  relish  :  one  called  insipid  relish  (Tan- 
shih,  f^  s^},  and  the  other  salty  relish  (^  ^,  Hsien-shih). 
The  liquid  form  of  the  former  is  the  one  most  used  in  treating 
diseases.  To  make  this,  in  the  sixth  month  take  two  or  three 
pecks  of  the  black  Hispidia  beans,  wash  clean  and  soak  in 
water  over  night.  Drain  off  the  water  and  steam  soft.  Spread 
out  upon  matting,  and  after  it  has  become  slightly  cool,  cover 
with  artemisia  stalks.  Examine  it  every  three  days  to  note 
the  process  of  fermentation.  The  layer  of  Mycoderma  which 
grows  on  top  should  not  be  allowed  to  become  too  thick. 
When  sufficiently  fermented,  take  out  and  dry  in  the  sun  and 
sift  clean.  Use  clean  water  and  mix  into  a  half-dry-half- 
moist  condition,  just  so  that  the  juice  will  exude  between  the 
fingers  when  the  material  is  squeezed  in  the  hand.  Put  into 
an  earthenware  jar  and  pack  firmly,  cover  with  a  layer  of 
mulberry  leaves  three  inches  thick,  and  seal  up  with  clay. 
Set  the  jar  in  the  sun  every  day  for  seven  days.  Then  take 
out  and  dry  for  a  little  while  in  the  sun,  and  again  moisten 
with  water  and  repack  in  the  jar  as  before.  This  do  seven 
times,  and  then  boil  again,  spread  on  matting,  dry  with  fire, 
pack  again  into  the  jars,  and  seal  up  for  future  use." 

"The  method  of  making  the  salty  relish  is  as  follows: 
Take  one  peck  of  Hispidia  beans  and  soak  them  in  water  three 
days.  Wash,  steam,  and  spread  out  in  a  store  room,  and  when 
they  have  fermented,  take  them  up,  sift  them  clean  and  wash 
in  water.  For  every  four  catties  take  one  catty  of  salt,  half  a 
catty  of  shredded  ginger,  and  of  peppers,  orange  peel,  thyme, 
fennel,  and  apricot  kernels,  a  sufficient  quantity.  Put  all  into 
an  earthen  jar  and  cover  with  water  to  the  depth  of  an  inch. 
Cover  with  bamboo  skin,  and  seal  up  the  mouth  of  the  jar. 
Place  in  the  sun  for  one  month,  when  it  will  be  finished. 
To  prepare  the  liquid  bean  relish,  between  the  tenth  and 
first  moons  take  three  pecks  of  good  salted  beans.  Boil  fresh 
hempseed  oil  until  it  smokes  ;  then  put  in  the  beans  and 
cook  thoroughly.  Spread  the  mixture  out  on  matting  and 
dry  in  the  sun.      Wheu  it  is  dry,  steam   again.      Repeat  this 


process  three  times,  and  then  add  a  peck  of  white  salt  and 
pack  all  well  together.  Pour  on  hot  water  and  percolate 
three  or  four  gallons.  Put  into  a  clean  caldron  and  add 
pepper,  ginger,  onion,  and  shredded  orange  peel,  and  boil  all 
together  until  it  is  evaporated  one-third.  Then  put  into  a 
whole  vessel  and  let  stand,  and  it  will  develop  an  exceed- 
ingly fine  flavor."  In  addition  to  the  beau  relish  several 
other  kinds  are  made,  such  as  bran  relish,  melou  relish, 
and  soy  relish  ;  but  these  are  for  food  and  are  not  used  in 

These  salted  beans  and  their  derivatives  are  used  medic- 
iually  in  various  ways.  The  insipid  relish  is  used  in  the 
treatment  of  colds,  headache,  chills  and  fever,  malaria,  noxious 
efflnvia,  irritability,  melancholy,  decline,  difficult  breathing, 
painful  and  cold  feet,  and  for  the  destruction  of  poisons  in 
pregnant  domestic  animals.  In  the  treatment  of  fevers  and 
perspirations,  it  should  be  cooked  into  a  paste.  For  driving 
away  melancholy,  the  uncooked  article  should  be  made  up 
into  pills  and  taken.  For  chills  and  fever,  colds  on  the  chest, 
and  for  ulcers,  it  is  boiled  and  eaten,  as  it  also  is  in  the 
case  of  dysentery  and  colic.  It  may  also  be  used  for  the 
treatment  of  ague,  bone  disease,  poisons,  marasmus,  and  dog 
bite.  It  is  useful  in  expelling  gas,  benefiting  the  internal 
organs,  treating  colds  and  cold  poisons,  and  for  nausea. 

The  Puchou  relish  has  a  very  salty  aud  cooling  taste. 
It  corrects  irritability,  fever,  poison,  cold,  and  decline.  It 
benefits  all  of  the  internal  organs,  is  diaphoretic,  opens  up 
the  passages,  destroys  astral  influences,  and  clears  the  breath- 
ing ("opens  up  the  nose").  The  Shenchou  liquid  relish 
also  allays  irritability  and  feverishness.  These  are  employed 
medicinally  in  obstinate  dysentery,  hematuria,  locomotor  ataxia, 
(^  SH  ^  jE)  Shou-chio-pu-sui),  excessive  hemorrhage  in  abor- 
tion, threatened  abortion,  difficult  labor,  tinea,  venereal  sores, 
stings  of  insects,  scorpion  bites,  horse  bites  (anthrax  ?,),  wiue 
drinkers'  diseases,  foreign  objects  in  the  eye,  and  thorns  in 
the  flesh. 

Bean  Ferment. — ^  ^  (Tou-huang).  This  is  the 
fermentation  pellicle  {Mycodcrjua)  which  forms  on  the  top 
of  fermenting  beans,   as  the   mother-of- vinegar  forms   on    the 


top  of  vinegar  in  its  process  of  preparation.  The  pellicle 
contains,  in  addition  to  the  viycetes  of  fermentation,  various 
kinds  of  moulds  and  mildews,  and  its  composition  is  probably 
not  at  all  uniform.  The  method  of  preparation  is  given 
as  follows:  '*Take  a  peck  of  black  beans  and  thoroughly 
steam  them.  Spread  upon  matting  and  cover  with  artemisia 
stalks,  as  in  the  process  of  preparing  soy.  When  the  pellicle 
is  formed  on  top,  take  it  off,  dry  in  the  sun  and  powder, 
when  it  is  ready  for  use.  The  taste  is  sweet  and  cooling, 
and  the  substance  is  non-poisonous.  It  is  specially  recommended 
in  the  treatment  of  rheumatism,  especially  that  of  the  knees, 
for  the  insufficient  action  of  the  five  viscera,  spleen,  and 
stomach,  giving  strength  to  the  body,  lubricating  the  muscles 
and  skin,  improving  the  complexion,  invigorating  the  marrow, 
and  toning  up  the  system  generally,  enabling  one  to  eat 
fats.  It  is  sometimes  combined  with  pork  fat  and  made 
into  pills  for  producing  flesh.  A  hundred  pills  should  be 
taken  at  one  time.  Fat  people  should  not  use  this  substance. 
Chewed  into  a  paste  and  applied  to  eczema,  it  proves  very 

Bean  Curd. — ^  ^  (Tou-fu).  The  method  of  making 
bean  curd  had  its  origin  in  the  Han  dynasty,  during  the 
reign  of  Huai  Nan  Wang  (A.D.  23),  at  Liuan.  All  sorts 
of  black  beans,  yellow  beans,  white  beans,  clay  beans, 
green  beans,  and  peas  can  be  used  in  its  preparation.  The 
process  of  manufacturing  is  given  in  the  Pintsao  as  follows : 
*'Wash  the  beans  and  crush  them  in  water.  Skim  oflf 
what  floats,  and  boil.  Make  a  natron  solution,  or  a  decoction 
of  the  leaves  of  Shan-fan  ( |lj  ^),  Symplocos  pruiiifolia^  or 
use  sour  soy  vinegar,  and  add  to  the  beans.  Heat  all  together 
in  a  caldron.  Afterwards  pour  into  a  large  jar  in  which 
has  been  placed  powdered  gypsum  and  mix  well  together. 
What  will  be  produced  is  a  saltish,  bitterish,  sour,  acrid  mix- 
ture, and  what  congeals  upon  the  surface  of  the  compound 
is  to  be  taken  out  and  dripped  clean  of  the  other  solution. 
This  is  bean-cicrd.''^  The  taste  is  sweet,  alkaline,  and  cooling. 
It  is  considered  to  be  slightly  deleterious.  It  is  thought  that 
the  ingestion  of  bean  curd  prevents  the  curing  of  diseases, 
but  if  carrots  are  put  with  the  bean  curd,  this  action  is  pre- 


vented.  It  is  reputed  to  be  beneficial  to  the  internal  organs, 
inproving  the  breath,  harmonizing  the  spleen  and  stomach, 
removing  flatulence,  and  expelling  evil  gases  from  the  bowels. 
Used  warm  it  disperses  subcutaneous  hemorrhage.  It  is 
prescribed  in  chronic  dysentery,  ophthalmia,  swellings,  and 

Soy. — !§p  (Chiang).     Common  names  are  ^  f^  (Chiang- 
yu)  and  ^  fjj[j  (Shih-yu).      Li  Shih-chen  says  that  the  Chinese 
name   indicates   the  power  of  this  substance  to  counteract  the 
poison  which  may  exist  in  food.      Several  forms  of  soy  exist, 
such  as  flour  soy,  made  of  wheat  or  barley  flour  ;  sweet  soy,  of 
similar  composition,    but  varying  slightly  in   the    method    of 
manufacture ;  and  bean  soy,  made  of  various  kinds  of  beans, 
but  more  particularly  of  the  Hispidia  bean.     One  method   of 
manufacture   is   as    follows  :    "  Take   of  Hispidia  beans  three 
quarts,  and   boil   in   water.      Mix   with   twenty-four  catties    of 
flour   and    allow    to    ferment.     To   every    ten    catties    of    the 
mixture  take  of  salt  eight  catties,  of  well  water  forty  catties ; 
mix    and    allow    to    stand    until    it   is   ripe.'*     Several    other 
methods  of  manufacture  are  given  in  the  Pintsao^  differing  in 
various   respects  from   this,    but  the  method   here  given   will 
sufiice  to  illustrate  the  mode  of  manufacture.      Soy  is  a  black, 
thin  liquid,  having  an  agreeable  saltish  flavor,  and  frothing  up 
of  a  yellow  color  when  even  slightly  shaken.      It  is  the  univer- 
sal sauce  of  the  Chinese  and  Japanese,  and  is  largely  exported 
to   India   and    Europe  as  a  convenient  menstruum   for  other 
flavoring  substances  used  as  condiments.     In  China  it  is  both 
made  in  large  quantities  by  shops  and  in  smaller  quantities  by 
domestic  manufacture.     It  is  considered  to  provoke  the  appetite 
and  to  correct  any  injurious  qualities  of  food.     It  is  laxative, 
cooling,  and  antidotal  to  various  poisons,  according  to  Chinese 
estimation.     It  is  often  applied  to  burns,  scalds,  eczema,  and 
leprous  sores.     Its  use  is  considered   beneficial  in  threatened 
abortion  and  the  hematuria  of  pregnancy.     Two  other  kinds 
of  soy  are  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao^  both  made  from  the  seeds 
of  the  elm  (apparently  of  two  different  species).     One  is  called 
lit  in  '^  (Yu-jen-chiang)  and  the  other  ^  H  ^  (Wu-i-chiang), 
In  regard  to  these  two  terms  for  elm,  see  the  article  on  Ulmus. 
Both  these  kinds  of  soy  are  considered  to  be  laxative,  diuretic, 


and  anthelmintic.     They  should  not  be  used  to  excess,  as  they 
are  considered  to  have  some  deleterious  properties. 

GLYCYRRHIZA.— -H*  ^  (Kan-ts'ao),  587.     Other  names 
are  ^   t  (Mi-kan),    ^  ^  (Mi-ts'ao),  ^  ^  (Mei-ts'ao),  t^  ^ 
(Lu-ts'ao),  g  5I  (Ling-t'ung),  and  p  ^  (Kiio-lao).      This  last, 
name  is  applied  to  the  plant  on  account  of  its  great  virtues  as  a 
remedy.      The  drug  is  very  highly  prized  by  the  Chinese,  and 
enters  into  the  composition  of  very  many  prescriptions.     The 
most  common  species  that  supply  the  Chinese  h'corzce  root  are 
Glycyy'rhiza  echinata  and   Glycyrrhiza  glabra^  both  of  which 
are  found  growing  plentifully  in  northern  China.     Quantities 
are  also  brought  from   Mongolia,    especially  from  the  region 
about  Kokonor.     In  fact,  the  plant  seems  to  grow  extensively 
throughout  all  the  region  of  Central  Asia.     The  root  is  com- 
monly sold  in  long  pieces,  dry,  wrinkled,  and  red  on  the  surface, 
and  yellow,   fibrous,   and  tough  in  the  interior.     The  taste  is 
disagreeably  sweet  and  slightly  mucilaginous.      It  stands  next 
to    ginseng   in    importance   in    Chinese    pharmacy,    being    the 
great  corrective  adjunct  and  harmonizing  ingredient  in  a  large 
number  of  recipes.     Like  most  celebrated  Chinese  drugs,  it  is 
credited   with  the  property  of  rejuvenating  those  who  consume 
it  for  a  long  time.     The  roots,  twigs,  and  efflorescence  are  used 
in  medicine.      Tonic,  alexipharmic,  alterative,  and  expectorant 
properties  are  ascribed  to  the  drug.     It  is  used  to  allay  thirst, 
feverishness,    pain,    cough,    and    distress   of  breathing.     It  is 
specially  prescribed  for  children,  and  is  used  in  a  large  number 
of  their  maladies,  but  as  it  is  usually  exhibited  in  combination 
with    other  drugs,    it  can   readily   be   understood   why   purely 
imaginary    virtues   should    be   ascribed    to    it.      Locally,    it    is 
applied,  mixed  with  honey,   to  burns,   boils,  and  other  sores. 
The  properties  ascribed  to  the  twigs  and  flowers  do  not  differ  in 
any  essential  respect  from  those  ascribed  to  the  root. 

heterophylluni). — 7|C  |^  (,Shui-sung).  The  P^ntsao  says  that 
this  grows  on  the  shores  of  the  southern  seas  in  tlie  water,  and 
looks  like  a  pine.  Hence  the  name.  It  is  prescribed  in  animal 
bites  and  in  the  dropsy  of  pregnant  women  (hydropsaninion  ?). 


GNAPHALIUM  MULTICEPS.— 1|  m  ^  (Shu-clm- 
ts'ao).  Other  names  are  M  5  (Slin-erh)  -^  5  i^  (Fo-erli  ts'ao), 
320,  ^  ^  (Mi-cbli),  M  t^^  ^  (Wu-hsin-ts'ao),  ^  ^  (Hsiang- 
mao),  ^  ^  (Huang-hao),  and  ^  #  (Jiing-mii).  This  is  an 
artemisia-like  plant,  growing  principally  in  northern  China, 
with  a  whitish,  hirsute  leaf,  and  bearing  yellow  flowers.  Hence 
one  of  the  names,  "yellow  artemisia."  The  medicinal  action 
of  this  plant  is  regarded  as  decidedly  anti-malarial  and  anti- 
febrile. It  is  also  prescribed  in  coughs  and  diseases  of  the 
lungs  and  air  passages. 

ts'ao").  This  is  a  fragrant  plant  with  sessile  leaves,  both  the 
■white  flowers  and  the  scabrous  leaves  having  fragrance.  For 
this  reason  it  is  much  cultivated  in  gardens.  The  odor  is  very 
persistent,  and  it  is  said  that  fleas,  lice,  and  moths  do  not  like 
it.  Because  of  this  latter  fact,  the  plant  is  frequently  put  under 
the  bed  mats  and  into  books  to  drive  these  insect  pests  away. 
No  medicinal  properties  are  ascribed  to  it. 

GOMPHRENA  GLOBOSA.— "^  0  jfl  (Pai-jih-hung). 
No  part  of  this  beautiful  tree  seems  to  be  used  in  medicine.  It 
is  much  cultivated  in  gardens  as  an  ornament,  and  the  name 
refers  to  its  long  period  of  flowering.  The  flowers  are  small, 
red,  and  fragrant.  They  are  sometimes  called  "^  ^  ^  (Tiug- 

GOSSYPIUM  HERBACEUM.— :t  $$  (Ts'ao-mien),  ^% 
^  (Mien-hua).  This  malvaceous  plant,  which  yields  the 
cotton  wool,  and  which  is  the  same  as  Gossypitim  indiaim^  is 
not  distinguished  in  Chinese  works  from  the  sterculiaceous 
Bombax  malabaricu7n^  the  cotton  tree.  The  reason  for  this 
probably  appears  in  the  fact  that  the  cotton  tree  was  known  in 
China  from  very  ancient  times,  and  its  cotton  was  used  by  the 
Chinese  in  the  manufacture  of  cloth  before  the  introduction  of 
the  cotton  plant,  which  probably  took  place  about  the  XI 
Century,  coming  by  the  way  of  the  south,  either  by  foreigners 
trading  with  the  Chinese,  or  by  the  Mongol  conquerors  of 
China,  who  about  the  same  time  brought  it  from  the  west  and 


south-west,  or  by  both  of  these  factors.  The  plant  is  now 
grown  in  all  parts  of  southern  and  central  China.  Under  the 
title  of  TJC  :|,^  (Mu-mien)  the  Pentsao  discusses  this  plant  and 
gives  -^  ^  (Ku-pei)  and  -^  i^^  (Ku-chung)  as  synonj^ms,  saying 
that  the  former  refers  to  the  tree,  while  the  latter  refers  to  the 
plant.  The  Sanscrit  names  given  are  ^^  ^  (San-p'o)  and  ^ 
J^  ^  |)J.  (Chia-lo-p'o-chieh),  the  latter  of  which  may  be  an 
attempt  at  transliteration  of  the  Indian  name  Karpasi.  Kao- 
chang,  the  country  of  the  Uigurs,  is  named  as  possessing  a 
cotton  plant  which  produces  a  textile  fiber,  called  |^  ^  (Pai- 
tieh).  The  Kiiaitg-chun-fa7ig-p7i  gives  full  directions  as  to  the 
growing  of  cotton,  and  names  the  various  varieties  raised. 
The  Chinese  card  cotton  by  means  of  a  bow,  producing  a  very 
light  floss.  Usually  the  Chinese  cotton  fiber  is  short  staple, 
but  they  have  one  kind,  called  j^  j^  (Ssti-mien),  which  is  very 
silky  and  of  great  length.  They  consider  the  foreign  cotton, 
which  they  have  had  to  buy  so  largely  of  late  years  on  account 
of  the  failure  of  their  own  crops,  as  inferior  in  warmth  to  their 
own  staples.  The  cotton  plant  does  not  seem  to  be  used  in 
medicine.  The  fiber,  both  in  the  raw  state  and  after  having 
been  incinerated,  is  used  to  staunch  wounds.  The  seed,  |^  ^ 
•^  (Mien-hua-tzu),  ^  f^  t  (Mien-hua-jen),  848,  are  employed 
in  the  manufacture  of  cotton  seed  oil^  which  was  formerly  used 
in  villages  as  food  and  for  lamps.  Its  taste  is  very  unpleasant, 
which  fact  is  due  to  the  Chinese  roasting  the  seeds  before 
expressing  the  oil.  It  is  used  medicinally  as  a  demulcent,  and 
is  applied  to  leprous,  scabious,  and  other  forms  of  skin  disease. 

GYMNOCLADUS  CHINENSIS.  —  SE  ^  ^  (Fei-tsao- 
chia).  This  is  a  leguminous  tree,  similar  to  Gleditschia.  It 
was  for  some  time  supposed  to  be  a  CcBsalpinia^  but  it  was 
later  found  to  belong  to  Gymnocladus^  and  the  above  designa- 
tion was  assigned  to  it.  It  is  a  large  tree,  growing  in  central 
China,  and  bearing  white  flowers.  Its  pods  are  collected  for 
the  market,  and  are  met  with  as  greasy,  fleshy,  yellowish,  or 
reddish-brown  legumes,  three  or  four  inches  long,  and  about 
one  and  a  half  inches  broad.  They  abound  in  an  acrid,  deter- 
gent, fatty  principle,  so  that  when  the  pods  are  roasted  and 
pouuded  into  a  pulp,  they  may  be  kneaded  into  balls.     These 


are  usually  as  large  as  children's  marbles,  and  were  formerly 
much  used  for  washing  clothes  and  the  body.  They  are  called 
BE  ^  ^  (Fei-tsao-t'o),  and  are  not  allowed  to  be  used  in  public 
baths,  as  they  have  a  strong  smell.  Foreign  soap  has  now 
taken  the  place  of  these,  having  even  taken  the  name  of  this 
plant  for  its  common  name  in  Chinese  vernacular,  ^  ^  (Fei- 
tsao).  The  seeds  are  black  and  smooth,  and  are  called  BE  ^  i^ 
(Fei-tsao-ho),  Sfi  ^  ^  (Fei-tsao-tou),  and  BE  .1:  ^  (Fei-tsao- 
tzii),  298.  They  were  described  by  Hanbury  as  being  three- 
fourths  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  of  a  compressed  spherical  form, 
each  furnished  (when  perfect)  with  a  large,  rigid,  persistent 
podosperm.  A  transverse  section  shows  a  pair  of  plane  cotyle- 
dons, between  the  flat  sides  of  which  and  the  thick,  hard  testa 
lies  a  layer  of  black,  horny  albumen.  These  are  edible  after 
roasting,  but  are  more  frequently  used  by  the  makers  of 
artificial  flowers  with  which  to  wax-  their  threads.  The  pods 
are  the  parts  principally  used  in  medicine,  and  are  prescribed  in 
rheumatism,  dysentery,  and  hematuria.  They  are  applied  to 
eczema,  favus,  and  venereal  sores.  It  is  said  that  if  the  pods 
drop  into  water  which  contains  goldfish,  these  latter  will  die. 
The  seeds  are  reputed  to  be  carminative  in  their  action. 

GYMNOGONGRUS  PINNULATA.— ;^  ^  ||(Lu-chio- 
ts'ai),  ^^  ^  (Hou-k'uei).  This  is  one  of  the  marine  algae,  found 
all  along  the  coast  of  China  south  of  the  Yangtse.  It  grows 
to  the  height  of  three  or  four  inches,  and  looks  like  a  stag's 
horns  ;  hence  the  name.  It  is  of  a  purplish  yellow  color,  and 
is  gathered  by  the  natives  as  food  and  for  medicine.  Its  taste 
is  very  mucilaginous,  and  it  is  easily  converted  into  a  gelatin- 
ous mass  by  cooking  in  water.  Women  sometimes  use  it  as  a 
bandoline.  It  is  used  medicinally,  principally  as  a  demulcent 
in  fevers  and  colds,  and  it  is  said  to  be  very  useful  in  cinnabar 
poisoning.  Its  demulcent  properties  would  surely  commend  it 
in  catarrhal  aSections  of  the  bowels  or  bladder. 

GYMNOGRAMME    JAPONICA.— Jg    H   1^   (Sha-yea- 

ts'ao).  This  is  a  fern  which  is  found  growing  in  old  wells,  or 
in  other  damp  places  where  there  is  more  or  less  constant  shade. 
The  sori,  which  are  found  on  the  fronds,  are  often  exceedingly 


numerous,  and  are  said  to  look  like  snake's  eyes  ;  hence  the 
name.  True  to  Chinese  therapeutical  principles,  this  plant 
is  used  only  as  an  application  in  cases  of  snake  bite. 

GYMNOTHRIX,  Alopeciinis. —^  ^  ^  (Lang-wei- 
ts'ao),  ^  (Lang),  ^  fj  (T'uug-lang),  ^  ^  (Ivang-mao),  ;£ 
(Meng),  ^  13  ^  iSu-t'ien-weng),  ^  [g  ^Shou-t'ien).  In  all 
probability  these  terms  may  not  all  relate  to  the  same  species. 
The  second  term  would  seem  to  be  generic,  while  the  first  is  a 
very  good  translation  of  the  English  name,  "fox-tail."  This 
grows  in  China,  as  it  does  in  other  parts  of  the  world,  in  damp 
fields.  The  seeds  are  used,  though  scarcely  medicinally  ;  as 
they  are  said,  if  used  as  food,  to  prevent  hunger .'  Under  this 
article  in  the  Pentsao  a  related  plant  is  mentioned,  which  is 
called  pj  ]^  (K'uai-ts'ao).     This  is  Scirpus  (which  see). 

hua-ts'ai),  ;^  ^  ^  (Yang-chio-ts'ai),  This  is  a  cultivated 
vegetable  of  the  gardens.  It  is  described  as  having  a  weak 
stalk,  spreading  out  in  branches  with  pinnatifid  leaves.  In  the 
autumn  it  bears  a  white  flower  with  long  petals,  and  produces 
a  small  horn  about  two  or  three  inches  long  (the  seed  capsule  ?). 
The  seeds  are  black  and  tiny,  and  are  gathered  for  use  as 
medicine.  There  is  also  a  yellow  flowered  kind.  If  taken  in 
excess,  the  drug  produces  flatulence  and  a  sense  of  oppression 
in  the  stomach.  Medicinally,  it  is  used  as  a  carminative,  and 
the  decoction  is  employed  as  a  wash  for  piles  and  for  rheumat- 
ism and  malarial  disorders. 

GYNOCARDIA  ODORATA.— ;J^C  M,  •?  (Ta-feng-tzu). 
These  seeds  are  imported  into  China  from  Siam.  The  large 
tree  which  yields  them  is  common  in  Cambodia,  Siam,  the 
Indien  Archipelago,  Malaysia,  Assam,  and  other  parts  of 
Eastern  India.  The  whole  order  (Bixineae)  to  which  this  tree 
belongs  is  tropical  and  poisonous.  The  large,  round,  indehis- 
cent,  succulent,  capsular  fruits,  compared  by  the  Chinese  to  the 
cocoanut,  contain  very  many  matted,  ovoid,  irregular,  com- 
pressed, grayish-brown  seeds.  They  vary  from  a  half  to  seven- 
eighths  of  an  inch  in  length,  and  consist  of  a  hard,  woody  testa, 


to  the  surface  of  which  portions  of  firm  dry  pulp,  or  of  the 
rind  of  the  fruit,  are  often  adherent,  sometimes  to  the  extent  of 
uniting  two  or  three  seeds  into  one  mass.  The  albumen  is  oily, 
and  incloses  large,  heart-shaped,  leafy  cotyledons.  The  Indian 
nuts  are  somewhat  different  from  the  Siamese  samples,  the 
testa  being  smooth,  thin,  and  fragile  in  the  case  of  the  former. 
Chaiilmugra  and  Petarkiira  are  Indian  names  for  the  drug. 
The  seeds  are  likened  by  the  Chinese  to  Mylitta  lapidescens 
(^  ^)  Ivci-wan).  The  method  given  in  the  Peiitsao  for  pre- 
paring the  oil  is  as  follows:  "  Use  three  catties  of  the  seeds, 
remove  the  hulls  and  skins  ;  grind  up  in  a  mortar  very  fine. 
Pack  into  an  earthen  jar  and  seal  up  tightly.  Put  the  jar 
into  a  pot  of  boiling  water  and  seal  the  pot,  so  that  no  steam 
can  escape  (possibly  for  increased  heat  under  pressure).  Steam 
it  until  the  oil  assumes  a  black  and  tarry  appearance.  This 
is  the  'chaulmugra  oil'  "  (;^  ^  ^,  Ta-feng-yu),  1221.  This 
is  an  extract  rather  than  an  oil,  although  it  probably  contains 
all  of  the  latter  found  in  the  seeds.  Both  the  seeds  and 
this  oily  extract  are  used  in  the  treatment  of  leprosy.  Indeed, 
the  name  of  the  drug  is  derived  from  its  reputed  qualities  in 
the  treatment  of  this  disease  (;^  J|[  ^,  Ta-feng-cli4).  Sophera 
fiavescens^  Momordica  cocJiiuchincnsis^  and  calomel  are  various- 
ly used  in  combination  with  the  oil  or  seeds  in  tlie  internal  or 
external  treatment  of  the  disease.  The  drug  is  also  recom- 
mended for  impetigo,  psoriasis,  syphilis,  scabies,  and  parasitic 
pediculi.  Some  of  the  chaulmugra  seeds  found  in  Chinese 
shops  would  seem  to  be  from  Hydnocarpits  veneiiattis^  of  the 
same  order  an  Gyiiocardia^  which  has  been  found  almost 
equally  as  useful  as  the  latter  in  the  treatment  of  leprosy.  The 
Indian  name  of  this  is  Neeradimootoo. 

GYNURA  PINNATIFIDA.— £  \,  (San-ch'i),  1059,  [Jj 
j^  (Shan-ch'i),  :^  /fi  f^  (Chin-pu-huan).  This  scitamineous 
plant  is  named  from  the  irregular  arrangement  of  the  leaves. 
The  Chinese  say  that  there  are  three  on  the  left  side  and  four 
on  the  right  ;  hence  the  first  name.  lyi  Shih-chen  says  that 
this  is  probably  not  true.,  but  that  the  first  name  is  a  corruption 
of  the  second,  which  means  "mountain  varnish."  This  name 
refers  to  its  property  of  causing  the  edges  of  wounds  to  adhere 


tog-ether.  From  its  extraordinary  reputation  amongst  military 
and  figliting  men,  the  root  of  this  plant  is  very  costly.  The 
last  name,  "gold  no  recompense,"  refers  to  this  fact.  The 
drug  comes  from  Kuangsi  and  Yunnan,  where  it  is  cultivated. 
It  occurs  in  tapering  pieces  of  from  three-quarters  of  an  inch  to 
an  inch  in  length.  The  yellow  external  surface  is  wrinkled, 
marked  with  small  nodules  and  ridges,  and  the  interior  is  of  a 
pale  yellow  color.  The  taste  is  bitter  and  slightly  saccharine, 
something  like  that  of  ginseng,  to  which  it  is  likened  by  the 
Chinese.  Vulnerary,  styptic,  astringent,  and  discutient  prop- 
erties of  a  very  high  degree  are  attributed  to  this  drug.  It  is 
recommended  in  all  forms  of  hemorrhage  and  wounds,  includ- 
ing tiger  and  snake  bites.  The  leaves  have  similar  properties, 
and  are  often  combined  with  the  rhizome. 


mao-yii-feug-hua).  This  orchidaceous  flower  blooms  in  the 
autumn,  and  has  a  waxy  petal  which  is  likened  in  shape 
to  a  bird.  It  has  an  appearance  of  being  very  light,  and 
this  light,  waxy,  bird-like  petal  is  indicated  in  the  name 
by  the  three  characters,  ^,  2g,  aud  ^.  No  medicinal  prop- 
erties are  assigned  to  the  plant. 

HALYMENIA  DENTATA.— H  gjp  i^  (Chi-chio-ts'ao). 
This  is  a  fresh  water  alga,  a  species  of  dulse^  which  grows 
in  marshes  and  ponds.  It  has  a  red  stalk  and  opposite  fronds. 
The  shoot  has  a  bitter  taste,  and  is  used  in  fluxes  that  have 
a  tendency  to  become  chronic.  A  decoction  of  the  root  is 
employed  in  lepra-like  difficulties. 

HAMAMELIS  JAPONICA.— ^  j^  |#  (Chin-lii-mei). 
The  Kiiang-chun-fang-pu  describes  the  beautiful  thread-like 
petals  of  this  shrub,  which  flutter  gracefully  in  the  wind. 
The  plant  is  very  similar  to  Haviamelis  virginiana^  but 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  used  medicinally  by  the  Chinese. 

HELIANTHUS  ANNUUS.— 1^  H  ^  (Hsiang-jih-k'uei), 
M  0  ^  (Chao-jih-k  'uei).  Although  the  sunflower  is  extensively 
cultivated  in  gardens  and  fields  throughout  China,  and  the 
fruits  are  used  as  food,  it  is  not  clearly  mentioned  in  the 
standard  works  on  medicine  or  botany.  On  account  of  a 
reference  in  the  classics,  the  meaning  of  which  is  anything 
but  clear,  this  plant  has  been  confounded  with  the  malvaceae. 
The  above  names  are  the  common  designation  by  which 
the  plant  is  known  in  Japan  and  China.  The  fruits  are 
also  fed  to  fowls,  the  leaves  are  made  fodder  for  cattle,  and  the 
stalks  and  roots  are  used  as  fuel.  The  oil,  H  ■?  f^  (K'uei-tzu- 
yu),  is  also  known  to  the  Chinese,  but  does  not  seem  to 
be  much  used.  Aside  from  the  nutritive  properties  of  the 
fruits,  no  medicinal  qualities  have  been  found  ascribed  to 
this  plant. 


HEMEROCALLIS.— ^  if  (Hslian-ts'ao),  476.  The  first 
character  is  written  =^  (Hsiian;  in  the  classics,  and  is  defined  by 
»S  ffi  (Wang-yu),  the  plant  of  forgetfulness.  The  common 
name  is  H  ^  (Lu-ts'ung),  because  the  plant  is  like  the  onion 
and  deer  eat  of  it.  Still  another  name  is  5|^  ^  (I-nan),  because 
it  is  said  that  if  pregnant  women  wear  the  flowers  at  the 
girdle  the  child  will  be  a  male.  There  are  several  species 
of  this  genus  found  in  China,  mostly  having  orange  and 
yellow  flowers.  The  names  given  in  this  article  are  variously 
referred  to  Hejnerocallis  fiilva  and  Heniorocallis  minor.  The 
dried  flowers  are  largely  consumed  as  food  by  the  Chinese,  and 
are  called  ^  ff*  ^  (Chin-chen-ts'ai)  and  ^  ^^l  ^  (Huang-hua- 
ts'ai).  The  article  appearing  in  the  Customs  list,  however,  does 
not  consist  alone  of  the  flowers  of  this  plant,  but  also  of  other 
species  of  lily.  They  are  used  both  as  medicine  and  as  a  relish 
with  meat  dishes.  They  consist  of  inferior,  tubular  perianths 
of  the  unopened  flower,  enclosing  six  introrse  stamens,  with 
the  three-celled,  superior  ovary,  and  simple  stigma  characteristic 
of  lilliaceous  plants.  They  are  twisted,  or  wrinkled,  so  as 
to  give  a  length  of  four  or  five  inches,  the  color  being  of  a  dark, 
brownish-yellow,  translucent,  and  covered  with  a  whitish  mould 
or  bloom.  The  odor  is  agreeable,  and  the  taste  sweet  and 
mucilaginous.  Medicinally,  they  are  used  together  with  the 
shoot,  and  are  considered  to  be  antifebrile  and  anodyne.  Some 
intoxicant  or  stimulant  properties  seem  to  belong  to  these 
drugs.  The  root  is  diuretic,  and  is  given  in  dysuria,  lithiasis, 
.dropsy,  jaundice,  piles,  and  tumor  of  the  breast. 

HEMIPTELEA  DAVIDIAN^A.— |g  (Ch'u).  This  is  a 
small  ulmaceous  tree,  provided  with  large  thorns,  and  found 
in  the  northern  provinces.  It  is  described  in  the  Phitsao 
together  with  the  elm^  and  its  medicinal  virtues  are  uot 
distinguished,  from  those  of  the  latter. 

HEPATICA.— M  ^  (Ti-i),  "earth  clothes,"  also  called 
%  H  i^  (Yang-t'ien-p'ij  and  i^  "Ji  ^  (Chli-t'ien-p'i).  The 
Pentsao  does  not  give  much  description  of  this  plant,  but 
what  is  given  is  characteristic.  The  taste  is  bitter,  cooling, 
and   slightly    deleterious.      Its    medicinal    virtues   are   said    to 


be  anodyne  and  antifebrile,  and  it  is  prescribed  in  angina 
and  sunstroke,  and  also  as  a  local  application  in  smallpox 

HETEROPOGON  CONTORTUS.— t^fe  ^  (Ti-cbin),  5^ 
i^  (Cbien-ken),  ±^  ^  (T'u-cbin).  This  is  a  grass  with  a 
hirsute  root.  It  is  nearly  related  to  Imperata  arundinaceay 
both  in  appearance  and  in  medicinal  virtues.  The  root,  shoot, 
and  flowers  are  all  used  as  a  demulcent  and  antifebrile  remedy. 

— H  ^  ^  (Huang-shu-k  'uei).  The  identification  of  mah^aceous 
plants  is  exceedingly  uncertain.  The  Chinese  names  are  often 
used  interchangably  for  different  genera  and  species,  and  even 
for  plants  of  other  orders.  The  descriptions  also  lack  in 
definiteness,  so  that  it  is  safe  to  say  that  different  plants  are 
often  confounded.  The  one  under  consideration  represents  one 
or  more  edible  species,  which  include  that  furnishing  okra. 
However,  it  is  sometimes  mistaken  for  Althea  rosea.  It  is 
grown  extensively  in  China  as  a  garden  flower,  as  well  as  a 
vegetable,  and  it  comes  up  from  year  to  year  as  a  volunteer. 
It  bears  a  six-celled,  conical  seed  pod,  about  the  size  of  a 
thumb,  and  the  seed  capsules  are  arranged  spirally  in  the  pod. 
The  seeds  are  black.  The  stalk  grows  to  the  height  of  six  or 
seven  feet.  The  bark  is  used  for  making  rope.  The  flowers, 
seeds,  and  root  are  all  used  medicinally,  and  they  are  con- 
sidered to  be  diuretic  and  demulcent  in  their  action.  They 
are  prescribed  in  difficult  labor,  and  as  a  local  application  to 
various  kinds  of  sores,  wounds,  scalds  and  burns.  The  root 
is  mucilaginous,  and  decoctions  of  this,  as  well  as  of  the  seeds, 
are  used  in  sizing  paper. 

HIBISCUS  MUTABILIS.— ^  %  %  (Mu-fu-jung),  also 
J&  ^  ^  (Ti-fu-jung).  Other  names  are  given,  but  are  not 
especially  distinctive.  The  last  two  characters  are  usually 
applied  to  Nelunibium  and  Papaver  soniniferum^  and  are  used 
in  this  case  on  account  of  the  resemblance  of  these  flowers  to 
those  of  the  lotus  and  poppy.  This  tree  grows  readily  almost 
everywhere  in  China.     The  prevailing  color  of  the  flowers  is 


red,  but  several  colors  are  mentioned.  The  bark,  as  in  the 
case  of  many  malvaceons  shrubs,  is  used  for  rope  making. 
The  leaves  and  the  flowers  are  the  parts  used  in  medicine,  and 
they  are  evidently  demulcent,  and  are  by  the  Chinese  con- 
sidered to  be  expectorant,  cooling,  antidotal  to  all  kinds  of 
poison,  and  anodyne.  They  are  prescribed  in  old  coughs, 
menorrhagia,  dysuria,  and  wounds,  especially  burns  and  scalds 
that  are  slow  in  healing.  Another  name  for  this  plant,  as 
given  by  Faber,  is  ^  ^  (Chiu-k'uei),  but  what  is  said  about 
this  name  in  the  Chinese  books  does  not  clearly  indicate  what 
it  is.  It  is  stated  that  the  (Chiu-k'uei)  is  planted  in  the 
autumn  and  the  ^  ^  (Tung-k'uei)  is  planted  in  the  winter. 
For  this  last  see  Malva  verticillata. 

HIBISCUS  ROSASINENSIS.— ^  #  (Fu-sang).  Fu- 
saug  is  mentioned  in  the  ancient  books  as  the  name  of  a 
fabulous  tree  behind  which  the  sun  is  supposed  to  rise.  It 
also  refers  to  the  name  of  a  country  where  the  plant  grows, 
and  which  has  been  variously  identified  as  Saghalien,  Japan, 
and  America.  Professor  Neuman  confounded  this  plant  with 
Agave  niexicana^  and  upon  this  identification  built  up  a  hy- 
pothesis of  the  discovery  of  America  by  the  Chinese,  The  shrub 
grows  to  the  height  ot  four  or  five  feet,  and  the  flowers  show 
red,  yellow,  and  white  varieties.  The  red  is  called  Jc  ^^S  (Chu- 
chiu)  and  ^  ^  (Ch'ih-chinV  A  wrong  writing  of  the  first 
name  is  ^  ^  (Fo-sang).  A  name  common  to  this  and  other 
malvaceous  plants  is  Q  ^  (Jih-chi).  The  leaves  and  the  flow- 
ers are.  used  medicinally  only  in  combination  with  other  drugs, 
beaten  into  a  paste  and  applied  as  a  poultice  to  cancerous 
swellings  and  mumps. 

HIBISCUS  SYRIACUS.— 7|C  \%  (Mu-chiii).  It  is  also 
called  0  ^  (Jih-chi),  because  the  flowers  open  in  the  morning 
and  fall  off  before  evening.  Another  name  is  ^  H  ;^  (Fan-li- 
ts'ao),  because  it  is  used  for  making  hedges,  being  cultivated 
for  this  purpose.  It  bears  beautiful  red  flowers,  much  resem- 
bling those  of  Althea  rosea.  The  bark  and  root  are  used 
in  medicine.  The  taste  is  mucilaginous,  and  they  are  used  as 
demulcent  and  antifebrile  remedies  in  diarrhoeas,  dysenteries,  and 
dysmenorrhoea.     Locally,  they   are  also  applied  in  all  sorts  of 


itchy  and  painful  skin  diseases.  The  flowers,  858,  are  similarly 
employed,  and  are  sometimes  made  a  substitute  for  tea.  This 
is  called  -fX  '^  :^  (Hung-hua-ch'a),  and  comes  from  Kiangsi. 
They  are  considered  to  be  quieting  to  the  stomach  and  diuretic. 
The  seeds  are  employed  in  headaches  and  colds,  and  are  also 
used,  combined  with  pig  marrow,  as  an  application  to  discharg- 
ing ulcers. 

HIEROCHLOE  BOREAUS.— j^^^  (Pai-mao-hsiang). 
This  grass  is  said  to  have  its  habitat  in  Annam.  The  Taoists 
use  it  as  a  bitter  herb.  It  is  to  be  distinguished  from  Audro- 
Pogon^  Heteropogon  and  Imperata,  The  root  is  the  part  used 
in  medicine,  and  it  is  said  to  give  a  fragrance  to  the  whole 
body  and  to  be  warming  to  the  viscera  when  taken  internally. 
Mixed  with  peach  leaves  and  made  into  a  decoction,  it  is  added 
to  bath  water  for  the  treatment  of  skin  diseases  in  children. 

HIRNEOLA. — See  Exidia  auricula  judcs. 

HORDEUM  VULGARE.— :A:  ^  (Ta-mai).  The  classical 
name  is  J^  (Mou).  Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  this  cereal 
was  known  to  the  Chinese  from  very  early  times,  it  has  not 
for  a  long  time  been  much  cultivated  by  them.  They  do  not 
seem  to  have  esteemed  it  highly  as  food,  and  have  not  used  it 
extensively  in  the  manufacture  of  spirituous  liquors  ;  millet  and 
rice  being  most  frequently  used  for  this  latter  purpose.  An- 
other name  by  which  it  is  called  in  the  Chinese  books  is  |^  ^ 
(K'o-mai).  Several  varieties  of  barley  are  grown,  and  these 
seem  for  the  most  part  to  be  divided  between  two  species, 
namely,  that  given  above  and  |^  ^  (Kung-mai),  the  so-called 
^^  Hacked  barley^''''  which  separates  from  the  chaff  in  the  same 
manner  as  does  wheat.  Another  possible  species  is  spoken  of, 
on  account  of  its  glutinous  qualities  named  |||  ^  (No-mai). 
This  has  not  been  identified,  but  is  used  for  making  wine. 
The  Kting-viai  is  grown  in  Szechuan  and  Shantung  as  food 
for  men,  but  for  the  most  part  either  kind  of  grain  is  used  to 
feed  horses.  It  is  probable  that  formerly  the  grain  was  of 
much  more  importance  than  it  is  now.  As  found  in  the 
market,  the  kernel  is  longer  and  not  so  plump  as  that  found  in 


western  countries.  But  this  is  true  in  regard  to  all  of  the 
cereals  raised  in  China,  and  is  due  probably  to  long  years  of 
inbreeding,  failure  to  rotate  crops,  and  lack  of  proper  condi- 
tions of  soil.  Barley  is  considered  by  the  Chinese  to  be  very 
nourishing,  preventing  fever  and  giving  vigor  and  strength  to 
the  body.  Continual  use  of  it  as  food  is  said  to  prevent  the  hair 
from  turning  grey.  It  is  used  for  making  poultices  for  ulcers 
and  as  a  dressing  for  burns.  The  shoots  of  the  plant  are  used 
as  a  diuretic  and  as  an  application  to  chilblains  and  to  frozen 
extremities.  A  mildew  or  rust  found  on  the  awns  about  the 
time  that  the  grain  is  ripe,  and  called  -j^  ^  j^  (Ta-mai-nu),  is 
considered  to  be  antifebrile  and  antidotal  to  poisonous  drugs. 
Jkfa/i  or  Barley  Sprouts^  under  the  name  of  f^-  ^  ^  (Kung- 
mai-nieh),  or  ^  ^  (Mai-ya),  817,  is  prepared  by  moistening  the 
grain  and  allowing  it  to  germinate.  It  is  then  dried  in  the 
sun,  the  sprouts  rubbed  off,  and  the  grain  is  ground  into  flour. 
It  is  considered  to  be  peptic,  stomachic,  lenitive,  demulcent, 
expectorant,  and  abortifacient.  This  last  property  might  indi- 
cate the  presence  of  an  ergot.  It  is  much  prescribed  in  puer- 
peral and  infantile  affections,  and  its  reconstructive  properties 
are  well  recognized.  For  this  purpose  it  is  recommended  in 
phthisis  and  the  kan  y-^)  disease  of  children  (tabes  mesenterica  ?). 
It  is  also  said  to  have  the  power  of  suppressing  the  secretion  of 
milk  in  women  whose  children  have  suddenly  died  after  birth. 

HOUTTUYNIA  CORDATA.— ^  (Ch'i),  ^  %  (Chu- 
ts'ai),  ^^  §1:  ]|[  (Yii-hsing-ts'ao).  This  plant  grows  in  damp 
shady  places  in  mountainous  districts.  It  has  a  heartshaped, 
succulent  leaf,  green  on  one  side  and  red  on  the  other, 
and  is  good  for  feeding  to  pigs.  Notwithstanding  the  fact  that 
it  has  a  decayed  fishy  smell,  to  which  the  last  name  above 
given  refers,  it  is  sometimes  eaten  by  the  Chinese  as  a  salad. 
It  is  a  piperaceous  plant,  and  was  formerly  pickled.  When 
eaten  in  excess  it  is  said  to  cause  shortness  of  breath,  and  is 
therefore  considered  to  be  slightly  deleterious.  Its  ascribed 
properties  are  in  the  main  antidotal  and  astringent,  and  it  is 
therefore  prescribed  in  poisoned  sores,  infectious  skin  diseases, 
piles,  prolapsus  ani,  pernicious  malaria,  snake  bite,  and  the 
like.     The  juice  of  the  fresh  leaves  is  most  frequently  used. 


HOVENIA  DULCIS.— tn  ^  (Chih-chii),  129.  This  is 
a  rhamnaceous  tree  yielding  fruit-like,  thickened  branches, 
of  a  russet  color,  and  filled  with  a  pleasant,  yellowish,  pear- 
like pulp,  which  is  cooling  and  laxative.  Near  Peking  it  is 
miscalled  \P^  ^  (Chih-tsao)  in  imitation  of  f.|  ;j^  ^  (Chi- 
chao-tzu,  which  is  a  common  way  of  saying  ^  Jf^  -^  fChi- 
chu-tzii.  In  south  China  it  is  miscalled  f§  jj^  (Chieh-kou), 
^  ;j^  (Chi-kou),  and  t^  |f  (Chi-chil)  in  imitation  of  its  proper 
name.  Other  names  are  ^  -^^  ijl;^  (Mi-chih-kou),  ^  J^^  ^  (Mi- 
ch'ii-lii),  Tf:  ^  (Mu-mi),  7|C  i|  (Mu-hsing),  and  :^  J|!|]  J^j  (Mu- 
shan-hu).  The  names  given  to  the  wood  are  |^  ^  /fc  (Pai- 
shih-mu),  ^  §Ji  "^^  (Chin-kou-mu),  (^  |Jfc  (Ping-kung>,  and 
^  ^3  :Ht  (Chiao-chia-chih).  The  tree  is  met  with  in  all  of 
the  eastern  provinces,  and  probably  some  of  the  central  and 
western.  It  is  also  found  in  India  and  Japan.  The  real  fruits 
of  the  tree  are  small,  dry,  and  pea-like,  and  are  pendent  upon 
the  fleshy  peduncles,  which  greatly  increase  in  size  at  the 
time  of  their  maturing.  They  contain  a  flat,  shining,  dark- 
red  seed,  resembling  that  of  Linum  usitaiissimum.  The  seeds 
are  sold  under  the  name  of  \^^  \^  ^  (Chih-chii-tzii),  129. 
Both  the  fruits  and  the  fleshy  peduncles  are  considered  to  be 
antifebrile,  laxative,  diuretic,  and  quieting  to  the  stomach. 
Remarkable  antivinous  properties  are  also  attributed  to  them. 
It  is  said  that  after  the  ingestion  of  large  quantities  of  alcohol 
the  use  of  this  drug  will  prevent  any  intoxicant  or  poison- 
ous action.  The  bark  of  the  tree  is  used  in  diseases  of  the 

HUMULUS  JAPONICUS.— ^  :![  (Lii-ts'ao).  This  is 
properly  called  ^  ]^  (Lei-ts'ao),  because  the  plant  is  covered 
with  fine  prickles  which  chafe  (i^)  the  skin  when  they  come 
into  contact  with  it.  Another  name  is  ^  !^  [^  (Lai-mei- 
ts'ao).  This  is  the  common  wild  hop  of  China  and  Japan.  Its 
medicinal  action  is  considered  to  be  diuretic,  tonic  to  the 
genito-urinary  organs,  and  constructive  in  chronic  fluxes.  It 
is  prescribed  in  lithiasis,  nocturnal  emissions,  chronic  dysentery, 
chronic  malaria,  and  typhoid  fever.  This  is  one  case  in  which 
the  Chinese  have  reached  about  the  same  conclusions  as  have 
been  reached  by  western  physicians. 


HYDROCHARIS  MORSUS  RAN^.— ^  ^  (Pai-p'iu). 
The  Pentsao  does  not  distinguish  this  from  the  ^  (P'in), 
Marsilia  quadrifolia  and  7J1C  vi="  (Shui-p'ing),  Lcmna  minor. 
It  cannot  be  the  former,  as  it  bears  small  white  flowers  in 
summer  and  antnmn,  and  Marsilia  is  a  cryptogamons  plant. 
This  is  a  Japanese  identification.      See  Lemna  and  Marsilia. 

HYDROCOTYLE  ASIATICA.— ^  ^  -^  (Chi-hsiieh- 
ts'ao).  This  is  Faber's  identification,  after  Thunberg.  But 
Bretschneider  thinks  it  is  Nepeta  glcchoma.  Why  the 'labiate 
Nepeia  should  be  confounded  with  the  umbelliferous  Hydro- 
coiyle  is  difficult  to  understand.  But  "when  doctors  disagree, 
who  shall  decide?"  In  the  Pentsao^  under  the  Chinese 
name  given  above,  is  also  discussed  ;J^  M  ^  (Ti-ch'ien-ts'ao), 
which  Faber  makes  to  be  Co7iocephalus  conica^  and  SS  ^  !^ 
(Lien-ch'ien-ts'ao),  which  in  Japan  \s  Nepeta  glechoma.  The 
medicinal  virtues  of  all  three  will  be  discussed  under  Nepeia 
(which  see).  The  Customs  lists  give  ^  ;^  ^  (P'eng-ta-wan), 
looi,  as  a  term  for  Hydrocotyle^  but  this  term  has  not  been 
found  in  the  Chinese  books. 

HYDROPYRUM  LATIFOLIUM,  Zizania  aqnatica.^^ 
(Ku),  II  ^  (Chiao-ts'ao),  ^  %  (Chiang-ts'ao).  This  is  a  tall 
grass,  much  cultivated  throughout  China  on  account  of  its 
young  stalks,  called  ^  j^  (Chiao-pai),  which  are  eaten  as 
a  vegetable.  Porter  Smith  evidently  confounded  the  characters 
1^  (Chiao)  and  |=  (Ling),  and  mentions  this  •  under  Trapa 
bicornis.  The  plant  grows  commonly  in  rivers,  lakes,  and 
marshes,  and  the  leaves  make  excellent  fodder  for  horses.  The 
young  shoot  looks  something  like  a  bamboo-shoot,  and  it 
is  eaten  both  raw  and  cooked,  having  an  agreeable,  sweet 
taste.  It  is  called  ^  ^  (Ku-sun),  ^  ^  (Chiao-sun),  ^  ^ 
(Chiao-pai),  and  ^  ^  (Ku-ts'ai).  The  central  mass  of  the 
shoots,  which  is  likened  to  a  child's  arm,  is  considered  separate 
from  the  shoots,  and  in  addition  to  the  two  last  names  above 
given  is  called  ^  :^  (Ku-shou)  and  ^  fg,  (Chiao-pa).  These 
are  both  considered  to  be  extremely  cooling  in  their  nature, 
and  thin  blooded  people  are  recommended  not  to  eat  of  them 
too  freely.     They  are  prescribed  in  fevers  for  their  diuretic  and 


thirst -relieving  properties.  The  root  is  also  considered  to 
be  cooling,  and  is  used  medicinally  in  similar  difficulties  to 
those  in  which  the  shoot  is  recommended.  Incinerated  and 
mixed  with  chicken  excrement,  it  is  applied  to  burns.  The 
leaves  are  said  to  benefit  the  five  viscera  (heart,  lungs,  liver, 
stomach,  and  kidneys). 

The  seeds,  which  in  the  Choitli  were  included  with  the 
six  grains  (since  reduced  to  five),  have  apparently  fallen  into 
disuse,  and  are  now  gathered  only  in  times  of  scarcity.  They 
are  called  ^  ^  (Ku-mi),  ^  ^  (Chiao-mi),  and  ^  ^  (Tiao- 
hu).  They  are  nearly  an  inch  long,  have  a  grayish  cuticle, 
but  a  white  starchy  interior.  Tbey  were  formerly  made  into 
cakes  and  eaten  with  fish.  They  also  can  be  used  as  a 
substitute  for  rice.  This  product  is  similar  to,  if  not  identical 
with,  the  Indian  rice  {Zisania  aquatica)  of  North  America, 
which  is  much  used  as  food  by  the  American  Indians.  Its 
virtues  are  said  to  be  about  the  same  as  those  of  other  parts  of 
the  plant. 

HYOSCYAMUS  NIGER.— It  is  probable  that  this  plant 
is  found  in  China,  but  identifications  are  uncertain.  Henry 
found  a  plant  cultivated  in  a  mountain  garden  in  Hupeli  which 
proved  to  be  Hyoscyamus.  It  was  called  ^  ^  (Lang-tang), 
but  elsewhere  this  is  Scopolia  japonica  (which  see).  Tatarinov 
gave  this  identification  to  |ftlj  :^  :j!g  (Nao-yang-hua)  and  i^  ^,  S^ 
(Yaug-chih-chu),  but  these  have  later  been  determined  to  be 
Rhododendron^  or  possibly  Datura.  If  henbane  grows  here, 
its  proper  name  has  not  yet  been  found,  or  it  is  confounded  by 
the  Chinese  with  other  things.  It  is  entirely  probable  that  one 
or  more  of  the  above  names  is  sometimes  applied  to  this 

HYPERICUM  CHINENSE.— ^  ^,  %  (Chin-ssu-ts'ao),  ^ 
^.\%  (Chin-ssu-t'ao).  The  eliptico-lanceolate  leaves,  lanceolate 
sepals,  pentafid  stigma,  and  woody,  round  stem  of  this  beautiful, 
flowering  plant,  distinguish  it  from  other  species  of  6"/. /<9/^«'.y 
wort.  It  is  frequently  used  as  an  ornamental  plant.  It  is 
credited  with  astringent  and  alterative  properties,  and  is  also 
prescribed  in  miasmatic  diseases  and  snake  bite. 


HYPOXIS  AUREA.— Ill]  ^  (Hsien-mao),  453.  The 
Pentsao  says  that  this  grows  in  western  countries,  but  it 
is  found  in  Hupeh,  Fukien,  and  Kuangtung.  Another  name 
^s  M  ^  PI  ^  (P'o-lo-men-shen),  or  "  Brahiuinical  ginseng," 
on  account  of  its  being  brought  from  India  and  of  its  recon- 
structive properties.  A  Sanscrit  name  given  for  it  is  fpj  ^  ^ 
P^  (Ho-lun-lei-t'o).  The  root  is  the  part  used  in  medicine, 
and  its  properties  are  similar  to  those  ascribed  to  ginseng. 
These  are  reconstructive,  rejuvenating,  aphrodisiac,  and  tonic. 
It  is  prescribed  in  wasting  diseases,  dyspepsia,  lassitude, 
impotence,  wounds,  and  diseases  of  the  eyes  and  ears. 



ILEX  CORNUTA.— ^i^J  "f  (Kou-ku).  Another  name  is 
i^  3!,  M  (Mao-erh-t'zu),  "cat-thorn."  It  is  said  to  resemble 
^  M  (Nli-chen),  LigusU^iim  lucidiim.  It  is  described  ds 
having  leaves  of  a  beautiful  green  color,  thick,  leathery,  and 
evergreen  ;  each  leaf  having  five  angles  terminating  in  spines. 
It  blossoms  in  the  fifth  month,  bearing  small  white  flowers. 
These  are  followed  by  the  fruit,  which,  when  ripe,  is  of  a  dark 
red  color,  having  a  thin  skin  and  being  of  a  sweet  taste.  The 
kernel  consists  of  four  parts.  Of  course,  this  refers  to  the  four 
seeds  which  are  usually  joined  together.  The  wood  is  white, 
and  resembles  that  of  Buxus  sempcrvirens.  The  bark  is  boiled 
to  make  bird-lime.  The  bark  and  leaves  are  used  in  medicine  ; 
the  former  being  considered  to  be  tonic,  while  the  latter  is  used 
in  decoction  in  intertrigo.  A  medicinal  tea,  called  ^  ;$!]  1^ 
(Chio-tz'u-ch'a),  is  made  of  the  leaves  in  the  Kiangnan 
provinces.  It  is  said  that  if  women  drink  of  it  they  will  not 
become  pregnant,  and  it  is  regarded  by  the  Chinese  as  the 
most  efficient  preparation  for  putting  a  termination  to  preg- 
nancy. Its  abortifacient  properties  are  spoken  of  in  almost 
extravagant  terms.  Other  properties  attributed  to  the  tea  are 
those  of  a  carminative  and  for  purifying  the  blood.  The 
common  names  for  the  holly  in  Kiangnan  are  ^  |^  $lj  (Lao- 
shu-tz'u)  and  ^  J^  $lj  (lyao-hu-tz'u).  The  wax  insect  is  some- 
times found  growing  on  this  tree. 

ILEX  PEDUNCULOSA.— ^  ^  (Tung-ch'ing\  Con- 
fusion reigns  supreme  in  regard  to  the  use  of  this  Chinese 
name.  It  is  most  frequently  confounded  with  Ligustrum 
lucidiim  (which  see),  on  account  of  the  fact  that  the  wax  insect 
is  occasionally  found  growing  upon  this  Ilex.  The  name 
is  also  written  ^  ^  (Tung-ch'ing).  Both  of  these  names 
are  used  in  the  sense  of  "evergreen,"  and  are  therefore 
applied  to  several  non-deciduous  trees.  For  this  reason  con- 
fusion arises  in  their  use  as  a  distinct  term  for  a  genus  or 
species.  The  term  is  also  applied  to  Xylosina  race7nosa^  while 
^  ^  S  W  (Hsi-yeh-tung-ch'ing)  is  referred  io  Ilex  integra. 


In  Manchuria  the  mistletoe  is  called  ^  ^,  but  here  again  its 
general  sense  of  "evergreen"  is  meant.  The  wood  of  this 
Ilex  is  white,  beautifully  veined,  and  was  formerly  used  for 
making  the  ivory-like  tablets  which  officials  held  before  their 
breasts  at  Imperial  audiences.  It  bears  small  white  flowers, 
and  red  berries  of  the  size  of  a  pea.  The  leaves  will  dye  a 
dark  red  color.  The  young  shoots  are  sometimes  used  for  food. 
The  seeds,  bark,  and  leaves  are  used  in  medicine.  The  two 
former,  digested  in  wine,  are  used  as  carminative  and  tonic 
remedies.  The  ashes  of  the  latter  are  used  in  skin  diseases  and 
poisoned  wounds.  A  spirit  prepared  from  the  seeds  is  highly 
recommended  to  be  taken  in  hemorrhoids. 

ILLICIUM  ANISATUM.— A  ^  B  ^  (Pa-chio-hui- 
hsiang),  928.  Star  afiise  is  confounded  with  ^  ^  (Huai- 
hsiaug)  in  the  Pentsao.  This  latter  is  an  umbelliferous  plant, 
most  probably  Pijnpinella  miisiwi^  with  which  the  description 
in  the  Pentsao  agrees.  The  plant  which  produces  the  star- 
anise  does  not  seem  to  have  been  very  well  known  to  Chinese 
botanists,  and  their  identification  of  this  drug  seems  to  have 
depended  largely  upon  the  characteristic  odor.  It  is  brought 
in  sea-going  junks  principally  to  Canton,  and  for  this  reason  is 
called  Ifl  "@  ^  (Po-hui-hsiang).  It  is  presumed  that  it  comes 
from  the  East  Indies  or  Japan,  although  it  is  said  to  grow  in 
Kuangsi.  All  that  is  said  about  the  plant  is  that  it  is  different 
from  the  native  "gf  ^  (Hui-hsiang)  in  every  respect  except  the 
odor.  In  the  Appendix  to  the  Pentsao^  where  it  is  called  Tfc 
/\  %  (Mu-pa-chio),  a  tolerable  description  of  the  shrub  is 
given.  It  is  likened  to  Hibiscus  vmiabilis  in  appearance. 
The  seeds  are  recommended  in  constipation,  and  as  a  diuretic, 
in  lumbago,  hernia,  extrophy  of  the  bladder,  and  the  like. 
There  is  a  [^  A  %  (Ts'ao-pa-chio)  which  seems  to  be  a 
smaller  variety  of  the  shrub.  It  certainly  is  not  an  umbellifer. 
The  star-anise  fruits,  as  they  appear  in  commerce,  present 
the  radiate,  star-like  arrangement  of  the  eight  folicles,  from 
which  appearance  they  receive  their  name.  Each  of  the 
folicles  is  compressed  laterally,  boat-shaped,  roughened,  and 
opens  more  or  less  at  the  top,  disclosing  a  shining,  yellow, 
ovate,  solitary   seed   in   the   smooth  cavity.     The   fruits  vary 


from  one  inch  to  an  inch  and  a  quarter  in  diametei.  One 
or  more  of  the  carpels  is  often  abortive.  Within  the  brittle 
testa  is  a  pair  of  shrunkeu,  oily  cotyledons.  The  pericarp  has 
a  strongly  aromatic,  faintly  acidulous  taste,  and  an  odor  like 
that  of  aniseed.  The  seeds  have  a  sweeter  flavor.  There 
is  an  oil,  called  A  H  flfl  (Pa-chio-yu),  which  is  said  by  Dr. 
Williams  to  be  made  by  distilling  the  fruit  in  small  retorts  ;  a 
picul  producing  about  seven  catties  of  oil.  It  is  sent  to 
Europe  and  America  in  tin-lined  cases.  The  oil  is  pale,  and 
warm  or  sweetish  to  the  taste.  It  becomes  solid  at  about 
50°  Fahrenheit. 

IMPATIENS  BALSAMINA.— 1.  f|lj  (Feng-hsien).  The 
Phitsao  gives  a  good  description  of  this  "touch-me-not  ;  "  the 
irritable  character  of  the  seed  pods  being  admirably  expressed 
t>y  ^  "^  -^  (Chi-hsin-tzli),  46,  a  more  common  name  by  which 
the  plant  is  known.  In  the  north  of  China  this  plant  is  used 
in  combination  with  alum  as  a  finger  nail  dye,  and  for  this 
reason  the  name  ^  ^a  ^  !^  (Jan-chih-chia-ts'ao)  is  given  to  it. 
For  the  same  reason  it  is  called  f^  ~^  (Hai-na),  evidently  in 
imitation  of  the  Arabian  /lenna.  These  latter,  however, 
properly  refer  to  Lawsonla  alba  (which  see).  The  tender 
stalks  are  said  to  be  eaten  after  having  been  soaked  in 
wine  for  one  night.  The  plant  does  not  breed  worms, 
and  insects  are  said  not  to  visit  it.  This  last  statement  prob- 
ably refers  to  the  structurally  upside-down  character  of  the 
flowers.  The  seeds  are  thought  to  injure  the  teeth  and  the 
throat,  a  property  also  referred  to  the  root  of  Fiinkia  siibcordata. 
The  powdered  seeds  are  mixed  with  a  small  quantity  of  arsen- 
ious  acid  and  applied  to  carious  teeth,  when  these  are  easily 
removed.  Dysphagia  and  cases  of  fish  or  other  bones  sticking 
in  the  throat  are  treated  with  them.  The  powdered  seeds  are 
directed  to  be  taken  in  difficult  labor,  the  soles  of  the  feet  being 
rubbed  at  the  same  time  with  as  many  castor  beans  as  the 
woman  is  years  old.  The  flowers  are  mucilaginous  and  cooling. 
They  are  used  in  snake-bite,  lumbago,  and  intercostal  neural- 
gia. They  are  thought  to  improve  the  circulation  and  to 
relieve  stasis.  The  root  and  the  leaves  are  considered  to  be 
slightly  deleterious.    They  are  prescribed  for  all  sorts  of  foreign 


bodies  in  tbe  throat — copper  coins  aud  other  metals  that  have 
been  inadvertantly  swallowed — as  well  as  in  thorns  and  splinters 
in  the  flesh.  It  is  said  that  if  the  white  flowers  are  mixed 
with  the  leaves  and  root,  and  all  beaten  into  a  pulp  and  rubbed 
into  the  four  canthi  (^)  of  a  sick  horse's  eye,  the  horse  will 
break  into  a  sweat  and  immediately  recover. 

IMPERATA  ARUNDINACEA.— ^  ^  (Pai-mao).  Li 
Shih-chen  says  :  "  This  plant  is  short  and  small.  In  the  third 
month  it  bears  panicles  of  white  flowers,  followed  by  the 
fruits.  The  root  is  white,  very  long,  flexible  like  a  tendon, 
provided  with  joints,  and  of  a  sweet  taste.  The  common 
people  call  the  plant  ^  ^  (SsH-mao),  'floss  grass.'  It  is  used 
for  thatching  houses.  It  furnishes  the  drug  ^  ;j<^  (Mao-ken), 
spoken  of  in  the  Penching.  Ki  night  the  dry  root  gives  out  a 
light,  and  after  decaying,  changes  into  glow  worms."  The  root, 
^  j^  (Mao-ken),  825,  is  used  in  medicine.  To  it  are  ascribed 
restorative,  tonic,  hemostatic,  astringent,  antifebrile,  diuretic, 
and  antivinous  properties.  It  is  prescribed  in  fevers,  nausea, 
dropsy  due  to  weakness,  jaundice,  asthma,  hematuria,  nosebleed, 
and  the  like.  The  sprouts  of  the  ptant  which  shoot  forth  in 
the  spring  are  likened  to  needles,  and  are  therefore  called  ^  ^ 
(Mao-chen).  These  are  regarded  as  solvent  to  other  food  and 
thirst  relieving.  They  are  also  prescribed  in  hemorrhages  and 
wounds.  The  flowers  are  similarly  regarded.  The  rotted  grass 
from  a  thatch  is  boiled  with  wine  and  used  in  the  treatment  of 
hemoptysis  and  the  bites  of  poisonous  insects.  It  is  also  pre- 
scribed in  vaginismus,  obstipation,  and  other  urgent  difficulties. 

INCARVILLEA  SINENSIS.—;^  %  (Chio-hao).  This 
is  named  for  Father  Petrus  d'Incarville,  who  lived  at  Peking 
from  1740  to  1757,  during  which  period  he  did  much  research 
in  the  flora  and  fauna  of  China.  This  is  a  beautiful  bignonaceous 
plant,  with  large  scarlet  flowers,  found  at  the  end  of  summer 
in  the  mountains  and  plains  near  Peking.  The  seeds  are  angular, 
black,  and  resemble  those  of  Silejie  aprica.  The  leaves  resem- 
ble those  of  Cnidium  7non7iieri.  The  plant  is  considered  to 
be  slightly  poisonous.  It  is  prescribed  for  every  form  of  skin 
disease  or  ulcer,  and  for  spongy  gums. 


INDIGOFERA. — A  number  of  plants  producing  indigo 
are  found  in  China,  nearly  all  of  which  go  by  the  common 
name  of  ^  i!^  (Lan-ts'ao),  ''blue  plant."  Other  Chinese 
names  are  used,  but  their  specific  application  to  genus  or 
species  is  not  always  clear.  Faber  calls  ;^  ^  (Ta-ch'ing) 
Ifidigofera  ti^ictoria^  and  such  is  also  the  identification  of  the 
Customs  lists,  121 8.  In  Japan  the  plant  with  this  Chinese 
name  is  Justicia  crinata^  but  the  description  in  the  Pentsao 
does  not  agree  with  an  acanthaceous  plant.  However,  it  may 
be  the  plant  which  Fortune  describes  as  being  extensively  cul- 
tivated in  Chekiang  province  for  producing  indigo,  and  which 
he  called  Rtiellia  itidigotica^  being  the  same  as  the  Strobilan- 
thes  flaccidifolitis  of  Nees.  The  Pentsao  does  not  mention  -j^ 
^  as  an  indigo  bearing  plant.  It  says  that  it  is  a  common 
plant,  growing  to  the  height  of  two  or  three  feet,  having  a 
round  stem,  leaves  three  or  four  inches  long,  dark  green  on  the 
upper  side  and  paler  underneath,  and  placed  in  opposite  pairs  at 
the  upper  joints  of  the  stem.  The  flowers  are  red,  small,  and 
arranged  in  corymbs.  The  fruit  is  at  first  green,  but  afterwards 
turns  red,  and  resembles  that  of  Zanthoxylmn.  The  stalk  and 
leaves  are  used  in  medicine,  and  they  are  considered  to  be  anti- 
febrile and  antidotal.  They  are  employed  in  all  sorts  of  febrile 
epidemics,  including  typhoid  fever  and  epidemic  dysentery. 

Another  name  assigned  to  Indigo/era  tinctoria  is  ^jc  ^ 
(Mu-lan).  This  is  a  leguminous  shrub  cultivated  in  the  south 
of  China  and  India.  It  is  described  in  the  Pentsao  as  having 
leaves  resembling  those  of  the  Sophera^  with  pale  red  flowers, 
followed  by  pods  an  inch  or  more  long.  ^  ^  (Sung-lan)  is 
Isatis  tinctoria^  the  woad  of  western  dyers.  In  Japan  there  is 
another  species  called  \L^  'h%  (Chiang-nan-ta-ch'ing),  and 
judging  from  its  name,  to  be  found  in  China  also,  which  is 
identified  by  Franchet  as  Isatis  japojtica.  There  is  also  ^  ^ 
(Liao-lan),  which  is  Polygonum  tinct07'ium.  These  three  are 
the  source  of  most  of  the  indigo  produced  in  China,  and  are 
described  under  the  general  term  ^  (Lan)  in  the  Pintsao. 
Two  other  kinds  are  mentioned,  called  ^  ^(Ma-lan)  and  ^  ^ 
(Wu-lan),  but  these  are  probably  only  varieties  of  the  others. 
The  fruits  of  these  plants  are  used  in  medicine.  They  are 
considered  to  be  antidotal,  anthelmintic,  and  restorative.     Con- 


tinued  use  prevents  the  hair  from  falling  and  rejuvenates  the 
body.  The  juice  of  the  bruised  leaves  is  considered  aiitidotal  to 
medicinal  poisons,  wolf-bites,  and  arrow  wounds.  It  is  also 
applied  in  insect  stings,  cantharidal  blisters,  and  arsenic  cau- 
terizations. The  ^  ^,  stalk  and  root,  is  recjmmended  in 
menstrual  difficulties,  and  the  i^  ^  is  considered  to  be  an  anti- 
febrile and  antidotal  remedy,  being  prescribed  in  much  the 
same  difficulties  as  the  ;^  ^  and  the  ^  ^. 

Indigo  itself  is  called  ^  J^  (Lan-tien),  or  more  properly  ^ 
1^  (Lan-tien).  According  to  the  Pintsao  it  is  prepared  by 
throwing  the  plants  into  pits  dug  in  the  field,  macerating  them 
in  water  for  one  night,  after  which  lime  is  added  and  the  whole 
well  beaten  up.  The  water  is  then  drawn  off,  leaving  the 
thick,  dark  blue  indigo  paste  at  the  bottom  to  dry,  preparatory 
to  being  placed  in  bamboo  baskets.  It  is  then  ready  for  the 
dyer's  use.  The  froth  rising  to  the  top  of  these  pits  is  collect- 
ed and  made  into  an  extract,  called  %%  ^  (Tien-hua)  or  ^  |^ 
(Ch'ing-tai),  194,  in  imitation  of  the  true  indigo  formerly 
brought  from  Persia.  Indian  indigo  is  also  imported  into 
China,  as  is  likewise  Manila  liquid  indigo.  The  Formosan 
product  is  an  excellent  aye,  but  is  frequently  much  adulterated. 
In  the  province  of  Chihli  a  very  good  dye  is  made  and  sold 
under  the  name  of  3^  f^  (Ching-tien).  Liquid  indigo  is  called 
■jJC  tiH  (Shui-tien),  dry  indigo  J;  %i  (T'u-tien),  and  indigo  dye 
^  ^  (Tien-ch'ing)  or  ^  ^  (Ch'ing-tai).  The  indigo  trade  is 
a  profitable  one  in  China,  since  the  prevailing  color  of  Chinese 
clothes  is  made  with  this  dye.  Although  aniline  dyes,  on 
account  of  their  brilliancy  and  cheapness,  are  having  quite  a 
vogue  in  China,  they  will  with  difficulty  supersede  indigo, 
which  on  account  of  its  ease  of  production,  its  long  use  by  and 
adaptability  to  the  tastes  of  the  Chinese,  and  its  durability  as  a 
pigment,  will  continue  to  hold  a  strong  place  in  Chinese  textile 
manufactures.  Medicinally,  the  common  indigo  is  thought  to 
have  similar  virtues  to  the  plants  from  which  it  is  derived  ;  that 
is,  of  an  antifebrile,  auti-poisouous,  astringent,  and  anthelmin- 
tic remedy. 

The  ^  ^  (Ch'ing-tai)  or  ^  :l^  (Tien-hua),  also  called  ^ 
ia  ^  (Ch'ing-ko-fen),  originally  came  from  Persia,  but  it  is 
now  made  in  China,   as  indicated  above.     Its  medicinal  action 


is  the  same  as  that  of  the  plants  and  the  common  indigo,  but  it 
is  held  in  rather  higher  esteem  than  the  others.  Swellings, 
bruises,  stings,  strumous  glands,  and  tumors  in  general  are 
treated  topically  with  this  remedy.  Fevers,  fluxes,  worms,  and 
infantile  disorders  are  treated  internally  with  it.  It  is  a  re- 
markable fact  that  the  Chinese  recommend  it  in  convulsive  and 
nervous  disorders,  when  we  remember  that  it  had  quite  a  vogue 
among  western  physicians  some  years  ago  for  this  purpose. 
Also,  the  domestic  use  of  the  bluebag  in  western  countries  for 
stings  of  insects,  is  paralleled  by  the  Chinese  recommendation 
of  this  substance  for  the  same  purpose. 

Mixed  up  in  the  Pentsao  with  the  discussion  of  these  indi- 
goferous  plants,  is  mentioned  "jj  ^  (Kan-Ian)  or  ^  ^  (Lan- 
ts'ai),  which  is  a  variety  oi Brassica  oleracea^  much  grown  in  the 
Yellow  river  plain.  Its  use  as  a  vegetable  is  regarded  as  highly 
beneficial  to  the  body,  giving  strength  and  vigor  to  the  vital 
organs,  and  brightening  the  intellect.  It  is  recommended  to  be 
eaten  in  jaundice.    Soporific  qualities  are  attributed  to  the  seeds. 

INULA  CHINENSIS.— :^  H  1^  (Hsiian-fu-hua),  475. 
This  seems  to  be  the  same  as  Inula  britanica^  or  English  ele- 
campane. It  is  indigenous  to  North  China,  Mongolia,  Man- 
churia, and  Korea,  and  a  variety  is  also  found  in  Japan.  The 
Chinese  name  should  not  be  confounded  with  that  of  Calys- 
tegia.  Other  names  are  ^  ii  ^  (Chin-ch'ien-hua)  and  ^ 
^  ^J  (Chin-ch'ien-chii),  applied  most  properly  to  the  cultivated 
plant,  which  much  resembles  Calendula.  Other  names  refer 
to  the  color  of  the  flowers,  or  to  its  resemblance  to  the  chrysan- 
tkenium.  The  flowers  are  the  part  chiefly  used  in  medicine. 
Tonic,  stomachic,  alterative,  deobstruent,  carminative,  and 
laxative  properties  are  ascribed  to  the  drug.  Sometimes  the 
whole  dried  plant,  including  stalks,  pappose  fruits,  and  roots 
are  found  for  sale  in  the  shops.  The  stalks  have  a  bitter 
aromatic  taste.  The  leaves  and  roots  are  considered  to  be 
vulnerary  and  discutient. 

IPOMCEA  AQUATICA.— ^  %  (Yung-ts'ai).  This  is 
cultivated  as  a  garden  vegetable  in  central  China.  It  is  grown 
either  in  water  or  on  marshy  ground.     A  small  raft  of  reeds 


is  made  and  floated  on  the  water.  Seeds  are  dropped  into 
crevices  in  the  reeds,  and  the  plant  grows  thus  directly  from 
the  water.  The  plant  is  said  not  to  have  much  taste,  but  is 
cooked  with  pork,  and  is  relished  in  this  way.  It  is  considered 
to  have  a  beneficial  influence  upon  the  body,  and  is  used  as  an 
antidote  to  poisoning  by  an  unidentified  plant,  called  ^  ^ 
(Yeh-ko)  or  ]§5  ^  :^  (Hu-wan-ts'ao).  It  is  also  recommended 
in  diflficult  labor. 

IPOMCEA  BATATAS.  — t  ^  (Kan-shu),  llj  ^  CShan- 
yii).  The  Chinese  do  not  distinguish  clearly  between  taro, 
the  yanty  and  the  sweet  potato.  The  second  name  given  above 
is  properly  Batatas  ediilis^  but  in  the  Pentsao  it  is  included 
with  ^  ^  (Shu-yli),  which  is  Dioscorea  quinqtieloba.  The 
plant  under  discussion  is  much  cultivated  at  the  south  and  its 
tubers  used  as  food  ;  sometimes  to  the  complete  exclusion  of 
rice  or  other  cereals.  It  is  considered  to  have  a  good  efiect 
upon  the  body,  giving  strength,  and  especially  benefiting  the 
spleen,  stomach,  and  kidneys.  However,  those  who  live  largely 
upon  these  and  yams  do  not  seem  to  be  so  well  nourished  as  do 
those  who  live  on  rice. 

IRIS  ENSATA.— ^  %  (Li-shih).  This  name  is  also 
written  |^  g  (Li-shih),  and  the  plant  is  mentioned  in  the 
Liclii  under  this  character.  A  common  name  is  J^  ^  (Ma- 
lin),  805,  which  at  Peking  is  Iris  oxypetala.  Porter  Smith, 
following  Tatarinov,  wrongly  writes  this  ,^  "^  (Ma-lan),  but 
this  is  the  aster.  This  plant  has  blue  or  white  flowers  ;  the 
fruit  is  a  capsule,  and  the  seeds  resemble  those  of  the  hemp. 
The  leaves  resemble  those  of  Allium^  but  are  longer  and 
thicker.  The  root  is  long  and  fibrous,  and  the  Chinese  use 
it  to  make  brooms  or  brushes.  For  this  reason  it  is  called 
^  ^  '1^  (T'ieh-sao-chou),  "iron  broom."  The  fruits  are 
prescribed  in  fevers,  rheumatism,  hemorrhages,  post-partum 
difficulties,  and  fluxes.  They  are  considered  to  be  diuretic, 
stimulant  to  the  appetite,  astringent,  and  antagonistic  to  vege- 
table and  animal  poisons.  To  the  flowers,  leaves,  and  roots  are 
ascribed  similar  virtues,  and  they  are  specially  recommended 
as  anthelmintic  remedies.     In  Japan  ^\%  %  (T'ieh-sao-chou) 


is  Lespedesa  juncea^  a  leguminous  plant,  and  drawings  in  some 
Chinese  works  seem  to  agree  with  this. 

IRIS  SIBIRICA.— ^  H  (Chi-sun).  The  Chinese  do  not 
distinguish  this  from  j^  ^  (Pai-ch'ang)  or  jifc  ^  fit  (Shui- 
ch'ang-p'u),  Acorus  calamus^  and  it  is  described  in  the  Pentsao 
under  this  title.  All  that  is  said  is  that  there  is  one  kind 
found  in  eastern  China  in  rivulets  and  swamps,  which  is  called 
by  this  name.  In  odor  and  color,  its  root  is  said  to  resemble 
the  ^  ^  (Ch'ang-p*u)  which  grows  among  stones  {Acorus 
gra?mneus)y  but  its  leaves  have  no  central  ridge.  It  is  not 
eaten,  but  is  used  as  an  expectorant,  and  is  also  employed  for 
destroying  insect  vermin. 

IRIS  TECTORUM.— j^  Ji  (Yiian-wei).  Another  name 
is  ,^  H  (Wu-ytian).  The  root  is  called  j^  gf  (Yiian-t'ou).  At 
Peking  it  is  cultivated  as  an  ornamental  plant  under  the  name 
of  ]^  3^  '^  (Ts'ao-yli-lan).  The  root  is  said  to  somewhat  re- 
semble galangal  root,  having  a  yellow  skin  and  white  flesh. 
When  chewed,  it  gives  a  scratchy  sensation  to  the  throat.  The 
taste  is  bitter,  and  the  drug  is  slightly  poisonous.  Its  medicinal 
properties  are  regarded  as  being  somewhat  transcendental, 
being  chiefly  recommended  for  driving  away  evil  influences 
and  miasms.     It  is  used  in  marasmus  and  wasting  diseases. 

IXORA  Sp.— ^  ^  51  (Hu-huang-lien).  This  identifica- 
tion is  suggested  by  Faber.     See  Barkhausia  repens. 

IXORA  STRICTA.— ^  ^  %  (Mai-tzu-mu).  The  name 
is  also  written  ^  •?  ;?t;  (Mai-tzu-mu).  It  is  said  to  come  from 
the  mountain  valleys  of  Lingnan,  and  has  a  leaf  like  that  of 
the  persimmon.  It  grows  up  with  a  slender  shaft  to  the  height 
of  about  seventeen  feet.  It  has  dark  green  leaves  from  one  to 
two  inches  long,  and  its  branches  have  a  purplish  color.  The 
flowers  are  red  and  in  clusters.  The  seeds  are  black  and 
shining,  and  resemble  Zanthoxylmn  seeds.  The  stems  are  the 
parts  used  in  medicine,  and  are  recommended  in  bruises,  ex- 
travasated  blood,  and  wounds.  The  drug  is  said  be  beneficial 
to  the  bone  marrow,  to  be  anodyne,  and  quieting  to  the 
pregnant  uterus. 



JASMINUM  NUDIFLORUM.— M  ^  :j!g  (Ying-ch'un- 
hua).  This  is  cultivated  everywhere  in  gardens.  It  is  the 
same  as  the  Jasmimun  sieboldianufn.  The  Chinese  name  is 
also  applied  to  the  Magnolia  conspicua.  It  flowers  very  early 
in  the  spring  before  the  leaves  come  ;  the  flower  somewhat 
resembling  that  of  the  Daphne^  and  being  yellow  in  color. 
The  leaves  are  used  in  medicine  as  a  diaphoretic  in  fevers 
and  wounds. 

JASMINUM  OFFICINALE.—^  ^  (So-hsing).  In  the 
Phitsao  this  is  described  in  a  foot-note  to  the  article  on  [as- 
7nimiin  savibac^  where  it  is  stated  that  the  plant  is  of  foreign 
origin,  and  is  also  called  ]|I5  ,^  ^'  (Yeh-hsi-ming)  and  ^  jg  ^' 
(Yeh-hsi-mi),  either  of  which  is  a  good  transliteration  of  the 
Arabic  yesmiii  or  the  Persian  yasinin.  The  flowers  are  of 
two  colors,  white  and  yellow,  identified  by  the  Japanese  as 
JasmimiTTi  grandiflorinn  q.w6.  Jasjuimun  fioridwn  respectively. 
The  Oil  of  Jasmine  is  expressed  from  the  flowers  of  this,  a's 
well  as  from  those  of  Jasminu77i  savibac.  The  medicinal  uses 
are  not  distinguished  from  those  of  the  latter. 

JASMINUM  SAMBAC— ^  fl[  (Mo-li).  This  plant  is 
now  well  known  in  China,  but  is  of  foreign,  probably  Persian, 
origin.  This  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  a  number  of  very 
different  characters  of  similar  sound  are  used  for  the  name  of 
the  plant,  all  approaching  in  sound  those  given  above.  So 
it  is  probable  that  they  are  all  transliterations  of  some  foreign 
name.  The  plant  is  exceedingly  popular  on  account  of  the 
fragrance  of  its  beautiful  white  flowers,  and  it  is  therefore 
cultivated  in  all  pleasure  gardens.  A  song,  the  tune  of  which 
is  probably  the  most  popular  among  Chinese  airs,  was  com- 
posed praising  the  fragrance  and  beauty  of  this  flower.  Any 
Chinese  will  play  or  sing  this  air,  if  asked  for  the  '■'■  Alo-li- 
hua.''''  The  petals  of  the  flower  are  used  to  scent  teas  and  to 
prepare  cosmetics.  They  are  also  used,  together  with  those  of 
Jasmimtm  officinale^  in  the  manufacture  of  the  Oil  of  Jasmine. 


The  Phitsao  says  that  there  is  also  a  red  kind,  called  ^  1^ 
(Nai-hua\  but  this  is  the  night-bloomi)jg  jasmine  or  NyctantJies 
arbor  tristis,  the  m?isk  flower  of  eastern  India.  The  roots  of 
the  jasmine  are  said  to  be  very  poisonous.  A  tincture  made 
from  them  is  said  to  have  very  powerful  sedative,  anesthetic, 
and  vulnerary  properties.  One  inch  of  the  root  extracted 
with  wine  will  produce  unconsciousness  for  one  day,  two  inches 
for  two  days,  three  inches  for  three  days,  and  so  on.  The 
bruised  flowers  of  this  jasmine  are  strongly  recommended 
by  Dr.  Waring  (Pharmacopoeia  of  India,  p.  137)  as  a  remedy 
for  arresting  milk  abscess,  or  as  a  galactagogue. 

JATROPHA  JANIPHA.— ^  %  ^  (Pai-fu-tzii\  This 
is  the  identification  of  Loureiro,  whose  description  agrees  very 
well.  The  resemblance  of  the  root  to  that  of  aconite  gives  it 
the  Chinese  name,  but  the  Phitsao  says  that  this  does  not 
indicate  any  relationship.  It  seems  to  have  come  originally 
from  Korea,  but  is  also  found  in  Manchuria.  Porter  Smith 
took  it  to  be  an  aroid  plant,  and  the  Customs  lists  classify  it 
as  a  species  of  Arisisma^  944.  The  tuberous,  oval,  elongated 
roots  sold  under  this  name  vary  a  good  deal  in  size,  being 
from  an  inch  to  two  inches  in  length.  The  epidermis  is  of  a 
brown  color,  mottled,  withered,  and  reticulated.  The  interior 
is  pure  white,  starchy,  and  firm  in  texture.  The  plant  grows 
in  sandy  soil,  and  is  evidently  slightly  poisonous,  although  but 
a  slight  degree  of  acridity  seems  to  exist  in  the  tubers.  The 
dififerent  varieties  of  South  American  cassava  also  vary  in  this 
respect  ;  some  retaining  more  of  the  poisonous  juice  than  do 
others.  It  is  said  to  be  useful  in  apoplexy,  aphonia,  wry-neck, 
paralysis,  chorea,  heat-stroke,  and  similar  diseases.  At  the 
present  time  it  is  chiefly  used  as  a  face  powder  to  remove  pock- 
marks,  stains,  and  pigmentary  deposits. 

JUGLANS  REGIA.— ]^  ^l  (Hu-t'ao),  ^  }^  (Hei-t'ao), 
377)  ^  ^I^  ^Ch'iang-t'ao).  The  seed  of  this  tree  was  brought 
to  China  by  General  Chang-chien,  of  the  Han  dynasty.  In 
the  Pintsao  its  habitat  is  given  as  the  Tangut  country,  about 
Kokonor.  The  second  character  in  each  of  the  names  given 
refers  to  the  resemblance  of  the  green  fruit  to  the  peach.     The 


tree  is  said  now  to  grow  in  nearly  all  of  the  northern  provinces. 
The  nuts  are  not  regarded  as  being  very  wholesome,  but  this 
is  due  to  its  supposed  alchemic  relations ;  nevertheless,  the 
effects  of  the  nuts  when  ingested  seem  to  be  rather  good  than 
otherwise,  being  said  to  produce  plumpness,  strengthening  and 
lubricating  the  muscles,  and  increasing  the  blackness  of  the 
hair.  They  are  also  considered  to  be  diuretic,  antilithic,  aud 
stimulant  to  the  kidneys  and  lungs.  They  are  recommended 
in  heartburn,  colic,  dysentery,  and  intestinal  intoxications. 
The  oil  of  walnut  seeds  is  used  as  an  anthelmintic  and  as  an 
application  to  several  kinds  of  skin  diseases,  including  eczema, 
chancre,  and  favus,  and  is  applied  to  the  hair  as  a  pomade. 
The  pericarp  seems  to  furnish  an  oily  juice,  which  is  used 
as  a  hair  and  whisker  dye.  The  bark  of  the  tree  and  root,  as 
well  as  the  hard  shell  of  the  nuts,  are  used  as  astringent  rem- 
edies, and  also  for  dyeing  the  hair  and  whiskers  and  summer 
grass-cloth.  Another  species,  called  ill  ^  ^fe  Shau-hu-t'ao), 
is  spoken  of  under  this  heading,  and  is  not  distinguished  from 
the  other  in  its  medical  uses.     This  '\sjuglans  sieboldiana. 

JUNCUS  COMMUNIS,  >««^^  e^usus.—^  ^  -^  (Teug- 
hsin-ts'ao).  This  sedge  grows  plentifully  in  the  marshes  of 
central  China,  and  is  used  for  making  mats  and  lamp  wicks. 
Its  appearance  when  growing  gives  rise  to  its  common  name, 
J^  ^  :^  (Hu-hsii-ts'ao),  "tiger-beard-grass."  The  stalks  are 
steamed  and  the  cuticle  peeled  off,  leaving  the  central  white 
pith,  which  is  sometimes  used  to  keep  fistulous  sores  open  in 
order  to  make  them  heal  from  the  bottom.  It  is  also  much 
used  to  prepare  a  menstruum  for  other  drugs.  It  is  said  to  be 
antilithic,  diuretic,  pectoral,  lenitive,  sedative,  derivative,  and 
discutient.  The  ashes  of  a  lamp  wick  are  placed  upon  a 
mother's  nipples,  and  thus  administered  to  a  nursing  child  for 
the  relief  of  night  crying.  The  Chinese  watch  the  growth  of 
the  flower-like  snuff  of  lamps  and  caudles,  and  draw  ominous 
conclusions  from  its  appearance. 

JUNIPERUS  CHINENSIS.— ;ft  (Kuei).  This  is  a  tall, 
straight  tree,  very  common  in  the  northern  provinces  of  China. 
A  remarkable  thing  about  this  tree  is  the  dimorphism  of  its 


leaves.  Generally,  tbese  resemble  the  leaves  of  the  common 
cypress,  which  are  scale-like  and  appressed,  but  frequently  on 
the  same  tree  will  be  found  spreading,  acicular  leaves,  and  in 
rare  instances  the  tree  has  only  this  sort  of  leaves.  When  it  has 
only  such  leaves,  it  is  called  f§  (Kuai),  The  wood  of  the 
tree  is  quite  resinous  and  the  fruits  are  globular,  constituting 
the  juniper  berries.  The  Chinese  do  not  distinguish  this 
tree,  at  least  in  its  medicinal  virtues,  from  Thuja  orientalis 
(which  see). 

JUSTICIA  GENDARUSSA.— ^  %  (Ch'in-chiao),  170. 
This  identification  is  exceedingly  doubtful.  The  plant  described 
in  the  Pentsao  is  in  all  probability  one  of  the  Acanthacese.  It 
grows  in  the  mountain  valleys  of  Szechuan.  The  root  is  of 
a  dark  yellow  color,  twisted  and  contorted,  and  about  one  foot 
long.  The  leaves  are  said  to  resemble  lettuce  leaves.  The 
root  is  the  part  used  in  medicine,  and  it  is  very  bitter  in  taste. 
It  is  boiled  in  milk  and  given  in  rheumatism,  dysuria,  fever, 
carbuncle,  jaundice,  and  diarrhoeas.  Diuretic  and  diaphoretic 
properties  belong  to  this  drug,  as  well  as  cooling  and  anodyne 

JUSTICIA  PROCUMBENS.— ll^(Chio-chuang).  Other 
names  are  given  to  this  creeping  plant,  among  which  is  ^  0^ 
^  #  :^  (Ch'ih-yen-lao-mu-ts'ao),  "red-eyed  old  mother 
plant."  It  grows  in  the  river  valleys  of  Central  China,  in  old 
fields  and  waste  places.  The  odor  is  unpleasant.  The  whole 
plant  is  used  in  decoction  in  backache,  plethora,  and  flatulence. 
In  Japan  this  Chinese  name  is  applied  to  Mosla  punctata^  a 
labiate  plant. 




KADSURA  CHINENSIS.— 3£  P^  ^  (Wu-wei-tzu). 
Properly  these  Chinese  characters  are  applied  to  ScJiiza7idra 
chinefisis^  and  the  plant  will  be  described  under  that  title. 
These  magnoliaceous  genera  are  so  nearly  alike  that  the  Chinese 
do  not  readily  distinguish  them.  The  Kadsiira  is  found  in 
Japan,  where  it  is  distinguished  as  ]^  35.  PJ:  (Nan-wu-wei), 
referring  to  the  fact  that  it  is  found  in  South  China,  while  the 
Schisandra^  being  found  most  plentifully  in  North  China  and 
Korea,  is  called  :}b  £.  5|;  (,Pei-wu-wei),  1477. 

K^MPFERIA  GALANGA.  — ilj  ^  (Shan-nai),  1063, 
llj  M  (Shan-lai),  ^  ^  (San-nai).  The  fragrant,  warm  roots  of 
Aipinia  and  Kczmpferia  are  grown  in  the  south  of  China,  and 
exported  under  the  general  name  of  Capoor  CtitcJiery^  which 
is  not  a  very  happy  alteration  of  the  Hindustani  name  of  this 
drug,  kafur-kiichri^  "root  of  camphor."  The  root  is  met  with 
in  shops  in  flat,  oblong,  or  round  disks,  from  a  half  inch  to  an 
inch  in  diameter.  Externally,  they  are  covered  with  a  reddish- 
yellow,  shriveled  epidermis.  Internally,  they  are  white.  Some 
of  the  pieces  are  very  irregular  in  shape,  and  branched.  The 
odor  is  camphoraceous,  but  pleasant,  and  the  taste  is  warm  and 
aromatic.  The  plant  is  likened  to  ginger,  and  the  root  is  eaten 
as  a  relish.  It  is  credited  with  stimulant,  stomachic,  carmina- 
tive, prophylactic,  and  similar  properties.  It  is  principally  used 
as  a  remedy  in  toothache,  or  as  a  wash  in  dandruff  or  scabs 
upon  the  head.  It  appears  to  destroy  lice  and  pediculi.  Dr. 
Williams  says:  *'It  is  exported  from  Canton  and  Swatow  to 
India,  Persia,  and  Arabia,  where  it  is  used  in  perfumery  and 
mediciile,  and  also  to  preserve  clothes  from  insects."  It  is  some- 
times identified  with  ^  ^  (Lien-chiang),  which  is  a  somewhat 
similar  scitamineous  root,  used  in  the  south  as  a  remedy  in 
pyrosis.  The  character  |^  is  sometimes  improperly  written  |^, 
and  it  is  properly  written  ^.  The  country  of  Fu-lin,  which  is 
probably  Syria,  is  said  to  have  a  plant  yielding  a  root  like 
that  of  Kccmpfcria.,  from  the  flowers  of  which  is  produced 
an  oil  used  for  anointing  the  body  in  febrile  difficulties. 


K^MPFERIA     PUNDURATA.— ^    %\    ^  -  (P'eng-o- 

mou).  Another  name  by  which  it  is  known  in  the  Customs 
lists  is  j^f]i|^(P'eng-o-shu),  1003.  An  alternative  name  given 
in  the  Pentsao  is  ^  |^  ( Shu-yao).  The  drug  comes  from  the 
East  Indies  and  the  southern  provinces  of  China.  The  Pentsao 
says  that  tliere  are  two  kinds,  a  poisonous  and  a  non-poisonous, 
and  that  the  method  of  testing  this  matter  is  to  offer  the  root 
to  a  sheep,  and  if  the  sheep  will  not  eat  it,  it  is  rejected.  The 
root  is  specially  prepared  for  medical  uses  by  digesting  in 
vinegar,  as  is  sometimes  done  in  the  case  of  aconite.  Carmina- 
tive, stomachic,  peptic,  emmenagogue,  and  cholagogue  proper- 
ties are  atributed  to  the  drug. 

KERRIA  JAPONICA.— 4^  %  (Ti-t'ang).  This  is  the 
identification  in  both  China  and  Japan,  but  the  Chinese  term 
is  almost  uniformly  confounded  with  ^  \%  (T'ang-ti),  or  ^  ;^ 
(Ch'ang-ti),  which  is  another  name  for  ^fj  ^  (Yu-li),  Primus 
japonica.  The  Kiiang-chiin-fa^ig-pu  makes  the  distinction  be- 
tween these  clear,  and  gives  a  very  good  description  of  this 
plant.  It  is  much  cultivated  in  gardens,  and  is  prized  for  its 
golden  yellow,  polypetalous  flowers,  especially  as  it  blooms 
with  such  magnificence  in  the  early  spring.  The  plant  is  used 
medicinally  in  the  diseases  of  women. 

KOCHIA  SCOPARIA.— M  1  (Ti-fu),  1263.  This  plant 
grows  in  marshes  and  fields.  It  is  also  cultivated  in  gardens, 
the  young  tender  leaves  being  used  as  food.  The  old  plant  is 
used  for  makino  brooms,  and  its  common  name  at  Peking  is 
^  ^  !^  (Sao-chou-ts'ao).  The  seeds,  shoots,  and  leaves  are 
used  medicinally,  and  to  all  are  attributed  diuretic  and  restora- 
tive properties.  The  seeds  are  prescribed  in  fevers,  colds, 
intercostal  neuralgia,  hernia,  dysentery,  and  incontinence  of 
urine  in  pregnant  women.  The  shoots  and  leaves  are  pre- 
scribed chiefly  in  dysentery  and  diarrhoea,  and  in  digestive 
disorders  generally. 

The  Pentsao  describes  this  as  a  tree  growing  in  Central  China, 
the    leaves    of    which    resemble    those   of  Hibiscus   syriacus^ 


having  yellow  flowers  and  a  fruit  like  that  oi  Physalis  alkckengi. 
The  fruit  capsules  of  this  tree  are  bladderlike,  and  contain 
black  seeds,  the  size  of  a  small  pea.  The  flowers  are  used  for 
dyeing  yellow,  the  leaves  for  dyeing  black,  and  the  seeds  are 
made  into  beads.  The  seeds  are  called  ;^  ^  •?  (Mu-luan-tzii), 
but  at  Peking  they  are  miscalled  %W^^  (Mu-lan-tzu),  and 
the  tree  /fc  ^  :^  (Mu-lan-ya).  The  flowers  are  the  parts  used 
in  medicine,  in  epiphora  and  conjunctivitis.  The  drug  seems 
to  be  employed  only  as  an  eye  medicine. 

KYLLINGIA  MONOCEPHALA.— ^  ^  if  (Chin-niu- 
ts'ao),  155,  is  the  identification  of  the  Customs  lists,  but  upon 
what  authority  does  not  appear.  The  Hankow  lists  call  this 
Ardisia  japonica^  which  in  Faber's  list  is  ^  ^  -^  (Tzu-chin- 
niu).  What  is  spoken  of  under  this  term  in  the  Pentsao  does 
not  answer  well  to  the  description  of  Kyllingia^  or  indeed  of 
any  cyperaceous  plant,  but  does  approach  that  of  a  myrsinaceous 
one.  So  its  medicinal  virtues  will  be  mentioned  in  the  Ad- 
denda under  the  title  of  Ardisia.  In  Japan  Kyllingia  vio7ioceph- 
ala  is  7jC  %.  ^  (Shui-wu-kung),  and  in  the  Appendix  to  the 
Pentsao  is  mentioned  $^  $ii  f^  (Wu-kung-p'ing),  "centipede- 
like duck-weed,"  which  from  the  description  is  evidently  a 
sedge,  and  may  be  Kyllingia.  Insects  do  not  like  the  odor  of 
this  plant,  so  it  is  dried  and  burned  in  bed-rooms  and  about 
beds  to  produce  a  smoke,  which  is  said  to  drive  away  all  sorts 
of  parasitic  insects. 




LACTUCA.— ^  H  (Pai-chii),  ^  H  (Shih-clui),  ^  ^ 
(Sheng-ts'ai).  The  Pentsao  says  that  ^  "^,  ^  H  (K'u-chii, 
possibly  Cichormrn  endivia),  and  ^  "^  (Wo-chii,  Lactiica  sativci) 
should  not  be  cooked,  but  should  be  eaten  raw  with  salt  and 
vinegar.  For  this  reason  they  are  called  ^^  "raw  vege- 
table." The  name  t^^  (Pa)  is  also  given  for  this  plant,  but 
this  is  an  error  ;  it  should  be  ^  (Chi).  Faber  calls  q  ^ 
Lactiica  albifiora^  but  this  does  not  agree  with  the  Penfsao^  as 
the  plant  there  described  bears  yellow  flowers.  The  *' white" 
refers  to  the  leaves,  which  are  slightly  hirsute.  Two  crops 
are  grown  in  the  year:  one  being  sown  in  the  first  or  second 
moon,  and  the  other  from  the  eighth  to  the  tenth  moon.  Two 
other  varieties  are  mentioned,  called  ^  '^  (Tzti-clui)  and  ^  "i^ 
(K'u-chii)  respectively.  The  former  is  sometimes  mixed  with 
clay  in  making  pottery,  producing  an  imitation  copper.  These 
are  both  probably  only  varieties  of  Lactuca  saliva.  The 
action  of  this  lettuce  is  considered  to  be  highly  beneficial, 
toning  up  the  sinews,  dispelling  flatus,  aiding  the  circulation, 
strengthening  the  intellect,  correcting  poisons,  relieving  thirst, 
and  opening  the  emunctories.  The  expressed  juice  of  the 
stalk  is  instilled  into  the  interior  of  a  bubo  after  it  has  been 
opened  and  the  pus  removed. 

In  the  article  on  f^  ^  (Wo-chii),  also  called  1^  -%  (Wo- 
ts'ai)  and  ^  ^%  (Ch'ien-chiu-ts'ai),  and  which  is  also  Lactuca 
sativa^  the  Pentsao  says  that  it  was  brought  to  China  from  a 
country  called  ^  (Kua,  i§  Kuo  ?)  in  the  time  of  the  Haa 
dynasty.  The  envoys  who  brought  it  received  such  a  rich 
reward  that  the  plant  was  called  ^  ^%  (Ch'ien-chiu-ts'ai), 
"thousand  ounces  of  gold  vegetable,"  from  this  fact.  It  is 
cultivated  in  the  same  manner  as  the  j^  ]g,  and  is  found  in 
two  varieties — the  white  and  the  purple.  The  seed  stalk,  when 
it  first  shoots  up,  is  eaten  under  the  name  of  ^  ^  (Wo-sun). 
It  is  consumed  raw,  and  its  taste  is  likened  to  that  of  the 
cucumber.  The  action  of  this  plant  upon  the  body  is  con- 
sidered to  be  identical  with  that  of  Pai-chii,  but  it  is  more 
highly  regarded  as  a  diuretic  and  parasiticide.     Insects  do  not 


seem  to  like  the  juice,  and  if  it  is  dropped  into  the  ear  when 
an  insect  has  entered  that  cavity,  the  insect  will  be  driven  out. 
The  seeds  are  considered  to  be  galactagogue  and  anodyne. 
They  are  prescribed  in  swelling  of  the  genitals  and  to  make 
the  hair  grow  on  scar  tissue. 

Another  article  in  the  Peiitsao  gives  us  ^  '%  (K'u-ts*ai), 
^  (THi),  -^  -^  (K^i-chh),  -"B  ^  (K'u-mai),  it  ^  (Yu-tung), 
%  "g  (Pien-chli),  ^MM  (Lao-kuan-ts'ai),  and  ^ '^  M  (T'ien- 
hsiang-ts'ai)  as  more  or  less  synonymous  terms.  Here  we  have 
a  thorough  confounding  of  genera,  as  well  as  of  species  ;  at  the 
least  Ctc/iormm,  Lactiica^  and  Soiichiis  being  in  all  probability 
included  among  this  large  number  of  names.  These  genera 
are  very  similar,  resembling  each  other  in  their  general  appear- 
ance, inflorescence,  and  milky  sap,  as  well  as  in  the  more  or 
less  bitterish  taste  of  most  of  the  species.  ^  "^  and  ^  ^  are 
probably  Cichoi'i^nn  endivia  or  Cichorium  intybiis.  Henry  says 
that  in  Hupeh  K^'n-ts'-ai  is  Lactuca  squar-rosa.  ^  Cr'u)  seems 
to  be  uniformly  referred  to  Sonchiis  oleracciis^  and  in  Japan 
K''ii-ts'-ai  is  used  as  a  synonym.  This  last  term  is  frequently 
used  in  the  sense  of  "bitter  vegetable,"  so  cannot  always  be 
considered  as  a  distinctive  term.  According  to  Li  Shih-chen, 
the  leaves  of  this  plant  clasp  the  stem,  and  this  would  indicate 
that  wdiat  he  meant  was  a  Sonchus.  The  action  of  this  vege- 
table upon  the  body  is  much  the  same  as  that  of  the  last,  but 
its  medicinal  virtues  are  considered  to  be  much  greater.  Pro- 
longed use  is  thought  to  be  highly  beneficial,  preserving  youth 
and  vitality.  The  expressed  juice  is  much  regarded  as  an 
application  to  boils,  abscesses,  and  carbuncles,  and  if  put  upon 
warts  will  cause  them  to  drop  off.  It  is  also  used  in  snake 
bite  and  bleeding  piles.  The  root  is  prescribed  in  fluxes  and 
hematuria.  The  flowers  and  seeds  are  used  as  an  antifebrile 
and  quieting  remedy,  and  in  jaundice. 

LACTUCA  DEBILIS.— M  If  Hx  (Chien-tao-ku).  This 
is  another  kind  of  lettuce  that  is  eaten  raw,  and  is  also  made 
into  pickle.     No  medicinal  virtues  are  ascribed  to  it. 

LACTUCA  DENTICULATA.— 7K  "B  S  (Shui-k'u-mai). 
This  is  a  Japanese  identification.     Other  names  are  |§J  ^  || 


(Hsieh-p'o-ts'ai)  and   ^  ^^  llj    (Pan-pien-shan).      The   root  is 
used  ill  medicine  for  the  treatment  of  fevers  and  sore  throat. 

LACTUCA  STOLONIFERA.— ^  ^  jg  (Hu-hnang-lien), 
482.  This  is  a  classification  suggested  by  Faber.  (See  Bark- 
haiisia  repens). 

LAGENARIA  VULGARIvS.— ^  M,  (Hu-lu).  These  char- 
acters  are  sometimes  written  with  the  grass  radical,  ^  ^. 
Other  names  in  the  classics  are  ^  (Hn),  |^  (P'ao),  and  fU 
(P'iao).  These  names  all  refer  to  the  shape  of  the  gourd  and 
the  uses  to  which  it  is  put,  and  the  Chinese  authors  try  to 
distinguish  different  varieties  by  these  names.  In  the  north 
#E  ■?  (Hu-tzu)  is  applied  to  a  long,  club-shaped  gourd.  It  is  the 
pear-shaped,  or  double-bellied,  bottle-shaped  gourd  to  which 
the  name  HiL-hi  is  most  properly  applied.  The  young  leaves 
of  this  plant  are  sometimes  eaten.  The  gourds  are  used  for 
a  variety  of  purposes,  as  formerly  in  America,  such  as  cala- 
bashes, dishes,  beggars'  collection  boxes,  musical  instruments, 
drug  bottles,  floats,  and  the  like.  The  pulp  of  the  fresh  fruit 
is  sometimes  eaten  like  the  squash,  but  if  taken  too  freely  is 
liable  to  cause  vomiting  and  purging.  It  is  considered  to  be 
cooling,  diuretic,  and  antilithic.  The  prickly  cortex  of  the 
vine  and  the  flowers  are  regarded  as  counter  poisons,  while  the 
seeds  are  taken  together  with  AchryantJies  bidentata  for  diseased 
and  aching  teeth  and  gum  boils. 

LAMINARIA.— ft  (Lun).     See  Alg^. 

LAMPSANA  APOGONOIDES.— ^  JfR  %  (Huang-kua- 
ts'ai),  ^  ^  ^  (Huang-hua-ts'ai).  This  grows  wild  in  moist 
fields,  resembles  wild  mustard,  has  a  slightly  bitter  taste,  and  is 
used  as  a  pot-herb.  It  bears  a  yellow  flower  and  small  seeds  like 
rape  seeds.  The  rural  people  sometimes  eat  these  seeds  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  rice.  The  use  of  this  plant  and  of  its  seed  is  regard- 
ed as  beneficial  in  all  cases  of  feverishness  and  lack  of  vitality. 

LATHYRUS  DAVIDIL— ^  •£■  J^  Pj^  (Chiang-mang- 
chiieh-ming).  This  is  a  Japanese  identification.  (See  Cassia 


LATHYRUS  MARITIMUS.— |f  "^  S  (Yeh-wan-tou). 
In  the  Pentsao  this  is  discussed  under  the  term  f^{  (Wei),  and 
part  of  the  description  evidently  refers  to  a  leguminous  plant, 
although  this  latter  character  is  more  properly  applied  to  a 
fern  {Osmunda  regalis).  In  Peking  the  same  term  is  used  for 
Vicia  gigantea.  In  Japan  the  classification  at  the  head  of  this 
article  is  the  recognised  one,  although  ^  f§  (Ch'iao-yao)  is  also 
called  Lathyriis  inaritinms  and  Vicia  hirsuta.  In  the  Pentsao 
the  plant  under  consideration  is  said  to  grow  by  river  courses 
and  on  marshy  ground,  although  there  is  said  to  be  a  highland 
variety.  It  is  used  as  a  pot-herb,  and  upon  prolonged  use  it  is 
said  to  be  very  nourishing  and  to  greatly  benefit  the  intestinal 
tract.     It  is  also  thought  to  be  tonic  to  the  urinary  organs. 

LAWSONIA  ALBA.— ^  ^a  f  ii^  (Jau-chih-chia-ts'ao), 
^  \i^  (Hai-na).  The  leaves  of  this  lythraceous  plant,  which 
grows  all  over  South  China,  is  used  by  women  and  children  as 
a  finger-nail  dye  ;  hence  the  Chinese  names,  the  second  of 
which  is  in  imitation  of  the  Arabian  henna.  In  the  Pentsao 
these  Chinese  names  are  mentioned  under  the  article  on  Im- 
paticns  balsamina^  because  in  North  China  this  latter  plant  is 
used  in  combination  with  alum  as  a  finger-nail  dye.  But  no 
description  oi  Lazvsonia  is  there  given.  In  India  the  5'ellowish- 
white  flowers  of  this  plant  are  used,  together  with  the  leaves, 
in  preparing  an  extract  which  is  used  as  a  remedy  for  leprosy. 
The  leaves  contain  gallic  acid,  and  are  therefore  astringent. 
They  are  used  by  the  natives  of  India  for  making  a  poultice 
to  be  applied  to  bruises  and  "burning  feet."  It  is  probable 
that  the  plant  was  introduced  into  China  from  India  or  Arabia 
at  a  very  early  period.  The  plant  may  indeed  be  Anchusa 
{Alicanna)  tinctoria. 

Under  the  name  of  jp"  ^  ^  (Chih-chia-hua),  the  Pentsao 
mentions  a  plant  which  it  says  resembles  /f;  1^  (Mu-hsi), 
OsmantJms  fragj-ans^  in  odor,  and  which  bears  yellow  and 
white  flowers,  and  is  superior  to  Pnpatiens  balsainina  for  dye- 
ing the  finger  nails.  This  may  refer  to  Latvsonia.  It  is  men- 
tioned in  the  Pentsao  in  a  foot-note  to  the  article  on  Jasmiimm 
officinale.  In  the  K^iang-chiin-fang-pit  it  receives  a  somewhat 
fuller  description  as  a  shrub,  growing  to  the  height  of  five  or 


six  feet,  and  as  having  been  introduced  from  a  foreign  country, 
probably  Syria  or  Persia,  during  the  Liang  dynasty.  Its 
flowers  are  as  white  as  snow  and  very  fragrant. 

Henna. — The  practice  of  dyeing  the  finger  nails,  and 
of  using  similar  pigment  upon  other  parts  of  the  body,  prevails 
to  some  extent  in  China,  especially  among  women  and  children. 
In  the  south  Lawsonia  alba^  and  possibly  AiicJmsa  iinctoria^ 
are  used,  and  in  the  north  Impatiens  balsamina  in  combination 
with  alum.  The  flowers  of  a  ternstroemiaceous  plant,  called 
5!^  /K  ®  (Shui-mu-hsi),  are  also  used  to  some  extent  for  the 
same  purpose.  A  red  or  yellow  dye  is  imparted  to  the  nails, 
which  needs  daily  renewal.  Practice  varies  as  to  the  number 
of  fingers  treated  in  this  way.  A  circular  spot  of  rouge  or 
henna  is  often  to  be  seen  between  the  eyes,  or  upon  the  cheeks 
or  forehead,  of  Chinese  children,  especially  girls.  There  is  a 
tradition  that  this  mark  was  originally  a  sign  of  the  separation 
of  women  during  the  "  uncleanness  "  of  menstruation.  In 
Egypt  the  Laivsonia  is  collected  and  used  ^s  a  dye,  and  is 
exported  to  Turkey,  where  it  has  similar  uses,  and  is  farther 
employed  to  stain  the  manes  and  hoofs  of  horses. 

LEAVEN.—^  (Ch'ii),  commonly  written  %%.  Distiller's 
leaven  is  largely  used  in  China  in  domestic  operations.  This 
is  called  }@  g|  (Chiu-chiao),  and  is  the  residum  left  after  the 
fermentation  process  preparatory  to  distilling  spirits.  Several 
kinds  of  leaven  appearing  under  the  name  given  at  the  head 
of  this  article,  and  that  of  'Jg  ^  (Chiu-mu)  are  described  in 
the  Pentsao  as  being  made  of  barley,  wheat,  or  rice.  The 
process  ot  manufacture  is  about  the  same  in  each  case.  The 
crushed  grain  or  flour  is  mixed  with  water,  kneaded  into  dough, 
wrapped  in  the  leaves  of  the  paper-mulberry  and  hung  in  the 
open  air  for  from  five  to  ten  days.  In  one  kind  the  wheat- 
flour  is  mixed  with  kidney-beans,  the  juice  of  Polygonum  (^, 
Liao,  "smartweed,")and  apricot  kernels.  It  is  made  during  the 
dog-days  (£  {/c  0,  San-fu-jih).  This  is  called  %  |i  (Mien- 
ch'ii).  Besides  this  there  are  >]>  ^  ^  (Hsiao-mai-ch'ii),  ;f,;  ^ 
^  (Ta-mai-ch'ii),  and  %  ||  (Mi-ch'ii). 

The    peptic    and    nutritive   properties   of   these    are    well 
recognised  in  the  Pentsao^  as  well  as  an  abortifacieut  power. 


They  are  used  largely  in  digestive  disturbances.  A  preparation 
called  jp^  ^'  (Slien-ch'ii),  1126,  or  "  spirit-leaveii,"  is  described. 
It  is  to  be  made  on  the  fifth  of  the  fifth  moon,  the  sixth  of  the 
sixth  moon,  or  during  the  dog  days,  and  is  composed  of  white 
flour  and  the  juices  of  wormwood,  Phaseolus  mungo^  apricot 
kernels,  burweed,  and  wild  Polygonum^  compounded  together 
with  the  geomantic  influences  of  the  white  tiger,  the  azure 
dragon,  the  scarlet  bird,  the  black  footstep,  the  hidden  path,  and 
the  wingless  dragon.  It  is  wrapped  in  the  leaves  of  the  paper 
mulberry  and  hung  up  in  the  same  manner  as  other  kinds  of 
leaven.  It  comes  in  yellow  cakes,  two  inches  and  a  half  long 
by  one  inch  and  three  quarters  wide,  packed  up  very  neatly, 
two  in  a  box.  They  are  used  as  a  peptic,  stomachic,  and  cor- 
rective remedy  in  dyspepsia,  colic,  dysentery,  the  kan  disease 
of  children,  and  in  difficulties  following  drunkenness.  It  is  said 
to  have  the  power  of  repressing  the  milk  of  puerperal  women. 
Its  action  is  very  similar  to  that  of  malt.  Another  kind  of 
leaven  is  called  -fx,  1^  (Nii-ch'ii),  and  this  is  simply  fermented 
grain.  Its  virtues  are  said  to  be  the  same  as  those  of  the  other 
forms.  Still  another  kind  is  known  as  ,fX  |^  (Hung-ch'ii),  This 
is  made  of  non-glutinous  rice,  whicli  is  washed  clean,  mixed 
with  "  mother-leaven,"  and  by  a  complicated,  slow  process  of 
fermentation,  made  into  a  very  efficient  form  of  leaven  of  a 
red  color,  which  is  much  used  in  fermenting  grain  for  distilla- 
tion. Its  medicinal  properties  are  the  same  as  those  of  the 
other  forms,  but  it  is  specially  recommended  in  post-partum 
difficulties  and  the  dyspeptic  conditions  of  children. 

LEMNA  MINOR.— 7jC  ^  (Shui-p'ing),  \^  #  (Fou-p4ng), 
327.  In  the  Peiitsao  three  plants  are  more  or  less  confounded 
under  this  title  :  a  large  one  called  ^  (P'in,  Marsilid)^  an  in- 
termediate one  called  ^|  (Hsing,  Limnaiithe7mini)^  and  the  one 
under  consideration,  which  is  the  smallest  of  all.  There  is  also  a 
kind  with  leaves  green  above  and  reddish-purple  beneath,  called 
^  ^''[l  (Tzii-p'ing),  which  in  Japan  is  identified  as  Salvinia 
natans.  Henry  says  that  a  sample  of  the  drug  FoiL-pHng  from 
Hongkong,  which  is  found  in  the  Pharmaceutical  IMuseum  in 
London,  is  Pistia  stratiotcs.  In  Peking  the  plant  known  by 
this  name  is  Le^nna  minor.     Cooling,  diuretic,  antiscorbutic, 


astring-ent,  and  alterative  properties  are  ascribed  to  this  plant. 
It  is  added  to  the  bath  for  tlie  treatment  of  prickly  heat,  and 
the  expressed  juice  is  thonpht  to  promote  the  growth  of  hair. 
The  juice  is  also  applied  to  syphilitic  sores  and  to  carbuncles. 
The  diied  plant  is  used  to  drive  away  mosquitos. 

LEONURUS  MACRANTHUS.— g^(Tsau-ts'ai).  This 
grows  in  shady  places  in  Kiangnan,  and  resembles  the  next, 
having  a  square  stem  and  a  whorl  of  white  flowers  at  the 
joints.  The  Erhya  calls  it  |^  (T'ui),  and  a  purple  flowered 
variety  is  called  j?g  (T'ui).  This  last  character,  however,  is 
also  used  for  a  Rtimex.  The  shoots  of  this  plant  are  used  as  a 
vegetable ;  hence  the  character  |^  in  the  name.  The  medicinal 
action  is  vitalizing  to  the  blood,  and  it  is  used  in  post-partum 

LEONURUS  SIBIRICUS.— 5g  j^  (Ch'ung-wei),  283, 
^  -f^  (I-mu),  550.  The  ErJiya  also  gives  the  name  |^  (T'ui) 
for  this.  The  second  name  above  given  is  applied  also  to 
Leoimrus  macrani/ms,  and  in  Manchuria  to  Lycoptts  bicidiis. 
This  plant  grows  near  the  sea  shore  and  on  the  margins  of 
pools  and  marshes.  It  has  a  square  stem,  trilobed  leaves,  and 
the  flowers  are  red,  tinged  with  white,  and  arranged  in  a  whorl 
around  the  stem  at  the  joints.  The  plant  has  a  disagreeable 
odor,  and  was  called  by  some  ancient  authors  ^  ^  (Ch'ou- 
wei).  The  name  I-niii  is  explained  by  its  seeds  being  used  in 
women's  diseases.  This  plant  is  collected  by  poor  people  and 
dried,  and  sold  to  the  medicine  shops,  where  it  is  met  with  in 
bundles.  The  odor  is  not  strong,  but  the  taste  is  bitter.  Li 
Shih-chen  speaks  of  two  varieties  of  the  plant  :  one  with  purple 
and  one  with  white  flowers.  The  latter  is  I-tmiy  while  the 
former  is  called  ^  "^  %  (Yeh-t'ien-ma).  The  seeds  are  con- 
sidered to  be  constructive  and  aphrodisiac.  They  are  prescribed 
in  fevers,  post-partum  hemorrhage,  menorrhagia,  and  loss  of 
virility.  Prolonged  use  promotes  fertility.  The  stalk  is  used 
in  baths  for  eruptions  on  the  body,  and  the  juice  is  employed 
in  dropsies,  death  of  the  foetus,  diflacult  labor,  dysmenorrhoea, 
fluxes,  constipation,  and  locally  in  boils,  cancer,  ear  abscess, 
serpent  and  insect  bites,  and  it  is  added    to   cosmetic   applica- 


tions.      An  extract,  called  ^  -^  ^  (I-mu-kao),  549,  is  prepared 
and  used  in  cases  of  difficult  or  complicated  labor. 

LEUCOTHOE  GRAYANA.— 7JC  ^  ^  (Slnii-li-lu).  This 
is  a  shrub  with  leaves  resembling  those  of  the  cherry,  but 
narrower,  longer,  and  much  wrinkled.  In  the  fourth  moon 
it  bears  a  small  yellow  flower,  followed  by  the  fruit,  which  is 
of  the  size  of  a  small  pea.  The  taste  of  this  is  bitter  and  acrid, 
and  it  is  poisonous.  It  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  itch,  ring- 
worm, and  as  a  general  parasiticide.  The  Chinese  name  indi- 
cates that  this  is  regarded  as  a  species  of  Vei'-atnun  growing  on 
moist  ground.  The  root  is  also  said  to  be  used,  possibly  being 
in  some  instances  confounded  with  Veratt'wn  root. 

LICHENS.— The  characters  ^  (T'ai),  ff  (T'an),  and  ■% 
(Hsien)  are  used  to  denote  these  plants,  as  well  as  mosses  and 
algae.  The  different  kinds  are  not  clearly  distinguished.  Most 
lichens  are  regarded  as  cooling,  astringent,  prophylactic,  and 

LIGUSTRUM  LUCIDUM.— ^  ^  (Nli-chen),  913.  In 
the  Shan-hai-ching  the  second  character  is  wrHten  |^  (Chen). 
It  is  also  called  ^  ^  (Tung-ch'ing),  in  reference  to  its  being  an 
evergreen  (see  Ilex)^  and  ||,  ^  (La-shu),  in  reference  to  the 
fact  that  it  is  the  tree  most  commonly  inhabited  by  the  wax 
insect.  This  tree,  with  its  evergreen  leaves,  is  regarded  as  an 
emblem  of  chastity;  hence  the  name,  *' female  chastity." 
The  tree  is  most  commonly  known,  however,  by  the 
last  name,  "wax  tree,"  because  the  cultivation  of  this 
tree  for  the  production  of  the  white  wax  is  an  extensive  and 
profitable  business  in  some  parts  of  China.  The  similarity 
of  this  tree  to  Ilex  pedunculosa  is  noted  by  Chinese 
authors,  and  the  fact  that  %  ^  (Tung-ch'ing)  is  used 
as  a  name  for  both  serves  to  cause  some  confusion  between 
these.  But  it  is  pointed  out  that  the  leaves  of  the  Nil-chhi  are 
oblong,  from  four  to  five  inches  long,  and  its  fruit  is  black ; 
whilst  the  Tioig-cJi'-ing  has  roundish  leaves  and  red  berries. 
The  flowers  of  these  trees  are  very  much  alike,  those  of  the 



Tiing-cJiHng  being  white,  and  those  of  the  AYt-c/ien  greenish- 
white.  The  fruits  enter  into  commerce  under  the  name  oi  -Ir 
j^  ^  (Nii-clien-tzu),  913.  The  taste  is  bitter.  "It  is  tonic 
to  the  centers,  brightens  the  eye,  strengthens  the  ytn,  quiets 
the  five  viscera,  nourishes  the  vital  principle,  makes  vio^orous 
the  loins  and  navel,  expels  the  hundred  diseases,  restores  grey 
hair,  and  if  taken  for  a  long  time  will  increase  the  rotundity 
and  firmness  of  the  flesh,  giving  sprightliness  and  youth  to 
the  body."  The  leaves  are  prescribed  in  colds,  congestions 
swellings,  dizziness,  and  headaches.  It  is  probable  that 
other  species  of  Ligiistrnm  are  known  by  the  same  Chinese 

Insfxt  Wax.— ^  ^  i|  (Ch'ung-pai-la),  953.  Li  Shih- 
chen  says:  "Previous  to  the  Tang  and  Sung  dynasties  the 
wax  used  for  making  candles  and  in  medicine  was  all  bees- 
wax. From  that  period,  however,  the  insect  wax  began  to 
be  known,  and  it  is  now  an  article  of  daily  use.  It  is  found 
in  Szechuan,  Hukuang,  Yunnan,  Fukien,  Lingnan,  Kiangsu, 
Chekiang,  and  Shantung  provinces.  That  from  Yunnan, 
Hengchou  (Hunan),  and  Yungchang  is  the  best.  The  wax 
tree,  in  its  branches  and  leaves,  is  classed  with  the  ^  ^ 
(Tung-ch'ing),  in  that  during  the  four  seasons  its  leaves  do  not 
fall.  In  the  fifth  moon  it  bears  white  flowers  in  clusters  and 
chains  of  fruits,  about  the  size  of  those  of  ^  ^ij  (Wan-chino-^ 
Vitex  incisd).  When  fresh,  these  are  green  in  color;  when  ripe 
they  are  purple.  Those  of  the  Tting-ch^mg  are  red."  It 
seems  that  Ilex  is  here  referred  to.  "The  insect  is  about  the 
size  of  a  louse,  and  after  it  has  been  propagated  it  remains 
upon  the  green  branches  of  the  tree,  eating  its  sap  and  giving 
off  from  its  body  a  secretion  which  adheres  to  the  fresh  stalks, 
gradually  becoming  changed  into  a  white  cere  which  congeals 
to  form  the  wax,  appearing  like  frost  upon  the  branches. 
After  the  period  of  great  heat  {^  ^,  Ta-shu,  about  July  23) 
it  is  scraped  off,  and  is  then  called  i^l  ^  (La-cha).  If  it  is 
allowed  to  remain  until  the  period  of  white  dew  (|^  p,  Pai-lu, 
about  September  9),  it  adheres  very  firmly  and  is  with  difBculty 
scraped  off.  The  crude  wax  is  melted  and  purified  or  steamed 
in  a  retort,  in  order  to  get  rid  of  the  impurities,  and  is  then 
poured  into  moulds  to  cool.     This  forms  the  white   wax  of 


commerce.  The  insects  produce  tlie  wax  while  they  are  young 
and  of  white  color.  When  they  are  old,  they  are  reddish-black 
in  color,  and  form  balh  upon  the  branches  of  the  tree,  at  first 
of  the  size  of  a  grain  of  millet,  but  in  the  second  spring  they 
o-row  10  the  size  of  a  cock's  head,  are  piirplish-red  in  color,  and 
closely  encircle  the  branches,  appearing  as  if  fruits  borne  upon 
the  tree.  The  insect  deposits  its  eggs,  making  a  cell  that 
much  resembles  a  chrysalis,  which  is  called  ^^  ^  (La-chung) 
or  ^^  ^  (La-tzu).  The  eggs  within  this  cocoon  are  like  small 
silkworm  eggs.  In  each  bundle  there  are  several  hundreds. 
At  the  opening  of  spring  they  are  taken  down  and  wrapped  in 
bamboo  leaves  and  hung  upon  the  tree.  The  insects  gradually 
batch  out  and  come  out  of  the  envelope  and  adhere  to  the 
under  side  of  the  leaves  and  the  other  parts  of  the  plant,  where 
they  begin  the  manufacture  of  wax.  The  ground  beneath  the 
tree  must  be  kept  very  clean,  lest  the  ants  eat  the  young 
insects.  There  is  also  a  tree  called  7]C  M  ^  (Shui-la-shu, 
Lig^tstriim  ibota)^  the  leaves  of  which  somewhat  resemble  those 
of  the  elm.  This  may  be  used  for  breeding  w^ax  insects,  as  can 
also  the  ^  i|§  (TMen-chu,  Qucrcus  sckrophylla.)  " 

The  insect  which  produces  this  secretion  is  the  Coccus 
Pc-Ia  of  Westwood,  otherwise  known  as  Coccus  siticnsis.  It  is 
whitish  in  color  w^hen  young,  but  becomes  of  a  dark  brown 
color  at  the  end  of  the  season.  The  male  insect  is  described 
in  Hanbur)'s  Notes  (Science  Papers,  p.  271)  as  having  large 
wings,  a  body  of  a  dark  red  chestnut  color,  an  elongated  anal 
point,  and  reddish-brown  legs.  The  body  of  the  female  seems 
to  develop  in  such  a  way  as  to  envelope  the  twig  upon  which 
it  grows.  The  account  given  by  L,i  Shih-chen,  as  quoted 
above,  seems  to  be  fairly  close  to  the  facts,  as  these  have  thus 
far  been  gathered  by  foreign  observers. 

The  trees  upon  w^hich  the  insect  grows  have  been  much  in 
dispute  as  to  their  identification.  For  the  most  part  they 
belong  to  the  Oleacese.  Without  doubt  the  insect  will  thrive 
upon  several  different  species,  such  as  Ligtistrum^  FraxhiuSy 
Ilex^  Qitercits^  and  possibly  Rhus.  But  it  seems  now  to  be 
well  established  that  Ligustrum  lucidum  (^  _^,  Nii-chen  and 
^  ^  Tung-ch'iug)  and  Fraxinus  sinensis  (^  ^,  K'u-li)  are 
the  principal  trees  employed  for  this  purpose  \  the  former  for 


the  most  part  in  the  western  provinces,  and  the  latter  in  the 
eastern.  Ligustruvi  ibota  makes  a  good  third  in  the  list  of 
wax  trees.  The  Kuang -dm n-fang-pu  gives  ^  ^  (La-shu), 
"wax  tree,"  as  the  alternative  name  for  the  A'u-cheii^  and 
while  it  also  gives  Tu)ig-ch''ing  as  a  name,  it  seems  to  use  this 
more  in  the  sense  of  "evergreen."  The  trees  are  usually- 
planted  upon  d5'kes  between  fields,  and  more  rarely  in  clumps 
or  orchards.  Few  engage  exclusively  in  this  business  of 
producing  the  wax.  It  is  usually  one  of  the  many  activities  of 
the  Chinese  fanner. 

In  commerce  the  wax  appears  in  cakes  of  varying  sizes  ; 
the  usual  one  being  of  a  diameter  of  about  thirteen  inches  and 
about  three  and  a  half  inches  thick,  with  an  oblong  hole  in  the 
center  for  ease  of  handling.  It  texture  it  is  highly  cr\staline 
on  its  broken  surface,  much  resembling  spermaceti,  but  con- 
siderably harder.  When  pure  it  is  almost  colorless,  inodorous, 
and  tasteless.  It  melts  at  a  temperature  of  about  180°  F. ,  and 
chemically  seems  to  be  a  ceryl  cerotate,  its  formula  being 
C27  Hjj,  C27  H53  Go.  It  is  very  sightly  soluble  in  alcohol  or 
ether,  but  very  soluble  in  naphtha.  It  is  used  in  China  to 
some  extent  for  making  candles,  being  rarely  used  pure  for 
this  purpose,  but  sometimes  combined  with  softer  fats.  It  is 
more  particularly  used  for  giving  to  the  ordinary  tallow  candle 
a  hard  coating  to  prevent  its  guttering  and  wasting.  For 
this  purpose  it  is  usually  colored  red  with  alkanet  root,  or 
green  with  verdigris.  Latterly  the  analine  dyes  are  being  used 
to  produce  other  colors.  It  is  used  in  the  trades  for  polishing 
the  edges  of  books,  the  edges  of  the  soles  of  shoes,  polishing 
eartlienvvare,  and  the  like.  Medicinally,  the  Pentsao  says  that 
it  makes  flesh  grow,  stops  bleeding,  eases  pain,  restores  strength, 
braces  the  nerves,  and  joins  broken  bones  together.  IL  is 
regarded  as  a  valuable  remedy  for  wounds  and  all  sorts  of 
external  difficulties,  being  used  together  with  the  bark  of  Al- 
bizsia  julib7'issin  for  this  purpose.  It  is  also  considered  to  have 
anthelmintic  properties  when  taken  internally,  and  is  rubbed 
into  the  scalp  in  cases  of  favus  and  alopecia.  Pills  are  some- 
times coated  with  this  wax,  and  it  is  used  for  rubbing  up 
with  india  ink  in  printing  Chinese  visiting  cards  of  the  better 
quality.      Grosier  says  that  public  speakers  sometimes  swallow 


it  to  the  extent  of  an  ounce  at  a  time  as  a  stimulant  to  the 
voice.  A  large  pill,  made  in  Canton,  and  which  is  called 
^  ^  %  (Pai-la-wan),  687,  is  considered  to  be  a  very  good 
vulnerary  and  pectoral  remedy. 

<^  LIIvIUM    BROWNII.  —  ^  "5  -^    (Yeh-pai-ho) ;    Lih'nm 

tigriniim. — %  "g"  ^  (Chia-pai-ho).  The  first  term  also  includes 
other  wild  growing  species.  In  fact,  the  name  "Q^  -^  (Pai-ho), 
945,  is  applied  to  a  number  of  species  of  lily,  the  bulbs  of 
which,  resembling  onions,  are  used  as  food.  Several  other 
names  are  given  in  the  Pentsao^  some  of  which  refer  to  this 
resemblance  to  the  onion  or  garlic.  Another  name  applied 
to  Liliiim  tigrinnm^  the  description  agreeing  very  closely,  is 
^  ^  (Chiien-tan),  which  refers  to  the  way  in  which  the  flowers 
roll  up  as  they  fade.  The  domestic  varieties  of  this  plant  are 
raised  by  manuring  with  the  droppings  of  fowls.  The  wild 
tinds  are  preferred  by  some.  The  bulbs  are  considered  to  be 
tonic,  eliminant,  carminative,  quieting,  and  expectorant.  They 
are  used  also  in  epiphora,  suppression  of  milk,  post-partum 
neuroses,  and  externally  in  swellings  and  ulcers.  The  flowers 
are  dried,  powdered,  and  mixed  with  oil  for  the  treatment  of 
moist  eczema  and  vesicular  eruptions  in  children.  The  bulblets 
in  the  axils  of  the  leaves  are  steeped  in  wine  and  used  in  the 
treatment  of  intestinal  disorders.  The  dried  bulbs  of  these 
lilies  appear  in  commerce  as  U  '^  f^  (Pai-ho-kan),  945,  while 
the  fresh  bulbs  are  called  g$  "H  ^  (Hsien-pai-ho).  A  sort  of 
starch  is  also  made  out  of  the  bulbs,  which  is_called  "5  -^  ^ 
(Pai-ho-fen),  946. 

LILIUM  CONCOLOR.  — llj  ^  (Shan-tan).  This  is  also 
known  as  -foi  "§"  ^  (Hung-pai-ho)  and  ^  :^  %  (Hung-hua- 
ts'ai).  The  term  ^  f}  (Chiian-tan)  is  sometimes  applied  to 
the  flowers  of  this  species,  but  it  properly  belongs  to  Lilumi 
tigrimun.  In  the  case  of  this  plant  the  flowers  are  eaten  as 
well  as  the  bulb,  which  latter  is  smaller  than  that  of  the  "Q"  ^ 
(Pai-ho).  The  bulb  is  sweet  and  cooling,  and  is  recommended 
in  uterine  fluxes,  choreic  afifections,  ulcers,  and  swellings. 
The  flowers  are  considered  to  be  invigorating  to  the  blood,  and 
are  applied  as  a  poultice  to  boils  aud  loul  ulcers. 


ts'ai).  According  to  the  Book  of  Odcs^  the  first  character  is 
also  written  ^.  Another  name  is  ^  ^  (Fu-k'uei),  which  Li 
Shih-clien  says  ought  to  be  written  ^^  ^,  He  also  says  that 
the  plant  is  the  same  genus  with  ^  (Shun,  Drassenia  pcltatd). 
It  is  therefore  also  called  if,  ^^  (Shui-k'uei),  "  water  mallow." 
Legge  confounds  this  plant  with  Lcmna  minor.  But  these  all 
belong  to  different  natural  orders  ;  Lcmna  being  the  type  of  the 
Lemnacese,  while  Brassenia  is  a  nymphaceous  plant,  and 
Lim7tanthe)mim  an  aquatic  Gentiauacea.  The  plant  grows  in 
water,  the  stem  being  so  proportioned  that  the  leaves  may  float 
on  the  surface.  The  leaves  are  peltate,  purplish-red  in  color, 
and  about  an  inch  in  diameter.  The  inferior  part  of  the  stem 
is  white,  and  is  sometimes  eaten  as  a  green  vegetable.  The 
flowers  are  yellow.  True  to  Chinese  ideas  of  the  virtues  of 
aquatic  plants,  those  supposed  to  reside  in  this  one  are  thirst- 
relieving,  antifebrile,  and  diuretic.  The  expressed  juice  is 
used  in  fevers,  and  the  bruised  plant  is  applied  to  swellings, 
burns,  rodent  ulcers,  and  snake  bite. 

LIMNANTHEMUM  PELTATUM.— ^  %  (Hui-t'iao). 
Other  names  are  7kI%,%  (Hui-t'iao-ts'ai)  and  ^  |i^  5^  (Chin- 
so-t'ien).  The  peltate  leaves  of  this  plant  bear  the  hook-like 
appendages  characteristic  of  this  genus,  and  are  also  covered 
with  a  white,  powdery  efilorescence.  The  stalk  and  leaves  are 
highly  esteemed  as  a  pot-herb.  It  bears  a  small  white  flower 
and  produces  a  globular  fruit  containing  seeds  which  are  also 
edible.  The  stalk  and  leaves  are  bruised  together  with  oil  and 
applied  to  ulcers  and  insect  bites,  and  in  decoction  they  are  used 
as  a  wash  for  scaly  skin  diseases,  boils,  sudamina,  and  all  forms 
of  parasitic  skin  difficulties.  The  kernels  of  the  seeds  are  made 
into  cakes  and  eaten  to  destroy  and  prevent  intestinal  worms. 

LINDERA  GLAUCA.— lli  ^  \^  (Shan-hu-chiao).  This 
is  a  Japanese  identification.  It  is  spoken  of  in  the  Pcntsao  in 
a  foot-note  to  the  article  on  Daphnidium  cubeba.  It  has  a 
black  drupe,  the  size  of  ZantJioxyhim  berries  ;  hence  the  name. 
The  taste  of  the  drupe  is  acrid  and  warming,  and  it  is  used  as 
a  carminative  and  gastric  stimulant. 


LINDERA  SERICEA.— 1^  ^  (Tiao-chang),  also  called 
1^  W  (Wu-chang).  The  Chinese  liken  this  tree  to  the  cam- 
phor tree,  claiming  it  to  be  a  dwarf  variety  of  the  latter.  The 
root  is  likened  to  that  of  Daphnidmm  myrrha.  It  is  a 
laurinaceous  tree,  allied  to  Benzoin.  The  leaves  are  some- 
what hirsute,  and  resemble  those  of  Persea  nanmu.  The  root 
is  used  in  medicine,  especially  its  bark,  and  is  prescribed  as  a 
hemostatic  in  wounds,  an  astringent  in  fluxes,  and  as  a  wash 
in  skin  diseases.  The  branches  and  leaves  are  placed  at  the 
doors  to  ward  off  miasmatic  and  evil  influences. 

LINDERA  STRYCHNIFOLIA.— ,1^  ^  (Wu-yao),  1478. 
See  Daphnidium  myrrha. 

LINDERA  TZUMU.—t^  (Tztt),  /fc  J  (Mu-wang).  Bret- 
schneider  at  first  classed  this  as  Catalpa  biutgeana^  but  in  his 
latest  work  he  says  that  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  it  must  be 
referred  to  Lindera.  In  Japan  it  is  Rottlera  japonica^  and  in 
this  Faber  follows.  Bretschneider  being  so  wide  and  careful 
an  observer,  he  will  be  given  the  benefit  of  the  doubt,  and  this 
tree  will  be  here  described.  The  Chinese  also  confound  this 
with  Catalpa  {\^^  Ch'iu).  Some  confusion  also  exists  with 
this  and  Acanthapanax.,  and  even  with  Panloxo7iia.  This  is  a 
tall,  graceful  tree,  which  on  account  of  its  great  height  and  the 
usefulness  of  its  timber  is  called  by  the  Chinese  Tfc  2  (Mu- 
wang),  "king  of  trees."  It  is  said  that  a  house  built  of  this 
timber  is  never  struck  by  lightning.  The  white,  inner  bark 
of  the  tree  is  used  in  medicine,  and  is  considered  to  be  anthel- 
mintic and  parasiticide.  It  is  used  in  decoction  as  a  wash  in 
scabies  and  pediculosis  in  children,  and  in  ophthalmia.  It  is 
also  prescribed  in  nausea  and  vomiting,  and  is  thought  to  have 
some  antifebrile  properties.  The  leaves  are  fed  to  hogs,  and 
are  said  to  be  very  fattening.  They  are  also  bruised  and 
applied  in  the  skin  difficulties  of  these  anirnals,  as  well  as  in 
sores  on  the  hands  or  feet  of  mankind. 

LINUM  PERENNE.— 35  E  (Ya-ma).  This  plant  is 
grown  largely  in  Shensi  for  the  oil  of  its  seeds,  which  was 
formerly  used  in  lamps.  It  is  not  eaten  on  account  of  its  bad 
pdor  and  taste.     It  is  applied  in  ulcers  and  scaly  skin  eruptions. 


LINUM  SATlVUxM.  — il]  W  ^  £  (Shan-si-hu-ma).  This 
plant  seems  to  have  been  unknown  to  the  ancient  Chinese,  and 
it  has  probably  been  a  comparatively  recent  introduction  into 
China,  It  is  cultivated  in  the  north  for  the  oil  of  its  seeds,  and 
its  use  as  a  textile  does  not  yet  seem  to  be  appreciated.  Its  oil 
is  not  distinguished  from  that  of  Cannabis^  Sesa?}t2cm^  or  of 
other  species  of  Limnn.  It  is  employed  medicinally  in  the 
same  manner  and  for  the  same  purposes  as  these  other  oils. 

LINUM  USITATISSIMUM.— JJ^  %  (Chih-ma).  This 
is  thoroughly  confounded  with  Cannabis  and  Sesamiim.  The 
term  is  found  in  the  Pcntsao  under  the  latter  article,  and  the 
name  ^  %,  (Hu-ma),  486,  is  without  doubt  applied  to  both 
genera.  The  plant  is  evidently  of  foreign  origin,  although  it 
is  extensively  cultivated  in  China  for  the  oil  of  its  seeds.  The 
medicinal  uses  of  this  plant  and  of  its  oil  do  not  differ  from 
those  of  Sesamum  (see  that  article). 

LIQUIDAMBAR  ALTINGIANA.— This  is  a  tall  tree  of 
Java,  the  Malay  name  of  which  is  rassamala.  It  has  a  fra- 
grant wood,  which  when  incised  yields  a  sweet  scented  resin 
of  about  the  consistency  of  honey,  and  which  hardens  ujxjn 
exposure  to  the  air.  This  substance,  which  is  found  in  Chinese 
drug  shops,  goes  by  the  name  of  ^^  f^  (Su-ho-yu),  11 96, 
or  ^  -^  ^  (Su-ho-hsiang).  The  substance  is  very  similar  to, 
if  not  identical  with,  the  Liquid  Storax  derived  from  Liqiiid- 
ambar  orientalis  of  Asia  Minor,  The  term  '■''  rose-maloes,^^ 
by  which  this  substance  is  sometimes  known,  is  probably 
derived  from  the  Malay  name  for  the  tree,  Garcia  says  that 
*■'■  Roca'7nalha''''  is  the  name  by  which  it  is  known  in  China, 
but  this  has  not  been  confirmed  by  any  Chinese  work  con- 
sulted. According  to  some  early  writers  the  substance  is 
produced  in  the  country  called  1^  ^  (Su-ho),  from  which  fact 
it  receives  its  name.  What  this  country  may  have  been  is  not 
known,  but  it  may  suggest  Sumatra.  The  present  source  of 
supply  for  this  drug  to  China  is  uncertain.  The  account  in 
the  Pentsao  suggests  Annam,  Sumatra,  Central  India,  and 
Western  Asia.  This  renders  it  probable  that  both  the  product 
of  Liquidavibar  altingiana  and  that  of  Liquidambar  orientalis 


are  found.  One  is  Rose-maloes  and  the  other  is  Liquid 
Storax.  Western  observers  are  said  to  have  found  both  of 
these  products  under  this  Chinese  name  in  different  parts  of 
China.  Dr.  Bretschneider  suggests  that  the  Balm  of  Mecca^ 
a.  product  of  Balsamodcndron  opobalsamum^  and  Miikiil^ 
obtained  from  Balsamodendro7i  niiikiil^  may  also  be  found  in 
China  under  the  same  name.  The  Sanscrit  name  of  the  drug 
is  |I{U  i^  3^  ^ij  (Tu-lii-se-chien).  Its  medicinal  action  is  anti- 
dotal to  noxious  poisons,  antimalarial,  anticonvulsive,  and 
constructive.  Its  prolonged  use  is  said  to  give  vitality  and 
lightness  to  the  body  and  to  prolong  life.  A  famous  nostrum, 
called  1^  ^  ^  ;/'L  (Su-ho-hsiang-wan),  and  whose  principal 
ingredients  are  Rose  maloes,  Benzoin,  Atractylis,  Cyperus 
rotundus,  Aristolochia,  Santalum  album,  Lign-aloes,  Cloves, 
Musk,  Piper  longum,  Terminalia  chebula,  Vermillion,  Baroos 
camphor,  and  Olibanum,  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  malaria, 
epilepsy,  and  several  other  serious  di  faculties.  Dr.  Waring 
mentions  two  substances  as  obtained  in  Burma  :  oue  a  light 
yellow  balsam  and  the  other  thick,  dark,  and  terebinthinate, 
which  correspond  closely  to  descriptions  given  in  the  Pentsao. 
He  found  these  of  little  use  as  expectorants,  which  is  the 
principal  property  of  storax. 

LIQUIDAMBAR  FORAIOSANA.— The  character  ^ 
(Feng)  is  applied  to  this,  to  PLatamis^  Acer^  and  Gy/iocardia. 
But  the  description  given  in  the  Pentsao  refers  to  the  one 
under  consideration.  It  is  a  very  tall  tree,  with  rounded, 
dentate,  three-cleft,  more  or  less  peltate  leaves,  which  have  a 
peculiar  fragrance.  The  leaves  flutter  in  the  wind  much  like 
those  of  the  aspen,  and  being  such  a  large  tree,  this  fact 
becomes  particularly  noticeable.  It  is  said  that  the  com- 
position of  the  character  ^  is  explained  in  this  way.  The 
branches  are  long  and  supple  and  wave  gracefully  in  the  wind. 
In  autumn  they  are  covered  with  the  beautifully  colored  leaves, 
which  gives  an  exceedingly  attractive  appearance  to  the  tree. 
On  this  account,  many  of  these  trees  were  planted  in  the 
Imperial  palace  grounds  at  Peking  by  an  emperor  of  the  Han 
dynasty,  and  the  palace  from  this  took  the  name  of  ;^  ^ 
(Feug-chen),  and  the  city   was  called  i^  (^  (Feng-pi).     The 


wood  of  the  tree  is  considered  to  be  especially  appropriate  for 
making  idols,  being  thought  to  ^  (Ling,  "spiritualize  ")  more 
easily  than  any  other.  This  is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that 
on  account  of  the  free  movement  of  its  leaves  and  branches  in 
the  wind,  the  tree  top  is  thought  to  be  the  abode  of  various 
sorts  of  spirits.  The  tree  bears  a  white  flower,  and  its  fruits 
are  said  to  be  as  large  as  a  duck's  egg.  It  produces  a  resinous 
extract  resembling  Rose-maloes  and  Liquid  Storax^  called 
!^  ^  Ha  (Feng-hsiang-chih),  that  produced  from  the  fruits 
being  called  {g  /jp  ^  (Pai-chiao-hsiang).  Indian  and  Sanscrit 
names  for  the  substance  aie  given  as  ^  Uf  ^  ^  ^  (Sa-chih- 
lo-p'o-hsiang)  and  j^  ID  ^  ^^^  (Sa-she-lo-p'o-hsiang).  This 
gum-resin  is  of  a  pale  yellow  color,  and  is  said  to  resemble 
frankincense.  Its  medicinal  action  is  that  of  a  hemostatic, 
astringent,  anodyne,  and  corrective  remedy.  It  is  used  in  all 
sorts  of  wounds,  skin  affections,  and  ulcers.  It  is  combined 
with  two  sorts  of  RJiammis  berries  in  preparing  a  suppository 
(^g  it'i^.  Ting-na)  for  the  treatment  of  chronic  constipation. 
The  bark  of  the  tree  is  employed  in  fluxes  and  as  an  astringent 
wash  in  skin  diseases,  while  the  leaves  and  the  root  are  used  in 
cancerous  growths.  The  Erhya  says  that  Liquidamhar  resin 
which  has  been  buried  in  the  ground  for  a  thousand  years 
becomes  amber.  An  unidentified  excrescence  found  growing 
on  the  tree,  which  is  said  to  somewhat  resemble  the  form  of 
the  human  body,  and  which  is  reputed  to  grow  to  the  length 
of  three  or  four  feet,  is  called  IE  "F  ^  (Feng-tza-kuei)  and 
IE  A  (Feng-jen).  It  is  said  to  be  poisonous,  and  to  produce, 
when  ingested,  a  laughing  delirium  which  is  persistent. 
Faber  gives  jj[j  \%^  (Shan-ch'iu)  as  a  term  for  Liqiiidambar 
forniosana^  but  Chinese  botanical  works  do  not  seem  so  to 
recognise  it,  but  on  the  other  hand  identify  this  with  Catalpa^ 
as  the  name  implies. 

ZON).— ^  %  (Tza-ts'ao).  Other  names  are  ^  ^  (Tzu-tan), 
%  ifil  (Ti-hsiieh),  and  ||  ^  :^  (Ya-hsien-ts'ao).  The  Erkya 
writes  the  first  character  jfjj  (Tz'u).  This  plant  is  indigenous 
to  the  central  and  northern  provinces  of  China.  It  is  cultivated 
for  the  purple  dye  yielded  by  its  root.     This  is  dug  up  in  the 


spring  before  the  plant  has  flowered,  at  which  time  the  color- 
ing matter  will  be  found  to  be  very  bright.  If  gathered  after 
flovvering,  the  color  has  become  deeper,  and  is  considered  to  be 
inferior  in  quality.  The  root  is  the  part  used  in  medicine, 
and  it  is  said  to  act  on  the  blood,  to  be  derivative  to  the  skin 
and  all  of  the  passages  of  the  body,  especially  the  intestinal 
canal  and  urinary  tract.  It  is  also  prescribed  in  skin  affec- 
tions, and  especially  in  eruptive  fevers,  being  supposed  to 
bring  out  eruption  and  to  neutralize  the  poison. 

LITSEA  GLAUCA.— ^  i^  (Yiieh-kuei).  There  is  an 
old  tradition  that  this  tree  grows  in  the  moon,  and  that  its 
fruits  fall  to  earth  and  are  found  on  the  ground.  This  legend 
dates  from  the  Tang  and  Sung  dynasties.  The  Ta7ig  History 
says  that  in  A.D.  868,  at  Taichow  in  Chekiang,  these  berries 
fell  during  a  period  of  more  than  ten  days.  Also  during  the 
Sung  dynasty,  during  the  reign  of  T'ien-sheng  (1023-7032), 
at  the  monastery  of  Lingyin  at  Hangchow,  the  berries  fell 
during  fifteen  moonlight  nights.  Li  Shih-chen  gives  a 
number  of  other  legends  in  regard  to  this  tree  and  its  fruits. 
In  the  Taoist  books  it  is  called  /f  {}$  ^  (Pu-shih-hua),  and  it 
is  not  permitted  to  be  offered  in  sacrifice.  The  only  difficulty 
for  which  the  seeds  are  recommended  to  be  used  is  as  a  local 
application  in  ringworm  of  the  scalp  in  children. 

LOBELIA  RADICANS.— if^  Jt  %  (Pan-pien-lien),  974. 
This  is  a  small  plant  growing  in  moist  ground,  having  small 
leaves  and  flowers  ;  the  latter  being  reddish-purple  in  color. 
The  juice  is  expressed  and  used  on  snake  and  insect  bites,  and 
the  plant  is  used  in  decoction  in  the  treatment  of  fever,  asthma, 
ague,  and  the  like. 

LONICERA  JAPONICA.— S,  ^  (jen-tung),  555,  ^  ^ 
1^  (Chin-yin-t'eng),  162-165.  Li  Shih-chen  gives  a  good 
description  of  this  Chinese  honeysuckle^  or  woodbine.  The 
first  Chinese  name  refers  to  the  plant  not  withering  during 
the  winter,  and  the  second  to  the  fact  that  the  flowers,  which 
are  at  first  white,  afterwards  become  yellow,  and  as  they  do 
not  fall  early,  the   plant  bears  both  colors  at  the  same  time. 


T.he  flowers,  vine,  and  leaves  are  employed  in  medicine.  Pro- 
longed use  is  said  to  increase  vitality  and  to  lengthen  life. 
Antifebrile,  corrective,  and  astringent  properties  are  ascribed, 
and  it  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  all  sorts  of  infections  and 
poisons.  A  wine  (fg,  ^  }0,  Jen-tung-chiu)  and  a  plaster  (^^, 
^  W»  Jen-tung-kao)  are  officinal.  The  dried  flowers  in  the 
Chinese  medicine  shops  have  a  smell  resembling  that  of  some 
kinds  of  tobacco. 

LOPHANTHUS  RUGOSUS.— H  ^  (Ho-hsiang),  371. 
This  plant  does  not  seem  to  be  indigenous  to  China,  being 
referred  to  Annani,  India,  and  other  parts  of  Southern  Asia. 
A  number  of  Sanscrit  and  other  foreign  names  are  given  in  the 
P^ntsao  for  it.  The  plant  is  cultivated  in  Lingnan.  The 
branches  and  leaves  are  used  in  medicine  ;  their  principal 
virtues  being  considered  to  be  carminative  and  stomachic. 
They  are  also  used  in  cholera  and  as  a  deodorizing  mouth 
wash.  The  nausea  of  pregnancy  is  another  difficulty  for  which 
they  are  recommended.  It  is  possible  that  Bctonica  officinalis 
is  included  under  this  term.  If  so,  it  is  interesting  to  note  that 
this  remedy  is  recommended  both  in  the  Herbarium  of  Appulius 
aud  in  the  Pentsao  as  a  remedy  for  the  consequences  of  the 
excessive  use  of  wine. 

LOPHATHERUM  ELATUM.— ^|^  ft  %  (Tan-chu-yeh). 
This  gramineous  plant  is  found  growing  plentifully  in  wild, 
waste  land.  Its  leaves  somewhat  resemble  those  of  the  bam- 
boo. The  root  is  dug  up  and  mixed  with  fermenting  cereals 
in  the  production  of  wine,  giving  to  the  latter  a  peculiarly 
agreeable  aroma.  The  leaves  are  antifebrile  and  diuretic. 
The  root  is  said  to  be  a  certain  abortifacient.  For  this  reason 
it  is  called  ^%  ^  (Sui-kuTtzu),  "  bone-breaker." 

IvORANTHUS.— The  term  ^  ^  (Chi-sheng),  58,  1320, 
properly  means  an  epiphyte  ;  and  without  doubt  the  Chinese 
include  under  this  term  species  of  Lora7iihus,  as  well  as  of 
Viscum.  It  is  used  to  explain  the  terms  '%  (Niao)  and  -^  ^ 
(Nii-lo),  which  respectively  are  the  mistletoe  and  dodder.  The 
distinction  betweeu  Loranthns  and  Pisciun  is  not  clearly  made, 


but  in  some  cases  ^  ^  ^  (Sang-cbi-sheng),  1067,  is  Loranthus 
yadoriki  and  ^j  ||£  (Sung-lo)  is  LoraiitJius  kccmpferi.  The 
former  is  most  highly  valued  in  medicine.  It  is  described  as 
being  two  or  three  feet  long,  having  round,  thick,  soft,  green 
leaves,  white  flowers,  and  yellow  fruit.  The  medicinal  action 
of  the  plant  is  regarded  as  anodyne,  and  quieting  to  the  preg- 
nant uterus.  It  is  employed  in  puerperal  difficulties,  threatened 
abortion,  menorrhagia,  and  insufficient  secretion  of  milk.  It 
is  also  considered  to  promote  the  growth  of  hair.  The  fruits 
are  regarded  as  vitalizing  in  their  action.  The  i^  ^  (Sung- 
lo),  which  is  also  called  -^  ||  (Nii-lo),  and  which  grows  prin- 
cipally upon  the  pine  and  fir  tree,  is  thought  to  be  antiseptic, 
antimalarial,  diuretic,  and  somewhat  soporific.  It  is  also  used 
in  scalp  diseases  and  difficulties  of  the"  external  genital  organs 
of  women. 

LOTUS  CORNICULATUS.— -g  U  ^  (Pai-mai-ken). 
This  product  comes  from  Kansu  and  Northern  Szechuan,  is 
said  to  resemble  lucerne^  has  a  yellow  flower,  a  root  like  that  of 
Polygala  japonica,,  which  is  gathered  in  the  second  and  eighth 
moons  and  dried  in  the  sun.  Its  action  is  carminative,  thirst- 
relieving,  antifebrile,  restorative,  and  tonic.  It  is  administered 
in  tinctures,  decoction,  pill,  or  powder. 

LUFFA  CYLINDRICA.— ff,  JR  (Ssu-kua).  Other  names 
are  ^  lifi  S  (T'ien-ssii-kua),  5^  ^  (T'ien-lo),  ^  Jl  (Pu-kua), 
and  ^  JfJS;.  (Man-kua).  It  was  unknown  in  China  prior  to  the 
Tang  dynasty.  Now  it  is  grown  in  all  parts  of  the  empire  for 
use  as  a  vegetable.  It  is  planted  in  the  second  moon,  and  the 
vine  is  trained  over  bushes,  bamboos,  or  houses,  or  a  frame- 
work of  reeds  or  bamboo  poles  is  made,  over  which  it  runs. 
The  leaves  are  about  the  size  of  hollyhock  leaves  and  hairy. 
The  expressed  juice  of  these  will  dye  a  green  color.  The  stalk 
is  angled.  In  the  sixth  or  seventh  moon  there  is  produced  a 
five-parted,  yellow  flower,  slightly  resembling  that  of  the 
cucumber.  The  pepo  is  something  over  an  inch  in  diameter, 
from  one  to  four  feet  long,  deep  green  in  color  and  mottled, 
and  when  it  is  fresh  it  can  be  baked,  stewed,  or  otherwise 
prepared  as  a  vegetable  food.     When  old  and  ripe,  the  fibrous 


structure  of  the  pepo  renders  it  useful  as  a  sponge  for  washing 
vessels.  For  this  reason  villagers  call  it  5£  fi|  ^  JfJi  (Hsi-kuo- 
lo-kua).  The  flowers,  buds,  and  young  leaves  can  also  be  used 
as  food.  The  ripe  pepo  is  incinerated  and  pulverized,  under 
which  circumtances  the  medicinal  virtues  ascribed  to  it  are 
something  extraordinary.  It  is  reputed  to  be  carminative, 
pectoral,  cooling  to  the  blood,  antiseptic,  anthelmintic,  emme- 
nagogue,  quickening  to  the  circulation,  galactagogue,  and  is 
also  used  in  the  treatment  of  hemorrhage  from  bowels  or 
bladder,  hemorrhoids,  menorrhagia,  jaundice,  hernia,  orchitis, 
cancerous  swellings,  toothache,  smallpox,  and  scarlet  fever. 
Mixed  with  vermillion,  it  is  nsed  to  dry  up  smallpox  pustules. 
The  fresh  pepo  is  considered  to  be  cooling  and  beneficial  to  the 
intestines,  warming  to  the  stomach,  and  tonic  to  the  genital 
organs.  The  leaves  are  prescribed  in  skin  diseases  and  orchitis, 
the  vine  and  root  in  decayed  teeth,  ozoena,  and  parasitic  affec- 
tions. The  fibres  of  this  gourd  are  found  in  commerce  under 
the  names  of  |$  JlEL  ^  (SsS-kua-lo),  1190,  and  i^  S  'ilj  (Ssii- 
kua-pu),  1 191. 

LUISIA  TERES.— .IX  ■?  35  (Ch'ai-tzu-ku).  Also  called 
^  I'X  WC  (Chin-ch'ai-ku),  but  it  must  not  be  confounded  with 
Dendrobhun  nobile,  which  is  ^  |)(  1^]^  (Chin-ch'ai-hua).  This 
orchidaceous  plant  grows  in  the  south  and  resembles  Asanitn. 
It  is  a  much  vaunted  counter-poison,  especially  against  the 
^  (Ku)  infection.  It  is  also  prescribed  for  carcinoma,  malaria, 
and  to  counteract  all  sorts  of  medicinal  poisons. 

LYCHNIS.— IJ  %  (Chien-ts'ao),  112,  ^  ^  ^  (Chien- 
ch*un-lo),  H  ^lH  (Chien-hung-lo),  ^  ^^  (Chien-ch'iu-lo), 
M^-VL  (Chien-lo-hua),  ^  ^  ^  (Chien-chin-lo;,  ^  ^^  %^ 
(Chien-hung-sha),  These  all  seem  to  be  species  and  varieties 
of  this  genus.  Faber  also  gives  i^  H  A  (Yii-mei-jen),  but 
this  is  not  given  in  the  Pentsao^  and  according  to  other 
observers  is  identified  as  Papaver  rhceas,  with  which  identifica- 
tion the  description  in  the  Ktiang-chiln-fang-pu  agrees  very 
well.  The  only  terms  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao  are  the  first 
two,  with  the  third  as  a  synonym  of  the  second.  The  descrip- 
tion   of  the    first    is    not  at  all  clear,  and  as  Faber  makes  it 


identical  with  J^  H  A  (Yii-mei-jen),  the  likelihood  of  its  being 
Lychnis  is  small.  It  may  be  a  rubiaceous  plant,  as  the  Pentsao 
likens  it  to  ^  (Ch'ien),  which  is  Rubia.  The  root  is  used  as  a 
tonic,  anodyne,  parasiticide,  and  hemostatic  remedy.  The 
S  §  H  (Chien-ch'un-lo)  is  undoubtedly  Lychnis  grandiflora. 
It  is  a  very  popular  garden  flower,  having  fresh  green  leaves 
and  beautiful  red  blossoms.  ^  ^X  ^'^  (Chien-hung-sha)  is 
probably  only  another  name  for  this.  The  leaves  and  flowers 
are  crushed  together  with  honey  and  used  as  an  application  in 
herpes  zoster. 

LYCIUM  CHINENSE.— ta  ^  (Kou-chi),  607,  \^  %  i^ 
(Ti-ku-p'i),  1267,  1384.  It  is  also  called  |§  %  (T'ien-ts'ai), 
1300,  which  is  the  leaves,  ^  ^  (Yang-ju),  the  fruit,  and 
fill  A  /^  (Hsien-jen-chang),  the  stalk.  This  was  erroneously 
identified  by  Porter  Smith  with  Berberis  lycium.  It  is  not  a 
berberidaceous  plant,  but  a  solanaceous  one.  It  is  a  common 
shrub  in  the  northern  and  western  provinces,  has  soft,  thin 
leaves,  which  can  be  eaten,  and  small  reddish-purple  flowers. 
The  fruits  are  small,  one-celled,  red  berries,  having  a  sweet 
but  rather  rough  taste.  The  root  is  met  with  in  light, 
yellowish-brown,  quilled  pieces,  having  very  little  taste  or 
smell.  The  general  action  of  the  plant  is  considered  to  be 
tonic,  cooling,  constructive,  prolonging  life,  improving  the 
complexion,  and  brightening  the  eye.  The  shoots  or  young 
leaves  are  recommended  to  be  used  in  all  forms  of  wasting 
disease.  Used  in  the  form  of  a  tea,  they  are  recommended  to 
quench  thirst  and  to  remove  the  unpleasant  symptoms  of 
pulmonary  consumption.  The  root  is  supposed  to  have  special 
action  on  the  kidneys  and  sexual  organs,  as  well  as  those 
virtues  ascribed  to  the  leaves,  and  is  used  as  a  hemostatic  in 
bleeding  of  the  gums  and  wounds.  The  seeds  are  similarly 
used.  There  are  a  number  of  officinal  preparations,  such  as  an 
extract,  pills,  tinctures,  and  the  like. 

LYCOPERDON.— .^  ^  (Ma-p'o).     This  is  the  ordinary 

pnj^-ball.  It  is  of  a  purple  color,  hollow,  and  soft,  growing 
on  decayed  wood  in  damp  places.  When  ruptured,  it  discharges 
its  spores  in  a  fine  powder.      It  varies  in  size,  up  to  that  of  a 


peck  measure.  The  reddish-brown,  powdery  spores  are  used  as 
a  dusting  powder  for  all  sorts  of  ulcers.  Mixed  with  honey 
or  water,  they  are  used  in  sore  throat,  as  well  as  in  fever  and 
diseases  of  the  lungs. 

LYCOPERSICUM  ESCULENTUM.— ^  i^  (Fan-shih), 
/\  ^  ^  (Liu-yiieh-shih).  The  tomato  is  not  indigenous  to 
China  ;  but,  as  the  name  indicates,  is  of  foreign  origin.  Just 
when  it  was  introduced  is  uncertain  ;  but,  as  it  is  mentioned 
in  the  Kuang-chihi-fang-pu^  this  occurred  before  the  beginning 
of  the  XVIII  century.  It  is  not  yet  much  cultivated,  as  the 
Chinese  do  not  seem  to  have  learned  its  value  as  a  vegetable. 

LYCOPODIUM. — Several  species  of  this  genus  are  found 
in  China  and  Japan.  3g  ^  (Yii-po),  for  which  ^  ^  ;fQ  (Ch'ien- 
nien-po)  and  ^  ^  :^  (Wan-nien-sung)  are  given  in  the  Pen- 
tsao  as  synonyms,  is  Lycopodiuvi  japonicti^n.  This  grows 
among  stones  to  the  height  of  five  or  six  inches,  and  has  a 
purple  "  flower."  The  stalk  and  leaves  are  employed  medicin- 
ally. Their  use  gives  lightness  to  the  body,  benefits  the  breath, 
and  quenches  thirst.  J^  ;^  (Shih-sung),  1158,  is  Lycopodium 
clavatmn.  It  also  grows  plentifully  in  all  mountains  to  the 
length  of  one  or  two  feet.  The  stalk  and  root  are  used  in  the 
treatment  of  chronic  diseases,  and  they  are  supposed  to  restore 
health  and  vigor,  moistening  the  skin  and  improving  the  com- 
plexion. The  Chinese  do  not  seem  to  have  learned  to  use  the 
sporules  of  these  plants  as  dusting  powders.  In  Japan,  ^  ^  1^ 
(Ch'ien-nien-sung)  is  Lycopodium  cernuimi^  and  Faber  identi- 
fies Jili  A  19  (Hsien-j^n-t'ao)  as  Lycopodium  sieboldi.  The 
last  character  in  the  latter  name  is  a  way  of  writing  f^  (T'ao). 
This  does  not  seem  to  be  used  in  medicine,  but  is  described  in 
the  Kua7tg-chtin-fang-pu .  The  Customs  lists  give  ^  |^  ^ 
(Sheng-chin-ts'ao),  1131,  as  a  term  for  Lycopodium^  but  upon 
what  authority  does  not  appear. 

LYCORIS  RADIATA.— ;^|^  (Shih-suan),  ^3lw  (^-ao- 
ya-suan),  —  ;{^  ^  (I-chih-chien).  In  Japan  this  is  called 
^%i^\  (TMeh-se-chien),  and  this  term  is  also  found  in  the 
Phitsao.     It  is  an  amaryllidaceous  plant,  the  ^  (Suan)  in  the 


Chinese  name  referring  to  the  resemblance  of  the  roots,  and  the 
^  (Chien)  to  that  of  the  stalk.  The  plant  is  commonly  called 
7K  ft  (Shui-ma),  and  grows  almost  everywhere  in  swamps. 
In  the  seventh  month,  it  produces  a  red  flower  with  yellow 
sepals.  The  root  has  a  purplish  skin  and  a  white  cortex,  and 
is  the  part  used  in  medicine.  Its  taste  is  acrid,  sweet,  and 
cooling,  and  it  is  slightly  poisonous.  It  is  applied  to  swellings 
and  ulcers,  and  administered  internally  in  decoction  and  tinc- 
ture to  counteract  the  poisoned  phlegm  supposed  to  accompany 
abscesses  and  ulcers.  It  is  also  used  in  the  nervous  affections 
of  children. 

chu-ts'ai),  also  written  flL  J^  ||  (Chen-chu-ts'ai).  This  plant", 
with  its  filamentous  stalk  and  leaves,  is  found  in  moist  ground 
in  Szechuan.  As  it  is  used  as  food,  it  is  probably  also  culti- 
vated. It  is  fragrant  and  succulent,  and  in  the  fresh  state  is 
highly  esteemed  as  a  pot-herb  or  pickle.  It  is  eaten  with 
honey,  or  with  a  piquant  sauce  called  ^  (Hsi).  Its  use  is 
regarded  as  beneficial,  but  no  medicinal  properties  are  ascribed 
to  it. 

LYSIMACHIA  SIKOKIANA.—^:f(P'ai-ts'ao).  It  is 
also  called  ^^  i^  ^  (P'ai-ts'ao-hsiang)  on  account  of  its  great 
fragrance.  It  grows  in  the  region  of  Lingnan,  and  the  root  is 
used  to  correct  fetor  of  the  breath.  The  Customs  lists  give 
^  fr  ]^  (Ling-hsiang-ts'ao)  as  Lysijnachia  grcECum^ 
but  this  is  not  found  in  the  Pentsao^  nor  is  any  authority  given 
for  the  identification. 

vp:CxETable  kingdom.  253 


MAB A  EBENOS.— ,%  y\z  (Wu-mu).  Other  names,  .%  f §  TfC 
(Wu-men-mu)  and  J^  3JC  /f^  (Wu-wen-mu).  This  comes  from 
Hainan,  Linguan,  and  the  Indian  Archipelago.  It  is  also  said 
to  be  brought  in  junks  from  Persia  (probably,  rather,  India). 
Its  heavy,  hard  texture  and  black  color  are  mentioned  in  the 
Pin/sao,  as  well  as  the  fact  that  other  heavy  woods  are  some- 
times stained  black  to  fabricate  it.  The  tree  is  not  a  large 
one,  being  said  to  seldom  exceed  ten  feet  in  height.  The  wood 
is  pulverized  and  digested  in  warm  wine,  and  administered  in 
poisons  and  cholera  morbus. 

(Kuei-tu-yu).  This  is  somewhat  confounded  in  Chinese  works 
with  Pycnostelma  cJiinensis^  an  asclepiadaceous  plant,  and  with 
Gastrodia  elata^  an  orchidaceous  one.  But  this  plant  is  one 
of  the  Compositse.  It  sends  up  closely  set  shoots  of  one  stem, 
which  is  surmounted  by  a  whorl  of  leaves  like  an  umbrella. 
The  root  resembles  that  of  Acryanthes  bidentata^  but  is  smaller 
and  without  filaments.  The  flowers,  which  come  out  among 
the  leaves,  are  yellowish-white.  The  taste  of  the  drug  is 
bitter,  and  it  is  somewhat  deleterious.  It  is  recommended  for 
the  treatment  of  an  evil  disposition,  vicious  effluvia  of  the 
heart,  and  the  hundred  poisonous  essences.  It  is  also  used  in 
malaria,  to  give  power  to  the  loins  and  legs,  and  to  benefit  the 
muscular  strength  (-^  ;^,  Lii-li)  generally. 

M^SA  DOR^NA.— jrt  %  ill  (Tu-ken-shan).  This  is  a 
mountain  plant,  growing  to  a  height  of  four  or  five  feet,  with 
leaves  like  those  of  Sonchus  arvensis.  It  flowers  in  the  autumn, 
and  towards  winter  it  bears  a  fruit  like  that  of  Lycinni  chi- 
nense^  but  larger  and  white  in  color.  It  is  used  for  malarial  and 
other  fevers,  headache,  and  nausea.  Digested  in  new  wine  and 
administered,  it  will  cause  vomiting,  which  clears  away  the 
phlegm  and  relieves  the  worst  symptoms  of  febrile  attacks. 

MAGNOLIA  CONSPICUA.— ^  H  (Hsin-i),  464.  Be- 
cause the  unopened   flower  is  globular,   not  unlike   a  young 


peach,  it  is  called  |f^  i^^  (Hou-t'ao).  When  the  flower  first 
opens  it  resembles  a  Chinese  pen,  and  for  this  reason  it  is  called 
/^  ^  (Mu-pi),  "wood  pencil."  Since  the  flowers  appear 
very  early  in  the  spring,  the  tree  is  called  jfg  ^  (Ying-ch'un). 
This  must  not  be  confounded  with  Jasminuvi  midifiorum.  The 
white  flowered  magnolia  is  called  ^  '^  (Yii-lan),  and  has  been 
by  some  botanists  designated  as  Magnolia yiilan.  These  names 
are  all  used  for  this  species  of  magnolia,  and  usually  indicate 
varieties.  It  also  is  called  /fC  j^  ^^  (Mu-lien-hua),  because  its 
flowers  resemble  those  of  the  lotus  iyNelnmbium  speciosum). 
The  tree  flowers  twice  a  year  :  once  in  the  early  spring  and 
once  in  the  autumn.  It  is  much  cultivated  in  gardens,  and 
the  flowers  are  usually  purple  or  white.  It  rarely  perfects  its 
fruits.  The  unopened  flower  buds  (^,  P*ao)  are  the  parts  used 
in  medicine.  This  is  one  of  the  many  drugs  reputed  to  give 
lightness  to  the  body,  brightness  to  the  eye,  added  length  of 
life,  culminating  in  a  green  old  age.  *'  It  warms  the  centers, 
lubricates  the  muscles,  benefits  the  nine  cavities,  opens  up  the 
nose,  expells  mucus,  relieves  swelling  of  the  face  and  tooth- 
ache, mitigates  cart  and  boat  vertigo,  promotes  the  growth  of 
whiskers  and  hair,  and  expels  white  worms."  It  is  prescribed 
in  headaches  and  all  diflSculties  of  the  nose,  in  which  latter 
case  it  is  especially  recommended  if  combined  with  musk  and 
onions.  The  flowers  appear  in  commerce  under  the  name 
of  ^  :j^  (Ch'un-hua),  272. 

MAGNOLIA  FUSCATA.—- g-  ^  (Han-hsiao).  This  is 
the  same  as  Michelia  fiiscata.  There  are  said  to  be  two  kinds  : 
the  large  and  the  small  ;  and  flowers  of  two  colors  :  white  and 
purple.  It  is  a  southern  species,  not  being  found  in  the  north- 
ern provinces.  It  flowers  in  every  season,  but  is  most  prolific 
in  summer.  The  flowers  are  very  fragrant,  reminding  one  of 
Jasminuni  sambac.  It  does  not  seem  to  be  used  in  medicine, 
but  it  is  possible  that  its  buds  are  sometimes  substituted  for 
those  of  Magnolia  conspicna. 

MAGNOLIA  HYPOLEUCA.— Jf  ;f;h  (Hou-p'o),  381.  This 
tree  is  cultivated  in  the  upper  Yangtse  provinces  for  its  bark, 
which  on  account  of  its  extensive  use  as  a  medicine  is  quite  an 


article  of  commerce.  The  wood  is  dark  colored  and  the  bark 
white.  It  has  very  large  leaves,  and  there  are  two  varieties  ; 
one  with  red  and  the  other  with  white  flowers.  The  drug 
consists  of  the  rough,  thick  bark,  rolled  into  large,  tight 
cylinders,  from  seven  to  nine  inches  long,  and  very  thick. 
The  outer  surface  is  of  a  greyish-brown  color,  rougliened  with 
tubercles  and  marked  with  lichenous  growths.  The  inner 
surface  is  smooth  and  of  a  reddish-brown  color.  In  the  coast 
provinces  there  seems  to  be  some  confusion  in  regard  to  the 
drug  ;  an  inferior  product,  which  is  probably  the  bark  of  a 
different  tree,  appearing  in  commerce  (see  Customs  Lists,  1040). 
There  is  some  confusion  of  Chinese  terms  between  this  and 
Celtis  siitetisis.  The  taste  of  the  true  bark  is  aromatic  and 
bitter,  but  some  of  the  drug  found  in  the  shops  is  almost  taste- 
less, and  is  probably  inert.  Its  medicinal  properties  are  deob- 
struent,  tonic,  stomachic,  quieting,  and  anthelmintic.  It  is 
prescribed  in  diarrhoeas,  flatulence,  amenorrhoea,  pyrosis,  and 
a  variety  of  dissimilar  difficulties.  The  fruit  is  said  to  be 
called  5^  1^  (Chu-che),  but  whether  it  is  the  fruit  of  this  or 
of  Eucommia  tdvioides^  the  Pentsao  is  not  quite  certain.  It 
cures  ulcers,  brightens  the  eyes,  and  benefits  the  breath.  A 
foot-note  to  this  article  in  the  Pentsao  speaks  of  J^  jt^  ^  ^ 
(Fou-lan-lo-le),  which  in  Japan  is  a  variety  of  Magnolia 
hypoleuca.  It  comes  from  Samarcand,  and  is  used  as  a  deob- 
struent  and  tonic  remedy. 

MAGNOLIA  OBOVATA.— :?fC  %  (Mu-lan).  This  tree  is 
indigenous  to  China,  being  found  in  the  mountainous  districts 
of  Szechuan,  Hunan,  and  Shantung.  It  is  a  large  tree,  grow- 
ing to  the  height  of  fifty  or  sixty  feet.  The  wood  is  a  useful 
building  material,  being  fine  grained,  and  having  a  yellow 
heart.  Because  of  this  last  named  fact,  it  is  sometimes  called 
^  *&  (Huang-hsin),  "  yellow  heart."  Its  flowers  resemble 
those  of  the  lotus,  and  for  this  reason  it  takes  the  name  tJc  j^  ^ 
(Mu-lien-hua).  The  flowers  are  red,  yellow,  and  white.  The 
tree  receives  its  principal  name  from  the  odor  of  its  flowers, 
which  resembles  that  of  the  orchid  (1^,  Lan).  The  bark  is 
considered  to  be  deobstruent,  constructive,  diuretic,  and  tonic, 
and    it   is    prescribed    in    fevers,    sudamina,    dropsy,    mental 


disease,  and  alcoholism.  The  flowers  are  included  among  the 
drugs  liaviiig  the  reputation  of  dissolving  bone  and  metals 
lodged  in  the  throat. 

MALT. — ^  ^  (Nieh-mi).  The  grains  of  ordinary  millet, 
spiked  millet,  glutinous  millet,  rice,  barley,  nacked  barley, 
beans,  and  wheat  are  all  malted  by  the  Chinese.  The  grain  is 
moistened  and  left  to  sprout,  and  when  this  process  has  gone 
on  a  sufficient  length  of  time,  it  is  dried  in  the  sun,  the  sprouts 
are  rubbed  off,  and  the  grain  is  ground  into  flour  for  making 
into  cakes  or  bread.  The  malted  millet  is  called  H  ^  (Su- 
nieh)  or  |S|  ^  (Su-3'a),  and  is  considered  to  be  cooling,  carmina- 
tive, and  stomachic.  Mixed  with  fat  and  applied  to  the  face, 
it  makes  the  skin  soft  and  glossy.  Malted  rice  is  called  ^  || 
(Tao-nieh)  or  ^  ^  (Ku-ya),  and  is  considered  to  be  peptic, 
carminative,  regulating,  and  constructive.  The  nacked  barley 
is  the  kind  of  barley  usually  malted,  and  this  is  called  ^  ^  ^ 
(Kung-mai-nieh)  or  ^  ^  (Mai-ya),  and  is  considered  to  be 
peptic,  warming,  stomachic,  and  abortifacient.  It  is  prescribed 
in  cholera,  as  well  as  in  intestinal  indigestion  due  to  over- 
eating. It  is  also  used  in  post-partum  difficulties  and  to 
suppress  the  secretion  of  milk  in  women  whose  children  have 
died  at  or  after  birth.  Other  kinds  of  malt  or  sprouted  grain 
are  found,  but  their  general  uses  do  not  diSer  from  those  given. 

MALVA. — The  character  ^  (K'uei)  is  applied  to  very 
many  malvaceous  plants  and  to  several  others.  Abutillofi^ 
Althea^  Anemone^  Basella^  Eranlhis^  Heliattthiis^  Hibiscus^ 
Malva^  Qiantlie^  and  Pcucedamim  all  find  it  used  as  a  dis- 
tinguishing term  for  one  or  more  species ;  for  this  reason  it  is 
sometimes  difficult  to  distinguish  between  plants  of  these  differ- 
ent genera.  |^  ^  (Chin-k'uei)  seems  to  be  regarded  by  most 
observers  as  Malva  sylvestris.  Malva  vej'iicillata  or  Malva 
pulchclla  is  assigned  to  ^  ^  (Tung-k'uei).  Ford  and  Crow 
called  ^  H  ■?  (Tung-k'uei-tzu),  1395,  at  Yioxi%Vow%  Abiitilloji 
indiaim^  but  in  the  north  this  term  seems  to  refer  to  a  malva. 
Faber  makes  Malva  verticillata  to  be  3^  H  (T'ien-k'uei),  but 
the  Pentsao  gives  this  as  a  synonym  of  ^  H  (T'u-k'uei),  which 
in  Japan  is  Anemone  or  Eranthis.     Li  Shih-cheu  says  :     "  In 


ancient  times  the  K'-iiei  was  a  common  food,  and  was  ranked  as 
the  first  of  the  five  vegetables,  but  now  it  is  not  much  eaten.  It 
was  then  called  ^  ^  (Lu-k*uei,  '  dew  mallow').  Now  it  is 
also  called  ff-  ^  (Hua-k'uei),  but  it  is  not  much  cultivated. 
There  are  two  kinds,  distinguished  by  the  color  of  the  stem 
which  is  either  purple  or  white.  The  latter  is  the  best.  It 
has  large  leaves  and  small  yellow  or  purple  flowers.  The 
kind  with  very  many  small  flowers  is  called  ||  gjj!  ^  (Ya-chio- 
k'uei,  Muck's-leg  mallow').  The  fruit  is  of  the  size  of  the 
end  of  a  finger,  and  flattened,  having  a  thin  skin,  and  the  seeds 
are  light  and  resemble  those  of  the  elm.  That  sown  in  the  sixth 
or  seventh  moon  is  called  j^  ^  (Chiu-k'uei),  that  sown  in  the 
eighth  or  ninth  moon  is  called  ^  ^  (Tung-k'uei),  and  that 
sown  in  the  first  moon  is  called  ^^^  (Ch'un-k'uei).  Thus 
the  plant  can  be  used  all  the  year."  The  shoots  and  leaves 
are  eaten,  but  they  are  not  considered  to  be  very  healthful. 
If  eaten  raw,  they  are  especially  harmful,  and  the  heart  of  the 
shoot  is  positively  injurious.  If  a  person  who  has  been  bitten 
by  a  mad  dog,  although  cured,  eats  of  these,  the  disease  will 
return.  If  eaten  with  garlic,  the  poisonous  action  is  not  so  apt 
to  show  itself.  It  is  the  spleen  vegetable,  and  any  advantage 
accruing  from  its  use  is  gained  by  that  organ.  Its  mucil- 
aginous qualities  recommend  it  as  a  demulcent  in  stomach  and 
intestinal  troubles.  Its  use  is  also  said  to  lubricate  the  passages, 
and  thus  to  render  labor  easy.  The  ash  is  used  as  a  styptic  in 
wounds.  The  decoction  is  recommended  in  vermillion  and 
other  mineral  poisons,  and  the  seeds  are  similarly  used.  The 
root  is  employed  in  foul  ulcers  and  as  an  antilithic,  diuretic, 
and  thirst-relieving  remedy.  It  is  recommended  for  difficulties 
similar  to  those  for  which  the  stalk  and  leaves  are  used. 

MANDRAGORA.— ^  %  (Lang-tu),  693.  This  is  a  doubt- 
ful identification.  The  drug  seems  to  be  a  very  ancient  one 
with  the  Chinese,  as  it  is  mentioned  in  the  Shhinicjig  Pintsao 
(XXVIII  Century  B.C.)  as  one  of  the  five  poisons  ;  the  others 
being  Crotoji  tiglmvi^  Veratriim^  Aconitiim^  and  cantharides. 
Ma  Chi  (X  Century)  classifies  it  with  the  "six  old  drugs;'* 
the  other  five  being  Ephedra^  orange  peel,  Pinellia  Itiberifcra^ 
Citrus  fusca^    and   Boymia   rutCBcarpa.     There   is   not  much 


description  of  the  plant.  Its  leaves  are  said  to  resemble  those 
of  PJiytolacta  or  Rheitvt^  and  both  these  and  the  stem  are 
hirsute.  The  root  externally  is  yellow,  but  within  is  white. 
It  is  exceedinly  poisonous,  and  is  used  to  destroy  birds  and 
beasts,  especially  rats  and  other  vermin.  Its  medicinal  action 
is  that  of  a  sedative  in  coughs,  angina,  and  colic.  It  is 
also  used  as  a  parasiticide  in  the  ^  (Klu)  disease  and  in 
parasitic  skin  diseases.  Combined  with  another  unidentified 
plant  called  |^  '%  (Yeh-ko),  it  is  used  in  the  treatment  of 

MANGROVE  BARK.— The  RhizopJtora  7nangle  does  not 
seem  to  grow  in  China  ;  but,  according  to  Bowra,  the  bark  is 
imported  from  Siam  and  Singapore,  and  is  used  to  dye  or 
tan  the  sails,  cordage,  and  nets  of  sailors  and  fishermen. 
The  name  given  is  f%  ^  (K'ao-p'i),  but  this  first  character 
evidently  refers  to  an  upland  tree,  and  it  is  made  identical 
in  the  Pentsao  with  Ccdrela  si)icnsis.  Another  suggested 
identification  is  Platycaria  strobilacca.  In  the  Customs  Lists 
^  ;^  (K'ao-hua),  591,  and  ^  ^  (K'ao-kuo),  592,  are  given, 
but  no  identification  is  suggested.  A  name  given  for  man- 
grove bark  in  Giles'  Dictionary  is  ^  ^  (Ch'ieh-ting),  but 
from  what  source  this  term  is  derived  does  not  appear.  It 
is  not  known  that  the  Chinese  use  the  bark  for  any  medic- 
inal purpose,  although  both  it  and  the  fruits  are  excellent 

MANNA.  —  ^  %  (Kan-lu)  is  a  term  that  is  used  in  Chi- 
nese translations  of  Indian  books  to  express  what  is  meant  by 
the  Sanscrit  word  anirita\  the  food  of  the  Devas,  and  it  is 
used  in  China  for  manna-like  substances,  of  which  there  are 
several.  One  is  produced  on  a  coniferous  tree,  and  resembles 
the  manna  of  Brian9on.  A  similar  substance,  called  "tt  ^  ^* 
(Kan-lu-mi),  is  described'  as  occurring  on  a  small  plant  in  Sze- 
chuan,  Samarcand,  and  Arabia.  Under  the  head  of  $^  "^ 
,  (T'zn-mi)  or  '^  "^  (Ts'ao-mi),  a  clear,  honey-like  substance 
is  spoken  of  as  coming  from  Tangut,  and  produced  upon  a 
leafless  plant,  called  ^  $l]  (Yang-tz'u).  The  Turckic  tribes 
are   said   to   call   this  substance   %  '|fc  -^    (Ghi-p'o-lo).     The 


Tamarix  manna  is  called  ;j;^  ^  (Ch'eng-ju).  Similar  properties 
to  those  set  down  in  foreign  works  are  referred  to  these 
saccharine  substances.  Some  of  the  mannas  are  believed  to 
be  produced  by  an  insect,  probably  the  Coccus  manniparus 
of  Ehrenberg.  The  term  y*  ^  -^  (Kan-lu-tzil),  applied  to 
Stachys  sieboldi^  should  not  be  confounded  with  this,  as  in  the 
former  case  it  only  refers  to  the  taste  of  the  drug,  as  it  also 
does  in  the  case  of  an  unidentified  climber  called  "jt  ^  ^ 

MANGIFERA  INDICA.— "^  ^  %  (An-lo-kuo),  %  |f 
(Meug-kuo).  The  first  two  characters  of  the  first  name  are  a 
transliteration  of  some  Indian  name,  as  is  also  1^  J|i  ^  ?SS  H 
(An-mo-lo-ka-kuo),  probably  of  amra^  one  of  the  Indian  com- 
mon names  for  this  fruit.  Another  name  is  ^  ^  (Hsiang-kai). 
The  Indian  origin  of  this  fruit  is  indicated  by  the  names  and 
spoken  of  in  the  books.  It  is  now  cultivated  at  Hongkong, 
Canton,  and  throughout  the  south-eastern  provinces.  The 
Pentsao  says  that  the  man^o  can  be  eaten  very  freely,  with  no 
fear  of  injury.  It  is  thirst  relieving,  and  promotes  the  circula- 
tion of  the  blood  and  assists  in  menstruation.  The  leaves  are 
also  accounted  as  cooling.  According  to  Lindley,  the  root 
bark  is  an  aromatic  bitter,  good  for  use  in  diarrhoea  and  leucor- 
rhoea.  He  also  reports  the  seeds  to  be  anthelmintic.  Dr.  Waring 
recommends  the  powdered  seeds  as  an  excellent  remedy  in 
lumbricoid  worms,  and  says  that  strongly  astringent  qualities, 
dependent  upon  the  presence  of  a  large  proportion  of  gallic 
acid,  recommend  this  powder  for  use  in  menorrhagia  and 
bleeding  piles. 

MARLEA  PLATANIFOLIA.— :^  ^  (Ta-k'ung).  This 
is  Faber's  identification.  In  Japan  this  shrub  is  called  7\  %  :^ 
(Pa-chio-feng),  930.  The  Pentsao  says  that  another  name  is 
^  ^  (Tu-k'ung).  It  is  described  as  a  small  tree  with  large, 
rounded  leaves.  The  bark  of  the  root  and  the  leaves  are  used 
as  insecticides.  Faber  calls  the  root  ^  M  M  (Pai-lung-hsii), 
but  upon  what  authority  does  not  appear.  The  Pentsao 
describes  this  as  an  epiphyte  growing  upon  some  one  of  the 
many  ij^  (Feng)  trees. 


MARSILIA  QUADRIFOLIA.— .^  (P'in).  There  is  some 
confounding  this  with  Hydrocharis^  Lenaia^  and  LimnantJie- 
mtwi^  both  in  China  and  Japan.  This  is  a  larger  plant  than 
the  others.  It  has  leaves  about  an  inch  in  diameter,  which 
float  on  the  surface  of  the  water,  while  the  root  is  at  the  bottom 
of  the  pond.  The  leaves  are  arranged  in  a  quadriform  manner, 
and  for  this  reason  the  plant  is  called  0  ^  ^  (Ssu-yeh-ts'ai) 
and  £3  ^  !i^  (T'ien-tzu-ts'ao).  Marsilia  is  a  pseudo-fern,  and 
has  no  flowers,  and  so  when  Chinese  writers  speak  of  white 
and  yellow  flowered  varieties,  they  confound  this  with  Letfuia 
and  other  plants.  The  drug  is  considered  to  be  cooling, 
diuretic,  resolvent,  and  constructive.  Its  juice  is  applied  locally 
to  snake  bites  and  ulcers. 

MATRICARIA  INDICA.—gi  ^  ^  (Yeh-chii-hua).  An- 
theniis^  Calendula^  and  Chrysanthevium  are  not  clearly 
distinguished  from  this  by  the  Chinese.  Another  name  given 
in  the  Pentsao  is  ^  ^  (K'u-i).  It  grows  plentifully  in  waste 
land.  In  Japan  it  is  identified  as  Pyrethrinn  indicurn.  The 
whole  plant  is  used  in  medicine.  Administered  in  decoction, 
it  is  considered  to  be  resolvent,  but  it  is  used  principally  as 
a  fomentation  to  swellings,  boils,  tuberculous  glands,  and 
inflamed  eyes. 

MEDIC  AGO  SATIVA.— -g  #"  (Mu-su).  This  is  one  of 
the  plants  said  to  have  been  brought  to  China  by  General 
Chang  Chien  of  the  Han  dynasty.  Its  foreign  origin  is  in- 
dicated by  the  fact  that  its  Chinese  name  is  variously  written 
with  characters  of  similar  sound.  It  also  has  a  name  derived 
from  a  Buddhist  book,  in  which  the  characters  ^  jft  i;^  jfe  (Sai- 
pi-li-ka)  evidently  stand  for  an  Indian  name,  possibly  sibarga^ 
which  is  the  common  name  for  Trifoliiiin  gigantetim  in  Kabul. 
Medicago  saliva  is  there  called  rishka.  In  Europe  the  flowers 
of  this  plant  are  usually  purple  or  blue  ;  but  here  they  are 
yellow.  For  this  reason  the  plant  is  sometimes  thought  to  be 
Medicago  denticidata.  Faber  identifies  this  latter  with  ^  0^ 
(Ts'ao-t'ou),  1351,  ox  ^'l(jc,%  (Chin-hua-ts'ai),  153.  Neither 
of  these  names  is  found  in  the  Phitsao.  He  also  indentifies 
Medicago   lupulina   with   ^   :g  ;j^  (Niu-yiin-ts'ao)   or  ^  ^ 


(Hnang-hua),  and  according  to  the  description  in  the  Ktiang- 
chun-faiig-pit^  this  is  probably  correct.  The  Ma-stt  is  included 
among  the  vegetables,  and  was  formerly  extensively  cultivated  ; 
and  in  some  parts  of  China,  is  still  grown.  It  is  found,  how- 
ever, growing  almost  everywhere  of  its  own  accord.  It  is  not 
much  valued  as  a  vegetable,  as  it  is  almost  tasteless.  It  is 
considered  too  cooling  to  be  eaten  very  frequently,  and  it  is 
thought  to  make  one  thin,  which  is  always  carefully  avoided 
by  the  Chinese.  If  eaten  with  honey  it  is  said  to  cause 
dysentery.  It  is  thought  to  benefit  the  intestines,  and  to  be 
generally  depurative.  The  root  is  prescribed  in  feverish  and 
high  colored  urine.  The  expressed  juice  is  reputed  to  have  some 
emetic  properties,  and  is  administered  in  gravel  to  relieve  pain. 

MELIA  AZEDARACH.— ^  (Uen),  =g=  ^  (K'u-lien), 
^  i^  (Sen-shu).  The  fruit  is  called  ^  ^  ^  (Chin-ling-tzu). 
The  species  from  Szechuan  called  ]\\  \^  ^  (Ch'uan-lien-tzli), 
251,  and  which  is  Melia  toosendan^  is  considered  the  best. 
The  Chinese  do  not  distinguish  clearly  between  these  two 
species.  The  fruits  of  the  latter  consist  of  a  fleshy,  globular 
drupe,  about  three-quarters  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  covered 
with  a  shining,  yellow  skin,  and  usually  much  shrivelled.  It 
is  larger  than  that  of  Melia  azcdarach^  and  probably  cor- 
responds to  the  nim  or  margosa  fruits  of  India.  They  yield 
a  bitter  oil,  and  both  in  India  and  China  are  used  as  an  anthel- 
mintic remedy.  At  the  time  of  the  Dragon  Festival  (fifth  day 
of  the  fifth  moon)  bamboo  sprouts  and  rice  cakes  are  wrapped 
in  azedarach  leaves,  and  tied  with  silk  thread  of  five  diflerent 
colors,  and  these  parcels  are  thrown  into  streams  to  propitiate 
the  spirit  of  the  waters.  The  phcenix  and  the  unicorn  are 
said  to  eat  the  fruits  of  this  tree,  but  the  dragon  abhors  them. 
The  tree  grows  very  rapidly,  and  at  Canton  its  timber  is  called 
^  7fC  (Sen-mu).  Always  remembering  that  the  Chinese  do 
not  distinguish  between  the  two  species  of  Melia^  the  medicinal 
properties  ascribed  to  the  fruits  may  be  said  to  be  those  of  an 
antifebrile,  quieting,  anthelmintic,  and  diuretic  remedy.  These 
fruits  are  a  five-celled  drupe,  yellow  when  ripe,  and  dark  and 
shrivelled  when  kept  any  length  of  time.  The  azedarach  is 
much  smaller  than  the  Ch'^uan-lien-tzu^  measuring  about  half 


an  inch  in  diameter.  They  contain  a  stone,  furrowed  longitu- 
dinally by  five  or  six  ridges.  The  taste  is  bitter,  and  they  are, 
like  the  leaves,  said  to  be  deleterious,  but  driving  away  infec- 
tion. The  leaves  are  used  in  decoction  for  the  relief  of  pain  in 
hernia.  The  flowers  are  used  for  prickly  heat,  and  are  put 
under  bed  mats  to  destroy  fleas  and  lice.  The  bark  of  the  root 
and  tree,  633,  is  anthelmintic  and  parasiticide.  It  is  highly 
valued  in  intestinal  worms  and  parasitic  skin  diseases.  The 
root,  632,  and  seeds,  634,  are  mentioned  in  the  Customs  Lists, 
but  are  not  specially  noticed  in  the  Pentsao. 

MELILOTUS  ARVENSIS.— i;:f  (Hsun-ts'ao),  ^g$  ^ 
(Ling-ling-hsiang).  This  is  thought  by  several  observers  to 
be  the  labiate  Or/>;//^w  <^^«7/«/;?;^  /  but  the  weight  of  authority 
seems  to  be  in  favor  of  identifying  it  with  this  fragrant  legum- 
inous genus.  It  is  quite  possible  that  Chinese  botanists  often 
confound  it  with  Odmum^  both  on  account  of  its  fragrance  and 
of  several  other  resemblances.  H  (Hsiin),  ^  (Lan),  and  H 
(Hsieh)  are  characters  which  have  passed  into  classical  litera- 
ture as  types  of  fragrance  and  refinement.  The  ancients  used 
to  burn  the  Hsi'in  plant  as  incense  to  make  the  spirits  descend, 
and  when  worn  in  the  girdle  it  is  said  to  dispell  noxious  in- 
fluences. The  plant  seems  to  have  been  first  grown  in  ^  |gf 
(Ling-ling),  the  present  ^^  ^)\\  J^  (Yungchoufu)  in  southern 
Hunan.  It  grows  in  moist  ground,  and  is  found  throughout 
the  Yangtse  provinces.  On  account  of  its  fragrance,  the  plant 
is  used  for  making  mats,  pillows,  and  mattresses.  It  is  also 
employed  in  cosmetic  applications.  Medicinally,  it  is  regarded 
as  carminative,  calmative,  anodyne,  and  astringent.  It  is  pre- 
scribed in  flatulence,  colds,  muscular  rheumatism,  polypus  of 
the  nose,  and  toothache.  When  ingested,  it  is  said  to  have 
the  property  of  imparting  its  fragrance  to  the  body,  a  thing 
much  desired  by  the  Chinese  in  the  absence  of  soap,  as  was 
formerly  the  case.  The  fruits  are  regarded  as  tonic.  The 
mucoid  sap  found  in  the  stalk  and  root  is  used  in  colds  and 
influenza,  and  is  regarded  as  an  excellent  local  application  in 
piles,  prolapse  of  the  anus,  and  seat  worms. 



MENTHA  ARVENSIS.— ^  ^  (Po-ho).  Also  written 
^  1^  (Pa-ho)  and  ^  fg  (Fan-ho).  The  plant  grows  almost 
everywhere,  but  the  drug  coming  from  Soochow  is  regarded  as 
the  best.  On  this  account  it  is  called  ^  |^  ^  (Wu-pa-ho),  ^ 
being  the  old  name  for  Soochow.  In  the  south  the  plant  may 
be  confounded  with  Dryobalanops  aroma/ ica.,  as  it  is  there 
called  f I  IM  ^  1^  (Lung-nao-po-ho).  Two  other  species  or 
varieties  are  mentioned  in  the  Pattsao^  one  called  i§Q  ^  ^  (Hu- 
pa-lio),  and  the  other  ^  ^  1^  (Shih-po-ho).  The  latter  grows 
in  uplands,  and  is  smaller  than  the  ordinary  species,  while 
the  former  seems  to  be  of  foreign  origin.  Pcppenni)it  is 
cultivated  much  in  gardens,  and  is  used  with  other  vegetables 
to  give  flavor.  Carminative,  antispasmodic,  astringent,  sudorif- 
ic, and  alexipharmic  qualities  are  ascribed  to  these  plants. 
They  are  prescribed  in  fevers,  colds,  nervous  disorders  of 
children,  nosebleed,  fluxes,  snake  and  insect  bites,  and  diseases 
of-  the  nose  and  throat.  An  oil  is  spoken  of  in  the  Customs 
Lists,  1035,  and  also  menthol^  ^  <^  ^t  (Po-ho-ping),  1033, 
but  these  are  not  mentioned  in  the  Paitsao.  They  are  brought 
from  Canton,  and  are  probably  of  quite  modern  origin. 

MENYANTHES  TRIFOLIATA.— ^  %  (Shui-ts'ai). 
The  Chinese  point  out  very  clearly  the  slightly  narcotic  prop- 
erties of  this  plant,  both  in  their  description  of  it  and  in  the 
various  names  applied  to  it.  It  is  also  called  ^  ^  (Ming-ts'ai), 
^^  %  (Cho-ts'ai),  and  ^  [^  (Tsui-ts'ao).  It  grows  in  ponds, 
has  a  leaf  like  the  MonocJioria  hastata^  and  a  root  like  that  of 
Nehimbium  speciosiivi.  The  people  where  it  grows  pickle  it, 
and  use  it  to  promote  sleep.  Its  only  medicinal  use  is  as  a 
hypnotic  in  fevers. 

MERCURIALIS  LEIOCARPA.— ^  %  %  (T'ou-ku- 
ts'ao).  This  euphorbiaceous  plant  is  not  described  in  the 
Chinese  books.  It  is  prescribed  in  all  sorts  of  rheumatic 
difficulties,  contracted  tendons,  and  perspiring  feet.  Combined 
with  Sophei'a  flavescens^  rhubarb,  and  flowers  of  sulphur,  it  is 
used  in  a  bath  in  the  treatment  of  obstinate  skin  eruptions 
(possibly  scabies  or  ringworm).  The  patient  is  directed  to 
remain  in  a  close,    hot  room,   until  the  perspiration  falls  like 


rain,  and  then  to  bathe  in  the  decoction.  It  is  also  recom- 
mended in  combination  with  other  drugs  in  nausea  and  vomit- 
ing, as  well  as  in  dropsy. 

METAPLEXIS  STAUNTONIL— ^  ^  (Lo-mo),  %  if 
(Huan-lan).  The  fruits  of  this  creeping  plant  have  several 
fanciful  names,  such  as  ^  ^(Chio-p'iao),  :^  ^  ^  (Yang-p'o- 
nai),  ^  ^  1^  ^  H  (P'o-p'o-chen-hsien-pao),  and  ^  ^  §^  g  ^ 
(P'o-p'o-chen-tai-erh).  It  is  a  climbing  plant,  the  stalks  of 
which,  when  broken,  exude  a  white  juice.  It  is  cultivated, 
and  the  leaves  are  eaten  both  raw  and  cooked.  The  fruit  is 
green,  and  from  two  to  four  inches  long.  On  account  of  its 
shape,  it  is  also  called  ^  ;^  |j|  (Yang-chio-ts'ai).  The  plant 
belongs  to  the  natural  order  Asclepiadacese,  and  is  found  in 
north  China,  both  wild  and  cultivated.  The  seeds  are  the 
parts  used  in  medicine  ;  but  the  virtues  of  the  leaves  are  con- 
sidered to  be  identical.  They  are  thought  to  be  tonic  and 
constructive.  The  crushed  seeds  are  applied  to  wounds  and 
ulcers  as  an  astringent  and  hemostatic  remedy.  They  are 
also  applied  to  all  sorts  of  insect  bites,  and  if  frequently  used, 
are  thought  to  have  some  escharotic  properies. 

MICHELIA  CHAMPACA.— Porter  Smith  gives  the  fol- 
lowing characters  for  the  Chinese  name  of  this  magnoliaceous 
tree:  gf  \%  (Chen-po),  ^  ^  (Chen-p'o),  t5  ^  ^  (Chen-p'o- 
ka)  ;  but  the  source  from  which  he  secured  these  has  not  been 
found.  From  whatever  source  they  may  have  been  derived, 
they  are  evidently  an  attempt  to  transliterate  the  Indian  name 
tsjampac^  or  tchantpaka.  It  is  said  to  be  found  in  China,  but 
perhaps  is  only  cultivated  here.  It  has  very  fragrant  yellow 
flowers,  and  an  edible  fruit.  Its  bark  is  used,  with  that  of 
other  magnolias,  to  adulterate  cinnamon.  It  has  been  used  in 
the  Mauritius,  with  some  success,  in  the  treatment  of  the  low 
intermittent  fevers  of  that  island. 

MIRABILIS  JALAPA.—^  %  ij  (Tzu-mo-li),  Hi  fit 
(Yei*chih).  This  is  described  in  the  Kuaiig-chiin-fang-pu. 
The  flowers  are  only  used  for  cosmetic  purposes.  Faber  also 
gives  >Aj  ^  #  ^  (Huo-t'an-mu-ts^ao)  as  a  name  for  this  Marvel 


of  Pcni^  or  Foiir-d^clock^  but  the  description  in  the  Pcntsao 
does  not  agree.  The  second  name  above  given  simply  refers  to 
its  cosmetic  uses.  Other  plants  also  bear  this  name  in  some 
form  (see  Basella  rtibra  and  Chenopodhim  albtwi).  Another 
name  sometimes  found  used  for  it  is  ^  ^^  :^  (Hsi-tsao-hua), 
because  it  blooms  at  the  time  of  day  when  people  usually  bathe. 

MOMORDICA  CHARANTIA.— ^  JTR  (K'u-kua),  628. 
Also  called  %W)  ^  (Chin-li-chih)  and  ^  ^  ^  (Lai-p'u-t'ao), 
from  the  warty  appearance  of  its  fruit.  The  plant  originally 
came  from  the  countries  south  of  China,  but  is  now  grown  in 
the  southern  provinces.  It  is  likened  in  appearance  to  the 
wild  grape  vine,  but  is  smaller.  The  pepo  varies  from  two  to 
five  inches  in  length,  is  of  a  green  color,  and  the  skin  is 
marked  with  longitudinal  rows  of  oblong  tubercles,  with  the 
intervening  space  crowded  with  smaller  tubercles.  In  this 
tuberculated  appearance  it  is  likened  to  the  lichee,  and  from  it 
takes  the  second  and  third  names  given  above.  When  it  is  ripe 
it  is  yellow  in  color,  and  it  eventually  bursts  open,  exhibiting 
a  beautiful  red  pulp  enclosing  the  seeds.  The  pulp  is  sweet 
and  can  be  eaten.  The  seeds  are  the  shape  of  squash  seeds, 
and  are  also  tuberculated.  The  fruit  is  considered  to  be  cool- 
ing and  strengthening.  The  seeds  benefit  the  breath  and 
invigorate  the  male  principle  (p^,  Yang).  The  dried  fruit  in 
slices,  ^  S  1^  (K'u-kua-kan),  629,  and  the  peduncles,  ^  jK. 
^  (K'n-kua-ti),  630,  are  mentioned  in  the  Customs  Lists,  but 
they  are  not  spoken  of  in  the  Pcntsao. 

pieh-tzQ),  872.  Also  called  %  ^  (Mu-hsieh).  These  names 
refer  to  the  form  of  the  seeds,  which  are  likened  to  a  turtle  or 
crab.  The  plant  is  a  cucurbitaceous  one  with  a  perennial  root. 
It  is  described  as  coming  up  in  the  spring  in  the  form  of  a 
vine  or  creeper,  having  a  five  pointed  leaf  resembling  that  of 
Batatas  edttlis^  green  and  shiny.  In  the  fourth  or  fifth  moon 
it  bears  yellow  flowers,  followed  by  the  fruits,  which  resemble 
those  of  Tricosanthes  multiloba^  but  larger  ;  first  green  in#olor, 
and  when  ripe  yellowish-red  and  covered  with  soft  prickles. 
Each  fruit  contains  from  thirty  to  forty  seeds,  flat,  and  of  the 


peculiar  shape  indicated  by  the  name.  In  the  south  the  youno- 
pepo  and  the  leaves  are  said  to  be  eaten  as  a  vegetable.  The 
seed  is  of  a  light  to  dark  brown  color,  having  a  double  row  of 
tubercles  at  the  margin,  and  the  testa  fragile,  roughened  and 
sometimes  coarsely  reticulated.  They  vary  from  three-quarters 
to  one  and  a-quarter  inches  in  diameter,  and  contain  two  large, 
oily  cotyledons,  green  on  the  outside  and  yellow  internally. 
These  cotyledons  are  used  in  medicine,  but  the  oil  for  the  most 
part  is  first  removed.  Their  action  is  considered  to  "be  con- 
structive and  resolvent,  and  they  are  prescribed  in  strumous 
swellings  of  the  neck,  mammary  abscess,  mesenteric  enlarge- 
ments, bruises,  wounds,  swellings,  and  ulcers.  They  are 
recommended  in  chronic  malaria,  enlarged  spleen,  and  fluxes. 

MONOCHORIA  HASTATA.— ^  ^fi  (Tz'u-ku),  1426. 
This  is  also  called  7JC  v'ji  (Shni-p'ing),  thus  confounding  it  with 
Lemiia  and  other  species  of  Monochoria.  The  shoots  are  called 
55[  JJ  "^  (Chien-tao-ts'ao),  The  principal  name  is  also  written 
i^t:  ^  (Tz'u-ku),  and  this  is  not  distinguished  from  Sagittaria 
sagittifolia^  being  the  latter  in  the  north,  and  Mo?iochoria  in 
the  south.     (See  Sagittaria  sagitti/olia.) 

MONOCHORIA  KORSAKOWIL— ^|i  (P'ing).  This  has 
the  same  Chinese  name  as  the  Lcmna  viinor^  and  is  therefore 
not  distinguished  from  the  latter.      (See  Lcvina  minor.) 

MONOCHORIA  VAGINALIS.— ^^  ^  (Fou-shih),  il!|  fj- 
;^  (Ya-she-ts'ao),  1483.  This  "floating  polygonum",  or 
"duck's  tongue",  is  likened  to  Braseiiia  pcltata.  Like  all 
water  plants,  it  is  considered  to  be  cooling. 

MORUS  ALBA. — ^  (Sang).  The  mulberry  tree  is  prob- 
ably the  best  known  tree  of  China.  Its  cultivation  can  be 
traced  to  remote  antiquity.  According  to  ancient  tradition, 
Si-ling,  the  empress  of  Huangti  (B.C.  2967),  taught  the  people 
how  to  rear  silk  worms,  using  the  mulberry  leaves  for  that 
purpose.  The  tree  is  cultivated  in  all  parts  of  the  empire, 
being  found  in  several  varieties.  Cultivation  and  the  constant 
denuding  the  tree  of  its  leaves  has  resulted  in  greatly  modifying 


the  plant  as  found  in  the  orchards  of  those  engaged  in  sericult- 
ure. The  stalk  is  stunted  and  gnarled,  while  the  leaves  are 
large,  green,  and  succulent,  round  in  the  south,  and  lobed  in 
the  north.  Some  of  the  varieties  are  indicated  by  the  names 
1^  ^  (Pai-sang),  ^  ^  (Lu-sang),  ^f  ^  (Chi-sang),  -^  ^  (Nii- 
sang),  iLl  ^  (Shan-sang),  j;^  ^  (Ti-sang),  fij  ^  (Ching-sang), 
^  ^  (Chin-sang),  and  \%  '^  (I-sang).  The  ]^  ^  (Yen-sang), 
which  is  probablj^  identical  with  ^J  -^  (Shan-sang),  is  Morns 
indica.  The  fruits  are  called  ^:  (Shen).  This  character  is 
commonly  but  wrongly,  written  |g  (Chen) ;  and  this  mistake 
in  writing  is  made  even  in  the  Book  of  Odes.  When  the 
fruits  are  black-ripe,  they  are  called  |^  (Hsiin  or  T'an).  They 
enter  into  commerce  under  the  name  of  -^  '^_  ^  (Sang-shen- 
tzu),  1066,  and  are  made  into  a  jam  called  ^  ^  W  (Sang- 
shen-kao),  1065,  which  is  the  form  in  which  the  fruits  are 
preserved  for  medicinal  use.  The  bark  of  the  root,  ^  ^J!^  ^  J[^ 
Sang-ken-pai-p'i),  107 1,  is  also  used  in  medicine.  There  is 
a  persistent  opinion  among  Chinese  observers  that  any  portion 
of  the  root  which  is  above  ground  is  poisonous.  The  drug 
is  considered  to  be  restorative  and  tonic,  and  it  is  prescribed  in 
in  weakness,  menorrhagia,  plithisis,  and  all  sorts  of  wasting 
diseases.  It  is  also  thought  to  have  anthelmintic  and  astrin- 
gent properties.  The  juice  of  tlie  fresh  bark  is  used  in  epilepsy 
in  children  and  in  dribbling  of  saliva.  For  nervous  disorders, 
the  bark  from  the  root  extending  toward  the  east  is  considered 
especially  efficacious.  The  milky  sap  of  the  tree  is  used  in 
aphthous  stomatitis  in  infants,  and  in  incised  wounds,  snake, 
centipede,  and  spider  bites.  The  fruits  are  thirst  relieving, 
they  benefit  the  internal  organs,  promote  the  circulation  of  the 
blood,  pacify  the  soul,  energise  the  spirit,  increase  mental 
vigor,  and  prevent  the  signs  of  old  age.  The  juice  is  anti- 
vinous,  and  when  itself  fermented,  benefits  the  water  passages 
of  the  body.  The  leaves,  1073,  are  considered  to  be  slightly 
deleterious.  Their  action  is  diaphoretic.  INIade  into  strong 
decoction,  they  are  used  for  sweating  feet,  dropsy,  and  for 
intestinal  disorders.  The  bruised  leaves  are  used  in  wounds 
and  insect  bites,  and  are  thought  to  promote  the  growth  of 
hair.  Tlie  twigs,  1068,  are  given  about  the  same  properties  as 
the  fruit,  and  they  are  considered  prophylactic  against  all  forms 


of  cold  (^,  Feng).  They  are  also  diuretic  and  pectoral.  A 
lye  made  of  the  ashes  of  mulberry  wood  is  used  as  a  stimulant 
and  escharotic  in  scaly  skin  diseases  and  unhealthy  granula- 
tions. The  bark  of  the  tree  is  sometimes  used  to  dye  a  brown 
color.  The  Chinese  claim  that  the  seeds  procured  from  the 
excrement  of  fowls  and  ducks  which  have  been  fed  upon  the 
berries,  produce  plants  that  are  more  likely  to  grow  to  leaf 
than  to  fruit,  and  are  therefore  more  suitable  for  silk  worm 

MOSLA  GROSSESERRATA.— ^^  (Chi-ning).  This 
is  a  labiate  plant,  which,  on  account  of  its  foul  odor  is  called 
^  i^  (Ch'ou-su),  and  on  account  of  the  color  of  its  leaves  is 
called  ^  ^  ^  (Ch'jng-pai-su).  It  is  likened  to  Stachys 
aspera.  It  grows  almost  everywhere  on  plains,  and  has  a 
hirsute  leaf  with  a  bad  odor.  The  poor  people  eat  it,  but  the 
taste  is  not  very  pleasant.  The  stalk  and  leaves  are  used  in 
medicine,  are  considered  to  be  carminative  and  warming,  and 
are  recommended  in  heart-burn. 

MOSLA  PUNCTATA.— Jg  ^  p  (Shih-chi-ning).  In 
Japan  "^  ^  (Chio-chuang)  is  given  as  an  equivalent  for  this 
plant,  but  this  name  applies  properly  to  Jtisticia  prociivibens. 
The  drug  is  used  as  a  warming  and  carminative  remedy,  and 
in  decoction  as  a  wash  for  parasitic  skin  diseases.  It  grows 
among  the  rocks  in  mountainous  districts  to  the  height  of  one 
or  two  feet.  It  has  small  leaves  and  purple  flowers.  The  hill 
people  employ  it  as  a  substitute  for  the  last. 

MUCILAGE.— 7K  If  (Shui-chiao).  Chinese  mucilage  is 
very  good,  and  is  usually  made  from  seaweed,  to  which  is 
added  a  little  alum.  Other  substances  are  also  used  :  such  as 
some  of  the  raalvaceous  plants  and  fruits,  the  bungtali  fruits, 
the  gum  from  the  peach  tree  {1^  ^,  T'ao-chiao)  and  that  from 
the  plum  tree  i^  fl^,  Shu-chiao),  all  affording  excellent 
material  for  making  mucilage,  and  being  used  as  demulcent 
remedies.  But  the  thing  most  commonly  used  in  China,  both 
for  suspending  insoluble  drugs  and  as  a  paste  for  adhesive 
purposes^  is  rice  congee.      It  is  an  efficient  instrument,  usually 


ready  at  hand,  or  very  easily  prepared.  The  Chinese  literary 
man  usually  depends  upon  a  few  grains  of  cooked  rice  left 
over  from  his  last  meal,  for  sticking  together  paper  surfaces. 

MUCUNA  CAPITATA.— ^  ^  (Li-tou),  |i  ^  (Li-tou), 
J^  ^  (Hu-tou).  This  is  a  Japanese  identification,  and  it  is  not 
quite  certain  that  this  is  the  plant  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao. 
What  is  there  described  is  a  leguminous  plant  bearing  a  hairy 
pod,  having  a  purple  flower  which  resembles  that  of  Dolichos 
umbellatus^  while  the  leaves  resemble  those  of  Dolichos  lablab. 
The  beans  are  of  the  size  of  those  of  Cmiivallia  eiisiformis^ 
and  are  mottled  with  black.  They  are  very  good  eating 
when  cooked  with  pork  or  chicken.  They  are  considered 
to  be  slightly  deleterious,  and  medicinally  are  warming  and 

MULGEDIUM  SIBIRIACUM.— "g'®  (Chii-sheng).  This 
is  confounded  with  Sesamiun  by  Chinese  botanists,  and  is 
mentioned  in  the  Pentsao  under  that  article.  However,  this 
present  identification  is  very  uncertain,  although  the  seeds 
(H  ^  ^)  Chii-sheng-tzn),  234,  answer  tolerably  well  to  this 
description.  Strange  to  say,  the  Customs  Lists  identify  them 
with  the  seeds  of  Impatiens  balsanima.  As  described  by 
Braun,  they  are  yellowish  brown  in  color,  oblong,  and  have  all 
the  appearance  of  fennel  seeds.  Those  found  in  the  shops  of 
Peking  are  of  two  kinds,  black  and  yellowish-white.  What 
the  black  are  is  very  uncertain.  The  others  were  regarded 
by  Maximowics  as  seeds  of  Ixeris  or  Mtdgedium.  The  med- 
ical action  of  these  seeds  is  said  to  be  tonic  to  the  viscera, 
respiratory,  and  strengthening  to  the  sinews  and  bones.  The 
drug  will  also  dissolve  cinnabar. 

MURRAYA  EXOTICA.— :fL  M  1=  if  (Chiu-li-hsiang- 
ts'ao).  No  description  of  this  plant  is  given  in  the  books.  It 
is  prescribed  for  abdominal  abscess. 

MUSA  SAPIENTUM.  — t  %  (Kan-chiao),  "g;  %  (Pa- 
chiao).  Also  commonly  called  ^  -^  (Hsiang-chiao).  A  good 
description   of  this   plant  is  given  in  the  Pentsao^  but  no  dis- 


tinction  is  made  between  the  plantain  and  the  banana  {Musa 
paradisicd).  A  number  of  varieties  are  mentioned,  such  as  : 
^I  %  (Hung-chiao),  7K  %  (Shui-chiao),  ^  %  (Ya-chiao),  ^  ^L 
^  (Niu-ju-chiao),  1§^  %  (Pan-chiao),  f^  ^  ^  (Fo-shou-chiao), 
^i  •?  ^  (Chi-tzu-chiao),  H  A  ii  (Mei-jen-chiao),  and  If  f^  i|^ 
(Tan-p'ing-chiao).  The  plant  is  met  with  in  Szechuan,  Fu- 
kien,  and  the  southern  provinces.  It  grows  in  the  Yangtse 
provinces,  but  seldom  ripens  its  fruit.  The  fruit  is  considered 
to  be  very  cooling,  and  should  not  be  eaten  in  excess.  When 
eaten  in  the  raw  state,  it  relieves  thirst,  moistens  the  lungs, 
purifies  the  blood,  heals  wounds,  and  is  anti vinous.  Steamed, 
it  promotes  the  circulation  of  the  blood  and  enriches  the 
marrow.  The  root,  84,  is  considered  to  be  antifebrile  and 
restorative.  Bruised,  it  is  applied  to  wounds  and  ulcers,  and 
the  juice  is  administered  in  jaundice,  influenza,  and  post-partum 
difficulties.  The  viscid  sap  of  the  plant,  which  is  called  ^  jjlj 
(Chiao-yu),  is  procured  by  thrusting  a  bamboo  tube  into  the 
stalk  and  collecting  the  sap  in  a  bottle.  It  has  the  antifebrile 
properties  of  the  other  parts,  and  is  specially  recommended  in 
epilepsy,  vertigo,  and  to  prevent  women's  hair  from  falling, 
to  increase  its  growth  and  to  restore  its  color.  The  bruised 
leaves  are  particularly  recommended  as  a  poultice  in  incipient 
abscesses.      The  flowers  are  used  in  cardialgia. 

MUSCI. — ^  CT'ai)  is  almost  a  family  name  for  mosses^ 
but  is  not  confined  to  these,  being  also  at  times  applied  to 
algcE^  fiingi^  and  some  aquatic  spermaphytes.  Several  mosses 
are  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao.  {)'.$  ^  (Chih-li),  which  is 
variously  called  jrjc  ^  (Shui-t'ai),  7JC  ^%  (Shui-mien),  and  ^  % 
T'ai-ts'ai),  is  probably  Ccraniimn  rubrum.  It  was  formerly 
used  for  making  a  kind  of  paper,  and  is  still  gathered  and  dried 
for  food  under  the  name  of  ^  )]ij)  (T'ai-fu).  It  is  considered 
to  be  very  nourishing.  Its  medicinal  action  is  cooling,  peptic, 
and  emollient.  It  is  used  in  fluxes,  influenza,  and  cinnabar 
poisoning.  The  moss  growing  in  old  wells,  ^  4*  o"  (Ching- 
chung-t'ai),  is  of  repute  in  the  treatment  of  wounds,  scalds  and 
burns,  and  is  considered  to  be  an  antidote  to  several  vegetable 
poisons.  That  from  the  bottom  of  boats,  ^  ]^'^  (Ch'uau- 
ti-t'ai),-    is    prescribed    in    hemoptj'sis,    gravel,    and    influenza. 


is.  3^  (Yuan-i)  is  a  kind  of  moss  which  grows  on  house  roofs 
and  stones.  In  the  latter  case  it  is  also  called  ^"  ^  ^  (Cli'ing- 
tai-i).  It  is  prescribed  in  jaundice,  coughs,  fever,  flatulence, 
wounds,  burns,  and  nosebleed.  It  is  considered  to  be  tonic, 
respiratory,  and  constructive,  and  is  said  to  improve  nutrition 
and  color. 

MUSHROOMS.— A  class  name  for  these  is  ^  i(^  (Chih- 
erh).  Another  common  name  is  "^  (Chiin),  and  still  another 
is  ^  (Hsin).  Mushrooms  growing  on  hard  ground  are  called 
1^  (Chiin),  those  on  soft  earth  are  called  ^  (Chih),  while  those 
growing  on  wood  are  called  |jjn  or  j^  (^rh).  The  ^  (Hsin)  is 
more  fleshy  than  the  "^  (Chiin),  and  is  probably  referred  to 
Boletus  or  a  fleshy  Polyporiis.  Some  of  the  mountain  varieties 
are  deleterious.  Other  terms  used  for  mushrooms  are  ^  (Kai) 
and  ^  (Ku),  but  these  refer  to  a  few  specific  specimens.  ^ 
(Chih)  is  defined  in  the  classics  as  the  plant  of  immortality, 
and  it  is  therefore  always  considered  to  be  a  felicitous  one.  It 
is  said  to  absorb  the  earthy  vapors  and  to  leave  a  heavenlv 
atmosphere.  For  this  reason  it  is  called  ^  '^  (Ling-chih.)  It 
is  large  and  of  a  branched  form,  and  probably  represents 
Clavaria  or  Sparassis.  Its  form  is  likened  to  that  of  coral. 
There  are  very  many  varieties  ;  one  author  says  one  hundred, 
but  the  principal  ones  are  represented  by  what  are  known  as 
the  -^^  -^  (Liu-chih),  or  "six  mosses;"  namely:  the  ^  '^ 
(Ch'ing-chih)  or  §|  '£  (Uing-chih)  ;  the  %  It  (Ch'ih-chih)  o'r 
^  2  (Tan-chih)  ;  the  fr  j^  (Huang-chih)  or  ^-^*  (Chin-chih)  ; 
the  ^  2  (Pai-chih),  ^^  ^y  (Yii-chih),  or  ^  ^  (Su-chih)  ;  the 
^  2  (Hei-chih)  or  ^  ji:  (Hsiian-chih)  ;  and  the  ^  ^£  (Tzii- 
chih)  or  /f;  ^  (Mu-chih).  These  are  all  non-poisonous,  edible, 
and  are  considered  to  be  highly  beneficial.  The  first  comes 
from  Taishan,  has  a  sour  taste,  brightens  the  eye,  strengthens 
the  liver,  quiets  the  spirits,  improves  the  memory,  and  prolongs 
life.  The  second  grows  on  the  Hengshan,  has  a  bitter  taste, 
acts  especially  on  the  heart,  and  has  the  tonic  and  quieting 
properties  of  the  first.  The  third  grows  on  Sungshan,  is  of  a 
sweet  taste,  acts  specially  on  the  spleen,  and  is  tonic  and  con- 
structive, as  in  the  case  of  the  other  two.  The  fourth  grows 
on  Huashan,  is  of  a  pungent  taste,  acts  specially  on  the  lungs 


and  air  passages,  with  beneficial  properties  as  before.  The 
fifth  grows  on  Changshan,  has  a  saltish  taste,  acts  specially  on 
the  urinary  organs,  and  is  of  equaly  general  value  with  the 
others.  The  sixth  comes  from  the  Kaohsiashan  (location  not 
known),  is  of  a  sweetish-cooling  taste,  acts  on  the  bones  and 
ligaments,  and  has  the  general  constructive  properties  of  the 
others.      It  is  also  recommended  in  deafness  and  hemorrhoids. 

Tf;  3  (Mu-erh)  has  been  identified  by  some  observers  as 
Exidia  auricula  judcs^  but  the  probability  is  rather  in  favor 
of  its  being  Auriciilaria^  even  as  its  name  implies,  belonging 
to  the  order  of  Auricular iales  rather  than  to  that  of  Tremal- 
lales.  Five  species  have  already  been  mentioned  in  the  article 
on  Exidia.  Three  others  are  given  in  the  Pentsao,  That 
growing  upon  Ciidrajiia  triloba^  X^  "^  (Che-erh),  is  employed 
in  the  treatment  of  diseases  of  the  respiratory  organs,  especially 
hemoptysis  and  fetid  expectoration.  The  one  growing  upon 
Diervilla  versicolor  )^  j^  '^  (Yang-lu-erh),  is  employed  to 
scatter  ecchymoses,  and  has  the  reputation  of  rendering  the 
blood  fluid.  The  one  growing  upon  Cunniiighamia  sinensis 
•)^  ^  (Shan-chiin),  is  reputed  to  relieve  cardialgia.  Still 
another,  growing  upon  Gleditschia  chinensis^  !^  ^  W-  (Tsao- 
chia-hsin),  is  of  high  repute  in  scattering  incipient  abscesses 
and  in  the  treatment  of  diarrhoea  due  to  cold. 

The  ^  ^  (Hsiang-hsin)  grows  upon  the  Pa?ilownia,  the 
willow.  Citrus  fusca^  and  Hovenia  diilcis.  It  is  of  two  colors  ; 
the  purple  being  called  ^  ^  (Hsiang-hsin)  and  the  white 
I^  ^  (Jou-hsin).  The  latter  is  the  fleshy  sort,  and  is  probably 
Boletus.  They  are  said  to  benefit  respiration,  cure  colds,  and 
purify  the  blood.  A  kind  growing  upon  the  pine  tree  is  used 
in  the  treatment  of  gonorrhoea.  Another  mushroom,  known 
as  :^  :^  ^  (Ko-hua-ts'ai)  and  :^  ^  (Ko-ju),  is  red  in  color, 
with  a  large,  flat  hymenium.  It  is  used  in  the  treatment  of 
excess  in  wine.  A  mushroom  known  as  ^c  'i^  ^  (T'ien-hua- 
hsin)  and  5c  ^  ^  (T'ien-hua-ts'ai),  is  fragrant,  white  in  color, 
and  is  regarded  as  a  finely  edible  variety.  It  is  considered  to 
be  respiratory  and  anthelmintic.  Another  fleshy  mushroom, 
known  as  ^&  ^  ^  (Mo-ku-hsin),  grows  upon  the  decaying 
\vood  of  the  mulberry  and  the  paper-mulberry.  It  is  tw'O  or 
three  inches  long,  conical,  small  at  the  base  and  large  at  the 


upper  extremity,  white  in  color,  exceedingly  fragile,  and 
hollow  internally.  Owing  to  its  shape,  it  is  commonly  called 
%  ^MM  (Chi-t'ui-mo-ku).  This  is  probably  one  of  the 
Clavariacese,  and  may  be  Pistillaria.  Its  medicinal  action  is 
upon  the  intestines  and  stomach,  and  it  is  also  said  to  dissolve 
phlegm  and  benefit  respiration.  A  club-shaped  mushroom, 
called  %  if  (Chi-tsung)  and  %  "g  (Chi-chiin),  is  found  in  the 
sandy  plains  of  Yunnan.  A  similar  kind,  called  ^  "^  (Lei- 
chiin),  conies  from  Kiangsi.  Both  of  these  are  used  as  food, 
eaten  with  tea  or  cooked  with  meat  broth.  They  are  thought 
to  benefit  the  stomach,  invigorate  the  spirits,  and  to  cure 
hemorrhoids.  A  form  growing  upon  the  rudders  of  old  sea- 
going ships  is  called  from  this  fact  j|g  ||  (To-ts'ai).  It  is  used 
in  the  treatment  of  goitre. 

The  poisonous  varieties  of  mushroom  go  under  the  names 
±  f  (T'u-chiin),  i  %  (T'u-hsin),  %  %  (Ti-hsin),  ^  ^ 
(Ku-tzu),  %  W.  (Ti-chi),  and  Jt  ^  (Chang-t'ou).  These, 
the  more  common  forms  of  wild  growing  mushrooms,  or 
toad-stools,  are  well  described  in  the  Pentsao  as  to  their 
coarser  characteristics.  Medicinally  they  are  used,  after 
having  been  incinerated,  in  the  treatment  of  ulcers,  scaly 
skin  diseases,  and  foul  sores.  Another  poisonous  variety 
is  called  ^  a^  (Kuei-pi),  on  account  of  its  pencil-like  form. 
It  is  also  used  in  the  treatment  of  skin  difficulties,  especially 
those  of  a  parasitic  nature.  Two  non-poisonous  varieties  of 
common  field  mushroom  are  the  ^  ^  (Kuei-kai)  and  ^  "^ 
(Ti-chi n).  These  are  used  in  the  treatment  of  nervous  diseases 
of  children.  The  former  is  found  in  yellow  and  white  colors, 
and  the  latter  is  ephemeral,  coming  up  in  the  morning  and 
fading  by  noon.  A  horn-shaped  kind,  found  growing  upon  the 
bamboo,  or  in  bamboo  groves,  is  for  this  reason  called  fj"  ^ 
(Chu-ju)  and  f5"  I^  (Chu-jon).  It  is  highly  esteemed  as  a 
vegetable  and  in  the  treatment  of  poisonous  effluvia.  A  mush- 
room found  growing  in  ponds  and  marshes,  called  ^  "^  (Huan- 
chiin),  is  very  irregular  in  shape,  and  was  said  by  one  ancient 
observer  to  be  the  metamorphosed  excrement  of  the  heron, 
and  for  this  reason  the  first  character  in  the  name  should  be 
written  ^|  (Huan).  It  is  slightly  deleterious,  and  is  therefore 
not  used  for  food.     It  is  esteemed  in   cardialgia,  insect   and 


reptile  bites,  intestinal  worms,  favus,  and  internally  as  an 
anodyne  in  colic.  A  prickly  variety,  which  may  be  referred  to 
Hvdnum^  is  found  in  Szechnan,  and  is  called  ^  ^  (Shu-ko). 
It  is  non-poisonous,  and  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  fevers  and 
menstrual  difficulties.  One  called  j^  [^  (Ti-erh)  is  evidently 
an  auriculariaceous  form,  as  is  also  that  called  jg"  !|p  (Shih- 
8rh).  The  former  is  eaten,  and  is  said  to  brighten  the  eye, 
benefit  respiration,  and  promote  fecundity.  The  latter  is  also 
edible,  and  has  all  of  the  good  qualities  of  the  ^  (Chih),  being 
also  used  in  the  treatment  of  gravel,  and  being  said  to  benefit 
virility.  It  is  specially  used  in  hemorrhage  from  the  bowels 
and  prolapse  of  the  rectum.  While  the  name  of  this  would 
indicate  that  it  was  one  of  the  Auriculariales,  the  fact  that  the 
name  ^  ^  (Ling-chih),  731,  is  also  given  to  it  might  place  it 
among  the  Clavariaceae.  It  is  not  fully  described,  so  that  there 
is  no  way  in  which  the  matter  can  be  determined  except  by 
observation  of  specimens. 

MYLITTA  LAPIDESCENS.— ^  %  (Lei-wan),  699.  This 
is  one  of  those  growths  the  nature  of  which  has  not  yet  been 
accurately  determined.  Some  observers  consider  it  to  be  the 
result  of  one  of  the  parasitic  myxomycetes  attacking  the 
roots  of  certain  trees,  developing  in  them,  and  from  their  sub- 
stance, these  tuberous  bodies,  as  is  well  known  in  the  case  of 
Ahms  in  America.  In  this  case  the  tuber  leads  an  independ- 
ent, though  parasitic,  existence.  Others  regard  them  to  be 
the  result  of  the  mycellium  of  sorne  parasitic  fungus  penetrat- 
ing the  inner  bark  of  the  tree-host,  and  producing  from  the 
tissues  of  the  root  itself  and  the  sap  of  the  tree  these  bodies. 
In  this  case  the  growth  is  a  pathological  excrescence.  "They 
occur  in  the  form  of  small  rounded  nodules,  varying  in  weight 
from  five  grains  to  nearly  a  half  an  ounce.  Their  exterior 
surface  is  of  a  dark  brownish-grey  color,  and  generally  finely 
corrugated  ;  their  inner  substance  has  a  granular  appearance, 
is  of  a  pinkish-brown  color,  and  of  almost  stony  hardness.  A 
microscopic  section  shows  that  the  tissue  is  divided  into  areolae, 
after  the  manner  of  that  of  the  truffle  and  other  underground 
fungi."  They  have  a  slight  pedicle  attached  to  one  or  both 
poles,  and  are  sometimes  met  with  joined  together  like  a  roll 


of  imperfectly  divided  pills.  Tbey  have  little  smell  or  taste, 
as  they  appear  ou  the  Chinese  market.  Similar  substances  are 
dug  out  of  the  chalk  beds  of  Travancore  and  Tinnevelly. 
Those  produced  on  the  root  of  the  bamboo  are  edited  fj"  ^ 
(Chu-ling).  The  tubers  are  said  to  be  produced  by  the  thunder- 
clap metamorphosing  the  subtile  vapors  of  plants.  In  the  fresh 
state,  they  are  bitter  and  cooling  in  taste,  aud  slightly  poison- 
ous, and  are  among  the  large  number  of  drugs  reputed  to 
be  prophylactic  and  antifebrile,  are  said  to  benefit  the  male 
but  not  the  female,  and  if  taken  for  a  long  time  result  in  im- 
potence. They  are  recommended  in  epilepsy,  chorea,  and 
other  nervous  affections  of  children,  and  are  used  for  pin  worms 
aud  maggots  in  the  fi-esh. 

MYRICA  RUBRA.— j^  ;f§  (Yang-mer),  \ji  J-  (Chiu-tzu). 
This  tree  is  likened  to  Nephcliii7n^  and  its  fruit  to  that  of 
Broiisso7tetia  papyri/era  or  Frag  aria.  Foreigners  call  the  fruit 
the  "  Chinese  strawberry.'''*  There  are  three  principal  varie- 
ties, determined  by  the  color  of  the  fruit — the  white,  the  red, 
aud  the  purple.  They  are  esteemed  in  the  order  here  given  ;. 
the  purple  being  considered  to  be  the  best.  They  are  sour  and 
cooling  in  taste,  and  are  som~etimes  salted  or  preserved.  In 
this  form  they  are  considered  to  be  pectoral  and  quieting  to  the 
stomach.  Taken  with  wine,  they  prevent  the  nausea  from 
wine  drinking.  They  are  also  said  to  be  carminative,  aud 
useful  in  digestive  disturbances,  including  diarrhcea  and  dysen- 
tery. The  kernels  of  the  seeds  are  used  in  sweating  feet,  and 
the  bark  of  the  tree  and  the  root  are  employed  in  decoction  in 
the  treatment  of  wounds,  ulcers,  scaly  skin  diseases,  and  arsenic 

MYRIOGYNE  MINUTA.— ;&  j^  ^  (Shih-hu-sui).  This 
is  a  minute  plant,  growing  in  the  crevices  of  stones  and  in 
moist  places  among  rocks.  It  is  also  called  5c  ^  ^  (T'ien- 
hu-sui).  It  is  not  edible,  and  although  it  is  more  or  less  an 
aquatic  plant,  geese  will  not  eat  it,  and  for  this  reason  it  receives 
the  name  ^  ^  ;^  ]^  (E-pu-shih-ts'ao):  Its  medicinal  action  is 
upon  the  respiratory  passages,  including  the  nose.  It  cures 
films    ou    the    eyes,    hemorrhoids,    polypus   of  the    nose,    and 


relieves  swellings  aud   deafness.     It   is  also  recommended  in 
malarial  fevers. 

MYRIOPHYLLUM.— 7J1C  ^  (Sliui-tsao).  Several  halora- 
geous  and  naiadaceous  plants  are  described  in  the  Pentsao 
under  this  term.  The  larger  kind,  with  leaves  like  those  of 
Peril/a^  is  called  by  the  name  given  above.  This  is  Myrio- 
phylhnn  spicatum.  Another,  with  leaves  like  the  Chrysanthe- 
mu7n  coronarhmt^  is  called  |^  ^  (Chii-tsao).  In  Japan  this  is 
Ceratophyllum  deinerswn.  It  is  also  called  7]^  j^  (Shui-yiin), 
lis  !l^  (Sai-ts'ao),  and  ^  ;^  j^  (Niu-wei-yiin).  Bht  these  are 
probably  quite  different  plants,  being  referred  to  Myriophyllnm^ 
HippJiris^  and  Zostera.  Still  another  mentioned  is  ^  ^  (Ma- 
tsao),  which  is  usually  referred  to  Potaniogeton.  All  of  these 
plants  are  considered  to  be  edible,  and  are  used  in  medicine  ; 
the  last  named  being  considered  to  be  the  best  for  this  pur- 
pose. The  taste  is  sweet,  very  cooling,  demulcent,  and  the 
plant  is  non-poisonous.  It  is  prescribed  in  fevers,  to  relieve 
thirst,  and  in  fluxes,  especially  those  of  children.  Faber  also 
identifies  ^  ^  (Shih-fan)  as  Myriophylhmi^  but  the  Pentsao 
describes  this,  as  a  seaweed  allied  to  Sargassimi^  or  may  be  to 
Glyptostrobus.  It  is  used  in  decoction  for  the  treatment  of 

MYRISTICA  MOSCHATA.— i^  S  ^  (Jou-tou-k'ou), 
559,  1314.  This  Chinese  name  is  that  of  the  mitmeg.  An- 
other name  is  |^  H  (Jou-kno).  Mace  is  called  I^  ^  ^  (Jou- 
tou-hua),  560,  and  I^  H  :^  (Jou-kuo-hua).  It  is  not  produced 
in  China,  but  is  brought  from  countries  to  the  south,  where  it 
is  said  to  be  called  ^SS  1^  ^  (Ka-kou-le).  In  this  the  Chinese 
probably  confound  the  nutmeg  with  the  cardamom.  The 
nutmegs  found  in  China  are  usually  olive  shaped,  dry,  and 
worm  eaten.  They  are  used  principally  as  a  warming,  car- 
minative and  astringent  remedy  in  all  sorts  of  fluxes,  especially 
those  of  children  and  of  the  aged.  They  are  very  seldom 
employed  as  a  spice.  Mace  is  used  medicinally  equally  with 
the  mutmeg.  The  Customs  Lists  speak  of  1^  S.  ^  (Jou-tou- 
ken),  561,  which  seems  to  be  the  root  of  the  tree.  This  is  not 
mentioned  in  the  Pentsao. 



NANDINA  DOMESTIC  A.— ^  j^  (Nan-clui),  ^  %  ^ 
(Nan-t'ien-chu).  This  is  a  berberidaceous  shrub,  with  ever- 
green leaves  and,  in  the  winter  time,  beautiful  red  berries, 
making  a  good  substitute  for  Christmas  holly.  The  generic 
name  is  taken  from  the  sound  of  the  first  two  characters  in  the 
second  name  given  above.  Fortune,  from  the  error  of  suppos- 
ing that  the  last  character  in  the  Chinese  name  was  fj-  (Chu), 
translated  the  supposed  name  ^C  ft  (T'ien-chn)  into  '''•  Heaven- 
ly bainboo^^''  a  name  which  the  plant  still  retains  among 
foreigners.  But  this  combination  of  characters  is  not  found 
in  the  Chinese  books.  The  berries  are  called  ^^  '^  (Hou-shu), 
"monkey  beans,"  by  the  common  people,  and  the  plant  also 
goes  by  the  name  of  ^^  M^  (Wu-fan-ts'ao),  because  the  leaves 
are  used  in  preparing  a  kind  of  rice  congee  called  J^  ^  (Wu- 
fan)  or  1^  jf^  1^  (Ch'ing-ching-fan).  The  shrub  grows  on 
the  hills,  but  is  also  cultivated  on  account  of  its  glossy, 
green  leaves  and  red  berries,  which  are  much  used  as  winter 
decorations.  Medicinally,  the  branches  and  leaves  are  reputed 
to  check  discharges,  drive  away  sleepiness,  strengthen  the 
tendons,  benefit  the  breath,  prolong  life,  prevent  hunger,  and 
keep  off  old  age.  They  are  also  prescribed  for  colds.  The 
seeds,  883,  have  about  the  same  virtues,  and  they  are  said  to 
strengthen  virility  and  improve  the  complexion.  The  congee 
made  with  the  leaves,  as  mentioned  above,  has  similar  virtues, 
to  which  are  added  the  nourishing  qualities  of  the  rice. 

NARCISSUS  TAZETTA.— 7j»:  Jilj  (Shui-hsien),  ^  ^  ^ 
j^  (Chin-chan-yin-t'ai).  This  "water-nymph"  is  much  cul- 
tivated in  China,  being  found  in  nearly  every  home  at  the 
New  Year's  season,  growing  in  specially  prepared  dishes  in 
which  the  bulbs  are  set  in  clean  water  among  clean  pebbles 
or  shells.  The  fiowers  are  white  or  red,  with  yellow  centers, 
and  surmount  a  greenish  white  stem  ;  hence  the  second  name, 
"golden-bowl-silver-stand."  They  are  exceedingly  pleasing, 
both  on  account  of  their  beauty  and  fragrance.  The  bulbs 
are   used   medicinally   as   a   poultice   to   swellings,    and   as  a 


demulcent  bolus  to  carry  bones  out  of  the  cesopbagus.  The 
flowers  are  used  cosmetically,  and  are  thought  to  benefit  the 
hair.      The  plant  is  regarded  as  a  woman's  remedy. 

NARDOSTACHYS  JATAMANSL— This  plant,  which 
properly  belongs  to  India,  is  found  in  the  province  of  Yunnan 
and  on  the  western  borders  of  Szechuan,  but  whether  indigenous 
or  transplanted  is  uncertain.  Its  product.  It  |^  ^  (Kan-sung- 
hsiang),  or  true  spikenard^  is  found  in  the  medicine  shops  of 
China.  A  name  for  this,  taken  from  a  Buddhist  book,  is  ^  ^ 
^  (K'u-mi-ch'e).  This  is  probably  a  transliteration  of  some 
Indian  name.  Spikenard  is  classed  together  with  lign  aloes, 
cloves,  sandalwood,  and  Aglaia  odorata^  as  one  of  the  five 
odorous  plants.  The  rhizome  is  used  as  a  deodorant,  carmina- 
tive, and  stimulant.  A  decoction  is  used  in  various  skin  affec- 
tions and  in  the  bath  to  give  fragrance  to  the  body.  It  is 
used  in  India  in  hysteria,  epilepsy,  and  other  convulsive 
diseases.      The  root  is  sometimes  confounded  with  sumbul  root. 

NASTURTIUM  PALUSTRE.— ^  M  (Ting-li),  see 
Draba  nemoralis.      7JC  j^  (Shui-ch'in),  see  CEanthe  stolonijera. 

NAUCLEA  GAMBIR.— See  Uncaria  gambir  2.\i^  Acacia 

NELUMBIUM  SPECIOSUM.— :it  (Ho),  ^  %  (Pu-ch'ii). 
This  exceedingly  popular  and  very  useful  plant  has  a  distinct 
name  for  its  every  part.  Its  stem  is  called  ^  (Ch'ieh)  ;  the 
rootlets  on  the  lower  part  of  the  stem  or  at  the  top  of  the 
rhizome  are  called  ^  (Mi)  ;  its  leaf  is  called  5g  (Hsia)  ;  its 
flower  is  called  ^  "^  (Han-t'ao)  ;  its  fruit  jH  (Lien)  ;  its  root 
^  (Ou)  ;■  its  seed  |^*  (Ti)  ;  and  itS'  caulicle  ^  (I).  In  some 
parts  of  the  country  the  flowers  ate  called  ^  ^  (Fu-jung). 
However,  the  common  names  now  in  use  are  limited  for 
the  most  part  to  jg  1^  (Lien-hua),  722,  for  the  flower,  |^  ^ 
(Ho-yeh),  729,  for  the  leaves,  and  ^  (On),  923,  for  the  root. 
Such  is  the  arrangement  in  the  Pcntsno,  which  discusses  the 
plant  under  the  term  ^  ||  (Lien-ou).  The  seeds,  called  ^  ^ 
(Lien-shih),  726,  and  ^  jl  -^  (Shih-lien-tzii),  or  more  com- 
monly %.  ■?  (Lien-tzu);  are  usually  found  in  the  hard,  dry  state, 


having  a  black  testa  and  a  reddish  tegmen.  These  are  removed 
in  preparing  the  seeds  for  use,  and  the  fleshy  cotyledons 
are  boiled  or  ground  into  flour,  and  in  either  case  form  the 
basis  of  a  very  palatable  food.  The  fresh  cotyledons  are 
also  much  relished  in  the  raw  state  by  the  Chinese,  being 
peddled  on  the  streets  in  their  receptacles  in  the  season. 
In  any  form  they  are  considered  to  be  very  nourishing  and 
highly  beneficial  in  preserving  the  body  in  health  and  strength. 
They  are  refreshing,  preventive  of  fluxes,  promote  the  cir- 
culation, strengthen  the  virility,  and  "the  more  you  eat,  the 
more  you  want  of  them."  Their  use  is  recommended  in 
leucorrhcea  and  gonorrhoea.  Although  the  plant  grows  amidst 
the  filth  and  slime  of  ponds,  it  is  considered  to  be  an  emblem 
of  purity,  and  for  this  reason  the  different  parts  of  the  plant 
are  thought  to  purify  the  body  of  noxious  poisons  and  evil 
conditions.  The  seeds  must  not  be  confounded  with  tliose 
of  CcBsalpinia  fninax^  which  are  also  called  ^  '^  "f"  (Sliih- 
lien-tzu),  11 53.  Li  Shih-chen  utters  this  warning,  but  says 
that  he  does  not  know  what  these  latter  seeds  are.  The 
root-stock  is  jointed  and  fleshy,  and  when  cut  across  shows  a 
number  of  cavities  in  the  tissue,  concentrically  arranged,  and 
terminating  at  the  joints,  which  interrupt  them  at  every  foot 
or  less  of  the  length  of  the  stock.  These  are  boiled  and  sold 
in  slices  on  the  streets,  forming  a  sweet,  mucilaginous  food, 
looking  like  the  sweet  potato,  and  very  much  relished  by  the 
Chinese.  The  joints  of  the  root-stock  are  considered  separately 
under  the  name  of  ||  |iJ  (Ou-chieh),  923,  and  are  thought  to 
be  hemostatic  in  hemoptysis,  and  also  in  post-partum  hemor- 
rhage, hematuria,  and  bloody  stools.  Two  kinds  of  arrow-root 
are  made  of  the  root-stock,  one  called  ^  ^^  (Ou-fen),  924,  from 
the  fleshy  part,  and  the  other  called  gij  ^  (Chieh-fen)  from  the 
joints.  The  latter  is  far  the  more  expensive  of  the  two,  and 
is  made  in  the  region  about  Huaian,  Kiangsu.  The  mode  of 
manufacture  in  either  case  is  to  crush  the  root  and  wash  out 
the  starch  with  water.  After  subsidance,  the  water  is  drained 
off  and  the  starch  left  to  dry.  The  taste  of  the  Ou-fcn  is 
sweetish  and  somewhat  aromatic.  It  is  considered  to  be 
nutritious,  stomachic,  tonic,  increasing  the  mental  faculties 
and  quieting  the  spirits.     The  taste  of  the  Chieh-f^n  is  somC' 


what  bitterish  and  acrid,  and  it  is  thought  to  have  special 
action  upon  the  circulation,  and  is  recommended  in  hemor- 
rhages. The  ordinary  Oii-fen  is  a  reddish-white,  glistening, 
unctuous  powder,  making  a  very  tenacious  jeHy  of  a  dark 
color  when  boiled  with  water.  It  answers  all  the  purposes  of 
the  best  arrow-root,  and  is  of  great  value  in  the  treatment  of 
diarrhoea  and  dysentery.  It  is  given  in  diseases  of  the  chest, 
and  is  an  important  ingredient  in  the  article  called  H  '^  ^ 
(San-ho-fen),  used  in  the  rearing  of  hand-fed  infants.  It  also 
is  a  chief  ingredient  in  a  nourishing  pudding  specially  prepared 
for  the  weak  and  ill-nourished,  and  called  A  jllj  ^  '^  (Pa- 
hsien-ou-fen).  This  arrow-root,  as  found  in  the  shops,  is  so 
frequently  adulterated  with  leguminous  starches  that  many 
families  endeavor  to  make  it  for  themselves.  The  caulicle 
of  the  seeds,  called  j^  ^  (Lien-i)  and  j^  -^  *C»  (Lien-tzii- 
hsin),  728,  is  bitter  in  taste,  relieves  the  sense  of  thirst  after 
hemorrhages,  and  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  cholera,  he- 
moptysis, and  spermatorrhoea.  The  stamens  of  the  flowers, 
called  }^  ^  H  (Lien-jui-hsii),  721,  and  fjjj  |^  ^  (Fo-tso-hsii), 
purify  the  heart,  permeate  the  kidne5's,  strengthen  the  virility, 
blacken  the  hair,  make  joyful  the  countenance,  benefit  the 
blood,  and  check  hemorrhages.  The  flowers,  722,  are  recom- 
mended as  a  cosmetic  application  to  the  face  to  improve  the 
complexion,  and  it  is  said  that  in  cases  of  difiicult  labor  a 
single  petal  is  taken,  the  father's  literary  *' style"  is  inscribed 
thereon,  and  then  swallowed  by  the  woman,  in  which  case  the 
labor  will  be  made  easy.  The  seed  pod  or  receptacle  is  called 
jg  %  (Lien-fang),  720,  or  jg  ^  f:  (Lien-p'eng-fu),  725.  After 
the  seeds  have  been  removed,  it  looks  something  like  the  nozzle 
of  a  garden  sprinkler.  Its  medicinal  action  is  regarded  as  anti- 
hemorrhagic,  and  it  is  also  employed  to  promote  the  expulsion 
of  the  afterbirth  and  in  watery  decoction  to  counteract  the 
poison  of  deleterious  fungi.  The  leaves,  |^  ^  (Ho-yeh),  re- 
ceive various  names  according  to  their  age  or  position.  The 
very  young  ones  are  called  ^j^  %%  (Ho-ch'ien),  those  lying  upon 
the  water  |^  ^  (Ou-ho),  and  those  extending  above  the 
water  ^  ^-  (Chih-ho).  The  dried  leaves  are  sold  to  grocers, 
who  use  them  for  wrapping  up  some  of  their  goods.  The  leaf 
stalk  is  called  %  ^  (Ho-pi).     The  medicinal  virtues  of  the 


leaf  are  considered  to  be  antifebrile,  antihemorrhagic,  con- 
structive to  the  blood,  promotive  of  labor  and  the  expulsion  of 
the  afterbirth,  antidotal  to  poisonous  fungi,  and  useful  as  an 
application  in  eruptive  fevers  and  other  skin  diseases.  Some 
of  these  properties  are  attributed  to  the  leaf  stalk,  and  it  is  said 
to  have  the  special  quality  of  quieting  the  pregnant  uterus. 
Two  lotus-like  flowers,  brought  from  some  foreign  country, 
and  called  i^I  ^  jH  ^  (Hung-pai-lien-hua),  are  spoken  of  in 
the  Pentsao.  The  prolonged  use  of  these  drives  away  old  age 
and  gives  a  fine  complexion.     They  may  be  Nymphaese. 

NEPETA  GLECHOMA.— i^  @  %  (Chi-hsiieh-ts'ao). 
Because  this  plant  has  leaves  like  Chinese  copper  coin,  it  is 
also  called  %^'^  (Ti-ch'ien-ts'ao)  and  %  ^'%  (Lien-ch'ien- 
ts'ao).  On  account  of  its  fragrance  it  is  called  ]|^  |^  i^  (Hu- 
po-ho).  It  grows  in  the  river  valleys  of  the  central  and 
northern  provinces,  and  is  the  well  known  ground  ivy.  The 
stalk  and  leaves  of  the  plant  are  used  in  medicine,  and  their 
chief  virtue  seems  to  be  that  of  an  antifebrile  remedy.  They 
are  also  anodyne,  and  are  prescribed  in  every  form  of  fever  and 
in  all  sorts  of  spontaneous  pain^  including  toothache  and 

NEPHEUUM  LAPACUM.— IS  ^  (Shao-tziS).  This 
grows  in  Lingnan,  resembles  the  lichee^  and  is  esteemed  as  a 
fruit.  It  is  recommended  in  severe  dysentery  and  as  a  warm- 
ing carminative  in  "  cold  "  dyspepsia* 

NEPHELIUM  LITCHI.-||;^  (Li-chih),  700,  ^||  (Tati- 
li).  Many  of  the  sapindaceous  plants  are  poisonous,  but  the 
Nephelmm  fruits  are  an  exception,  being  much  esteemed  both 
in  the  fresh  and  in  the  dry  state.  These  grow  throughout 
China,  but  are  only  found  in  their  perfection  in  the  southerti 
provinces  ;  those  from  Fukien  being  regarded  as  the  best.  The 
fruits  are  dried  in  the  sun  or  by  artificial  heat,  and  are  used 
as  a  sweetmeat  at  feasts,  and  often  given  as  presents  to  the 
newly  married.  They  are  not  regarded  as  entirely  without 
deleterious  propertieSj  and  when  the  raw  fruits  are  partaken  of 
freely   they  are  said  to  produce  feverishness  and  nosebleed. 


Partaken  of  in  small  quantities  or  in  the  dried  form,  they  are 
thirst  relieving  and  beneficial  to  nutrition.  But  they  are 
specially  recommended  in  all  forms  of  gland  enlargement  and 
tumors.  The  seeds,  701,  are  regarded  as  anodyne,  aud  are 
prescribed  in  various  neuralgic  disorders  and  in  orchitis.  The 
leathery  external  tegument  of  the  fruit  is  used  in  decoction  in 
the  distress  caused  by  small-pox  eruption,  and  also  in  fluxes 
from  the  bowels.  The  flowers,  bark,  and  root,  702,  are 
employed  in  decoction  in  angina  and  quinsy. 

NEPHEUUM  LONGANA.— fl  0^  (Lung-yen).  A  num- 
ber of  other  names  are  given  for  this  plant,  which  resembles 
the  lichee^  but  is  smaller.  On  account  of  this  inferiority  it  is 
called  ^  ;|^  ^  (Ivi-chih-nu),  "slave  of  the  lichee."  Because 
it  is  supposed  to  benefit  the  understanding,  it  is  called  g  ^ 
(I-chih),  but  it  must  not  be  confounded  with  Aiuonnim 
amarum.  The  fruits  are  supposed  to  be  counter-poison, 
anthelmintic,  and  constructive.  They  act  specially  upon 
the  spleen,  improve  the  mental  faculties,  and  are  regarded 
as  generally  beneficial.  The  seeds  are  used  in  excessive 
perspirations.  The  flowers,  793,  and  leaves,  794,  are  sold 
on  the  markets,  but  are  not  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao.  . 

NEPHELIUM  Sp.  — H  tl  (Limg-li).  This  grows  south 
of  the  Meiling,  and  as  its  name  implies,  resembles  both  the 
lichee  and  the  lungyen.  It  is  slightly  poisonous,  cannot  be 
eaten  raw,  but  is  cooked  and  used  as  food.  If  eaten  in  the 
raw  state,  it  produces  a  sort  of  frenzy,  and  causes  one  to  have 
hallucinations.  This  shows  the  narrow  line  between  the 
poisonous  and  non-poisonous  Sapindacese. 

NEPHRODIUM  FILIX  MAS.— According  to  Henry,  in 
Hupeh  ^  ^  ^  (Mao-kuan-chung)  is  the  name  for  this  viah' 
fern^  as  well  as  for  Onoclea  orientalis  and  Woodzvardia  radi- 
cans.  It  is  not  distinguished  in  the  Pentsao  from  ^  ^  (Kuan- 
chung).  In  Shantung,  according  to  Fauvel,  this  last  name  is 
applied  to  Aspidium  jalcatiim  ;  while,  according  to  Franchet, 
in  Japan  it  is  applied  to  Lomaria  japonica.  Several  Chinese 
names  are  given  in  the  Pentsao  for  this  plant,  among  which 


is  H.  Jl  ^  (Feng-wei-ts'ao),  or  "phoenix-tail."  It  is  probable 
that  a  number  of  species  of  Aspidhitn^  as  well  as  of  other  ferns, 
is  included  under  these  names.  The  root-stock  is  gathered 
twice  a  year,  in  the  second  and  the  eighth  moons,  and  dried 
for  use  as  medicine.  Its  virtues  are  considered  to  be  anthel- 
mintic and  corrective.  It  is  also  used  in  wounds  and  hemor- 
rhages, such  as  epistaxis,  menorrhagia,  and  post-partum 
hemorrhage.  It  is  employed  in  the  treatment  of  the  diseases 
of  swine.  Flowers  are  spoken  of,  which  would  indicate  that 
Osmunda  is  sometimes  confounded  with  this.  These  so-called 
flowers  are  employed  in  foul  ulcers,  and  are  said  to  be  pur- 

NICOTIAN  A  TABACUM.— '^  %  (Yen-ts'ao),  fc  -^ 
(Jen-ts'ao),  ^  ]^  (Yii  [Yen]-ts'ao).  This  is  one  of  the  evil 
gifts  of  the  new  world  to  the  old.  It  seems  to  have  been 
introduced  into  China  about  the  year  1620  A.D.,  and  prob- 
ably came  by  the  way  of  Manila.  The  plant  has  no  proper 
name  in  Chinese,  being  known  as  j^  [^  (Yen-ts*ao),  "smoke 
weed,"  and  j*^  £,  ^  (Tan-pa-ku),  which  is  variously  writ- 
ten, and  which  is  probably  a  transliteration  of  the  West 
Indian  tabacco.  There  is  no  evidence  to  show  that  the  plant 
was  known  in  Mongolia,  as  claimed  by  some,  although  the 
Mongolians  are  said  to  have  smoked  the  leaves  of  Lobelia 
injiata^  as  did  some  tribes  of  North  American  Indians.  The 
plant  seems  to  have  been  first  introduced  into  Fukien,  and 
this  province  has  maintained  its  preeminence  in  producing 
the  kinds  which  find  the  most  favor  with  smokers.  It  is 
now  grown  in  almost  every  part  of  the  empire,  and  almost  as 
many  species  and  varieties  are  found  in  China  as  in  America, 
although  the  Chinese  do  not  use  the  care  in  cultivating,  curing, 
preserving,  and  manufacturing  the  products  as  is  the  case  in 
America  and  other  countries  where  it  is  grown.  Various 
qualities  are  indicated  by  such  terms  as  ^  ^  (Kai-lu),  g^  ^ 
(T'ou-huang),  H  ^  (hrh-huang),  and  the  like.  These  refer  to 
the  time  and  effects  of  curing.  Little  care  is  taken  by  the 
Chinese  to  preserve  the  leaf  from  dampness,  as  it  is  usually 
shipped  in  open  boats,  only  covered  with  matting,  or  thatched 
over  with  straw.     Consequently  it  loses  much  of  its  flavoj:  and 


strength,  and  often  becomes  mouldy.  The  prepared  tobacco, 
as  formerly  almost  universally  smoked  by  the  Chinese,  was 
called  ^  1^  'j@  (Chin-ssH-yen),  and  was  manufactured  by 
tightly  packing  the  leaves  with  yellow  ochre  between,  and 
cutting  into  fine  threads  with  planes.  Tobacco  is  considered 
by  the  Chinese  to  be  antimalarial,  and  to  increase  this  effect, 
arsenic  is  sometimes  mixed  with  the  leaves  before  cutting. 
The  deleterious  effects  of  tobacco  are  fully  recognised  by  the 
Chinese,  f^  Difi  ^^  jJl  (Hao-fei-sun-hsiieh),  "wasting  the  lungs 
and  injuring  the  blood,"  are  the  unequivocal  terms  in  which 
they  describe  its  evil  effects.  Another  author  uses  |^  ^'(^^  (Sun- 
hsin),  "injuring  the  heart,"  which  certainly  describes  the 
effect  well  known  to  Western  observers.  It  is  also  said  to  ^  § 
(Sun-jung),  "injure  the  features,"  referring  to  the 
and  dry  skin  produced  in  excessive  smokers.  In  addition  to  its 
use  as  a  prophylactic  to  malaria,  its  decoction  or  oil  is  used  to 
destroy  insects,  in  parasitic  skin  diseases,  and  the  prepared 
tobacco  is  used  to  staunch  the  flow  of  blood  in  wounds  in  the 
same  way  as  "  fine  cut"  is  sometimes  used  in  the  rural  districts 
of  America.  "^M'^  (Hu-huang-lien)  with  tea,  or  the  Chinese 
black  sugar,  are  regarded  as  antidotes  to  the  poison  of  tobacco. 

The  flower  stalk  of  the  tobacco  plant,  'i@  ^  (Yen-ken),  is 
considered  to  be  more  poisonous  than  the  leaves.  It  is  said  to 
be  used  for  stupefying  fish.  For  this  purpose  it  is  chopped 
fine  and  bruised  together  with  green  walnpt  hulls  and  thrown 
into  the  pond,  when  the  large  fish  will  be  stupefied  by  it,  the 
small  ones  will  be  killed,  as  will  also  all  shrimps,  turtles, 
■<sl?ell-fish,  and  other  animal  life  found  in  the  pond  ;  and  the 
author  goes  on  to  say  that  although  it  thus  shows  itself  to  be 
deadly  poisonous,  yet  men  prepare  it  for  smoking !  The 
powdered  tobacco  leaf  is  recommended  as  an  insufflation  in 
nasal  catarrh  (DH  t^,  Nao-lou).  This  disease  is  said  to  be  pro- 
duced in  some  people  who  smoke  what  is  known  as  ^  ij!^  jtQ 
(Lan-hua-yen),  which  is  made  by  adding  Eupatormm  seeds  to 
the  tobacco,  in  order  to  give  it  fragrance.  The  expressed  juice 
of  the  fresh  leaves  is  combined  with  pine  resin,  and  the  vapor 
inhaled  to  benefit  the  blood  vessels  in  defective  circulation. 
The  bruised  leaves  are  also  applied  in  snake  bite,  and  the 
dried  leaves  sometimes  put  into  beds,  or  burned  under  the  bed, 


to  drive  away  Cmiex  lectularius  and  his  progeny.  An  old 
tobacco  pipe  stem,  jtS  i^.  (Yeu-kan),  and  the  deposit  in  its 
interior,  i®  if^  fttf  (Yen-kan-yu),  are  regarded  as  sovereign 
remedies  for  the  bite  of  venomous  snakes.  One  that  has  been 
in  use  at  least  forty  years  is  considered  the  best,  especially  if 
it  was  smoked  by  a  man  rather  than  a  woman.  The  remedy 
is  both  administered  internally  and  applied  locally.  It  is  also 
used  in  menorrhagia.  The  substance  from  the  interior  of  pipe 
stems,  as  well  as  the  water  from  a  water-pipe,  goes  by  the 
names  jtS  ^  (Yen-kao)  and  jtg  f^  (Yen-yu).  It  it  said  to  be 
the  emanation  of  the  five  elements  (water,  fire,  wood,  metal, 
earth)  developed  in  the  process  of  smoking,  and  is  therefore 
sometimes  called  55.  fr  fj-  (Wu-hsing-tan).  It  is  used  to  kill 
insects,  to  cure  parasitic  skin  diseases,  snake  and  centipede 
bites,  and  the  like.  It  is  also  sometimes  secured  from  the 
metal  tops  of  ordinary  pipes. 

Snuff,  ^  jtS  (Pi-yen),  was  formerly  quite  extensively  used, 
but,  as  in  Western  countries,  has  largely  fallen  into  disuse. 
A  few  officials  and  wealthy  people  still  employ  it,  but  seem  to 
do  so  rather  to  make  an  exhibition  of  their  costly  snufF  bottles. 
The  collection  of  these  snufF  bottles,  which  are  made  of  jade, 
lapis  lazuli,  chrysoprase,  and  other  precious  stones,  in  many 
artistic  and  beautiful  designs,  has  become  a  hobby  with  pur- 
chasers of  bric-k-brac.  Snuff-rubbing,  as  formerly  practiced 
in  some  parts  of  America,  does  not  seem  to  have  ever  gained  a 
foothold  in  China.  Foreign  snuff  was  introduced  through 
Macao,  and  was  considered  to  be  superior  to  the  native  product. 
This  latter  was  composed  of  Angelica  anovtah^  Asarum  ne- 
boldly  Gleditschia  officinalis^  Mentha  arvensis^  Baroos  camphor, 
and  prepared  tobacco  ('JtS  J^,)-  The  water  tobacco  jjc  i%  (Shui- 
yen)  comes  from  Lanchou  in  Kansu,  is  also  called  "jg  ^  (Hsi- 
yii),  and  is  highly  esteemed  as  a  tussic  remedy,  and  also  in  the 
treatment  of  snake  and  scorpion  bites.  It  is  probable  that 
this  is  Lobelia^  rather  than  Nicotiana^  as  the  leaves  are  likened 
to  those  oi  Eriobotryajiaportica. 

The  use  of  tobacco  has  undergpne  pppsiderable  change  in 
China  within  the  last  few  years.  Formerly  it  was  smoked  in 
small  quantities  at  a  tipie,  and  almost  universally  with  a  water 
pipe  or  a  long-stemmed  bamboo  pipe,  either  of  which  reduced 


the  absorption  of  nicotine  by  the  lungs  to  a  minimum.  But 
since  foreigners  have  become  so  largely  identified  with  the 
tobacco  trade,  the  use  of  cigars,  and  especially  of  cigarettes, 
has  not  only  largely  driven  out  the  former  and  less  deleterious 
methods  of  consumption,  but  has  also  vastly  increased  the  per 
capita  amount  of  tobacco  consumed.  The  modern  Chinese 
student,  clerk,  or  coolie  is  seldom  seen  without  a  *' coffin 
nail"  between  his  lips,  almost  uniformly  inhaling  the  smoke 
and  blowing  it  out  through  his  nostrils.  If  this  manner  of 
consumption  goes  on  at  its  present  increasing  rate,  the  Chinese 
people  will  soon  demonstrate  to  the  world  whether  or  not 
nicotine  has  any  specially  deleterious  effects  on  the  race.  This 
will  be  especially  true  in  this  case,  since  the  women  use  cigar- 
ettes almost  as  freely  as  the  men,  and  youths  and  even  small 
children  of  both  sexes  are  frequent  consumers. 

NITRARIA  SCHOBERL— Under  the  title  ;|;^  i^  (Kou- 
chi),  Li  Shih-chen  describes  a  globular,  red,  edible  berry, 
which  he  says  grows  in  Kansu.  It  is  certainly  not  Lycium^  as 
this  is  not  edible.  It  seems  to  correspond  to  a  plant  described 
l^y  Przewalski,  the  Nitraria  schroberi  of  the  order  of  Zygophyl- 
lese,  the  berries  of  which  form  an  important  article  of  diet  to 
the  Mongols  and  Tangus  of  Gobi,  Ordos,  and  Tsaidam.  The 
name  of  the  plant  in  Mongolian  is  khai-myk.  It  is  a  crooked 
shrub,  having  dense  foliage  and  small  thick  leaves.  It  blooms 
profusely  in  May,  the  flowers  being  small  and  white.  These 
are  followed  by  the  fruit,  which  consists  of  small,  dark-red 
berries,  ripening  in  August  and  remaining  on  the  tree  until 
late  in  the  autumn.  The  people  collect  these  berries  on  the 
twigs  when  fully  ripe  and  put  them  away  for  winter  use. 
They  are  soaked  and  boiled  in  water  to  soften  them,  and  eaten 
together  with  barley  meal.  The  water  in  which  the  berries 
have  been  boiled  is  also  used  as  a  drink.  Bears,  wolves,  foxes, 
and  birds  also  feed  on  the  berries.  Their  medicinal  properties, 
if  any,  can  scarcely  be  the  same  as  those  of  Lycium. 

589.  Henry  says  that  in  Hupeh  the  drug  is  derived  from 
J^igustiaun   sinense.     The   root  is  said    to   resemble    that    of 


Conioselinum.  Mnivittatiim^  but  is  lighter  and  less  juicy.  The 
plant  has  small,  bipinnate,  entire  leaves.  As  found  in  the 
shops,  the  roots  are  yellowish-brown,  branched  and  nodulated, 
with  small  rootlets  and  portions  of  the  stem  attached  to  them. 
They  have  a  sweetish  and  somewhat  acrid  flavor.  Stimulant, 
antispasmodic,  arthritic,  deobstruant,  alterative,  and  resolvent 
properties  are  attributed  to  the  drug.  It  is  especially  recom- 
mended for  women,  and  is  also  employed  in  congestive  affections 
of  the  skin.  It  is  added  to  cosmetic  preparations,  both  on 
account  of  its  good  influence  on  the  skin  and  of  its  fragrance. 
The  seeds  are  employed  in  rheumatic  aflfections  of  the  extrem- 
ities as  a  resolvent. 

NUPHAR  JAPONICUM.— f4i  ^  ^  (P'ing-p'eng-ts'ao). 
This  is  also  called  7JC  Jg  (Shui-su),  "water  millet,"  on  account 
of  the  resemblance  of  its  seeds.  It  grows  in  the  southern 
provinces  in  marshes  and  ponds,  the  leaves  resembling  those 
of  Lijyinanthenium  nymphoides.  It  bears  yellow  flowers,  and 
has  a  root-stock  like  that  of  the  lotus,  which  in  famine  years 
is  eaten.  Its  seeds  are  borne  in  a  capsule  about  two  inches 
long,  and  they  resemble  poppy  seeds.  They  are  also  edible, 
and  are  made  use  of  by  the  people  living  in  the  marshy  country 
in  which  the  plant  grows.  The  flavor  of  the  root  is  compared 
to  that  of  the  chestnut,  and  for  this  reason  the  plant  is  some- 
times called  7JC  ^  -?■  (Shui-li-tzu).  The  king  of  Ch'u  ferried 
the  river  and  found  the  fruit  of  the  ^fi  (P'ing),  large  as  a  peck 
measure,  red  like  the  sun,  and  sweet  as  honey  to  the  taste. 
This  quotation  from  the  Book  of  History  is  supposed  to  refer  to 
this  plant.  The  seeds  are  supposed  to  benefit  the  spleen  and 
intestines  and  to  satisfy  hunger.  The  root  is  regarded  as 
constructive  and  tonic,  benefits  the  digestive  organs,  and  in- 
creases the  bodily  strength. 

NYCTANTHES  ARBOR  TRISTIS.—^  1^  (Nai-hua), 
j^^f5"  (Hung-mo-li).  This  is  the  ^^  night-blooming JastJiitie''^ 
or  musk  flower  of  Eastern  India.  It  is  called  hursinghar  in 
India,  and  is  used  both  in  China  and  in  India  as  a  red  dye  and 
as  an  ornament  It  is  not  distinguished  in  the  Pentsao  from 
lasmtnum  sambac. 


NYMPHiEA  TETRAGONA.— ^  jf  (Shui-lien).  This 
is  spoken  of  in  the  Ptnt&ao  under  the  article  on  Nnphar 
japonicuvi.  Its  leaves  resemble  those  oi  Limttanthemum  nymph- 
oides^  but  are  larger.  Its  flowers  spread  above  the  leaves,  and 
during  the  summer  open  during  the  day,  closing  at  night  and 
withdrawing  beneath  the  water,  to  appear  with  daylight  the 
following  morning.  It  is  not  distinguished  medicinally  from 



OCIMUM  BASIUCUM.— ^  ^  (Lo-le),  ^  ^  (Hsiang- 
ts'ai),  426.  The  common  name  at  Peking  is  ^  f§  (Ai-k'ang). 
Because  it  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  opacity  of  the  cornea  it 
is  called  ^  ^  ^  (I-tzu-ts'ao).  The  plant  is  found  every- 
where. The  P^itsao  distinguishes  three  varieties  :  one  resem- 
bling Perilla  ocytJtoides^  and  one  has  large  leaves  and  is  very 
fragrant,  its  perfume  carrying  to  a  distance  of  twenty  paces, 
and  the  third  can  be  used  as  a  vegetable.  The  plant  is  recom- 
mended to  be  extensively  sown  in  gardens  to  overcome  the 
bad  odors  due  to  the  use  of  fertilizers.  Peptic  and  carminative 
properties  are  ascribed  to  it,  and  the  decoction  is  used  as  a  wash 
for  ulcers.  It  is  prescribed  in  vomiting,  hiccough,  and  polypus 
of  the  nose.  The  seeds  are  specially  prescribed  in  diseases  of 
the  eyes,  are  said  to  remove  films  and  opacities,  and  to  soothe 
pain  and  inflammation.  They  are  also  recommended  for  rodent 
ulcer  (^  J||  ^  ^,  Tsou-ma-ya-kan).  The  Customs  Lists  give 
%  ^  i^  (Chiu-ts'eng-t'a)  as  a  term  for  Ocimum^  but  this  has 
not  been  found  in  the  Chinese  books. 

CECCeOCLADES  FAECATA.— Jt  H  (Feng-lan),  ^  || 
(Tiao-lan).  This  orchidaceous  plant  grows  suspended  from 
rocks  in  mountain  gorges  of  the  southern  provinces.  It 
resembles  Dendrobium^  and  has  been  confounded  with  it. 
Faber  calls  it  Angr(^cum  falcatimi.  It  has  a  drooping  stem 
and  leaves,  and  the  latter  are  flat  and  two  or  more  inches  in 
length.  When  once  rolled  up  they  do  not  open  again.  Thfe 
people  place  the  plant  in  bamboo  baskets  and  suspend  these 
from  the  eaves  of  the  house,  where  it  grows  and  blossoms, 
drawing  its  nourishment  from  the  air.  It  is  said  that  if  this  is 
suspended  in  the  room  in  which  a  woman  is  going  through 
parturition,  the  labor  will  be  hastened. 

CEN ANTHP:  STOLONIFERA.  — tIc  M  (Shui-chin).  The 
name  is  commonly  written  7]C  '^  (Shui-ch'in).  It  is  described 
in  the  Phitsao  under  the  title  ^  Hf  (K'u-chin).  Other  names 
are  j^  %  (Ch'in-ts'ai),  -^  %  (Shui-ying),   aud  %  ^  (Ch'u- 


k'uei).  There  are  two  kinds  :  the  white,  of  which  the  root  is 
used  in  medicine,  and  the  red,  of  which  the  leaves  and  stem 
are  eaten,  either  pickled  or  in  the  fresh  state.  This  is  an 
umbelliferous  plant,  much  resembling  celery.  While  the 
white  varieties  are  most  commonly  eaten,  some  of  the  red 
kinds  are  considered  to  be  non-poisonous.  Caution  has  to  be 
used,  however,  as  in  the  case  of  the  red  varieties  of  celery, 
because  these  are  often  deleterious,  resembling  water  hemlock. 
The  properties  of  the  drug  are  considered  to  be  cooling, 
strengthening,  hemostatic,  and  antivinous.  It  is  prescribed 
in  choleraic  affections  of  children,  urinary  difficulties,  colds, 
and  hematuria.      The  seeds  are  recommended  in  plethora. 

Under  the  article  on  Ra7i2inaihis  scleraltis  is  also  men- 
tioned 7JC  ^  (Shui-chin).  The  characters  ^,  g^,  and  ^  are 
used  more  or  less  interchangeably,  and  serve  to  confound 
CEnanthe^  Nastiirtm7n^  Aconitiini^  Rajinnaihis^  and  other 
genera.  However,  QLuajithe  is  most  commonly  referred  to 
when  the  character  tJc  is  prefixed  to  either  of  the  three  char- 
acters. In  the  article  to  which  reference  is  here  made  the 
plant  is  recommended  to  be  bruised  and  applied  to  horse 
bites,  snake  bites,  scorpion  bites,  and  cancerous  swellings. 
Administered  internally,  it  has  the  reputation  of  causing  resolu- 
tion in  scrofulous  swellings,  curing  choleraic  affections,  and 
the  like.      It  is  said  to  be  emetic  if  taken  in  large  quantities. 

OINTMENTS. — Aside  from  the  very  much  overworked 
term  ^  (Kao),  the  Chinese  have  no  term  for  ointment  as  that 
is  understood  in  the  West.  Foreign  physicians  have  prefixed 
the  characters  ^  (Mo)  or  ^  (Ch'a),  "to  rub  on,"  "to  smear," 
in  attempting  to  distinguish  an  ointment  from  an  extract  or 
plaster.  A  better  character  would  be  ^  (T'u),  as  that  is  the 
one  universally  used  in  Chinese  medical  works  to  indicate  the 
smearing  on  the  skin  of  unctuous  remedies.  The  most  com- 
mon vehicle  for  applying  drugs  to  the  skin  is  the  %  ffff 
(Hsiang-yu),  "fragrant-oil,"  or  sesamum-seed  oil.  Lard  comes 
next,  and  it  is  often  mixed  with  vegetable  wax,  beeswax,  or 
white  (insect)  wax.  Pomades  and  cosmetic  applications  are 
many,  and  are  called  §'3  J3g  (Yen-chih).  While  there  are  few 
formulae  of  ointments  in  the  Chinese   books,  unctuous  applica- 


tions  to  the  skin  are  very  extensively  used,  although  a  favor- 
ite way  of  treating  skin  diseases  among  the  Chinese  is  the 
medicated  bath.  One  or  two  special  ointments  are  mentioned 
among  the  Plasters  (wliich  article  see). 

OLE  A  AQUIFOLIA.— Faber  gives  }^  %  (Kou-ku)  for 
this,  but  in  Q,\i\\\d.  Kou-ku  seems  to  be//^ji:  cormtta  (which  see). 

OLIBANUM.— H  H  ^  (Hsiin-lu-hsiang),  |L  #  (Ju- 
hsiang).     See  Boswellia. 

ONOCLEA  ORIENTAUS.— This  is  one  of  the  ferns 
confounded  under  the  name  %^  -^  (Kuan-chung).  See  Nephro- 
diiim  filix  mas. 

OPHIOPOGON  SPICATUS.— ^  P^  ^  (Mai-men-tung), 
816.  Two  species  are  described,  one  with  large  leaves,  which 
is  this,  and  the  other  with  small  leaves,  which  is  Ophiopogon 
japonica.  A  large  number  of  names  are  given  for  this  plant, 
most  of  which  refer  to  the  similarity  of  its  leaves  to  those  of 
Allium  odo7-um.  The  plant  bears  blue,  globular  berries  in 
winter.  The  root  is  the  part  used  in  medicine,  and  as  it 
appears  in  the  drug  stores,  consists  of  shrivelled,  pale  yellow, 
soft,  flexible  tubers,  from  one  inch  to  an  inch  and  a  half  long, 
tapering  at  either  end  and  traversed  by  a  central  thread-like 
cord.  The  taste  is  sweet  and  aromatic,  and  the  smell  agree- 
able. It  is  non-poisonous  and  is  edible.  The  plant  is  specially 
cultivated  in  the  province  of  Chekiang.  The  drug  has  some 
of  the  properties  of  squill^  for  whicfh  it  may  be  used  as  a  sub- 
stitute. It  is  supposed  to  benefit  the  dual  principles,  and  is 
therefore  tonic  and  aphrodisiac,  promoting  fertility.  It  assists 
the  memory  and  promotes  the  secretion  of  milk.  It  is  con- 
sidered as  one  of  the  very  important  remedies. 

OPUNTIA  FICUS.— ttli  A  %.  (Hsien-jen-chang).  This 
"fairy  palm"  is  the  well  known  cactus  of  the  plains.  It  is 
found  in  the  wilds  of  Szechuan  and  Hupeh.  It  is  prescribed, 
together  with  licorice,  in  piles  and  diarrhoea,  and  is  dried, 
powdered,  and  mixed  with  oil  to  be  applied  to  favus  an 


ORITHIA  EDULIS.— ilj  M  ^  (Shan-tzu-ku),  ^  »1 
(Chin-teng).  This  plant  grows  iu  moist  places  in  mountain 
valleys,  and  resembles  Sagittaria.  It  is  valued  for  its  flowers, 
of  which  there  are  white,  red,  and  yellow  varieties.  The 
small,  shrunken,  horny,  irregularly  ovate  bulbs  of  the  plant, 
with  a  mass  of  fibrous,  tangled  rootlets  attached  to  each  bulb, 
are  sometimes  called  ^  ^  (Mao-k'o).  The  hairy  rootlets  are 
detached  from  the  bulb  before  the  latter  is  used  in  medicine. 
Slightly  deleterious  properties  are  attributed  to  the  drug,  and 
it  is  used  by  military  doctors  in  the  treatment  of  strumous 
diseases,  specific  diseases  of  the  blood,  carbuncles,  injuries, 
hydrophobia,  and  any  disease  requiring  the  exhibition  of 
alteratives.  It  enters  into  the  composition  of  a  famous  nos- 
trum prepared  by  the  Chinese,  called  the  "Universal  Counter- 
poison"  (M  ^  ^  #  ^»  Wan-ping-chieh-tu-wan).  The  leaves 
are  used  externally  as  an  application  to  buboes,  abscesses,  and 
diseases  of  the  breast.  The  flowers  are  said  to  be  eflficacious 
in  urinary  disorders.     This  is  the  same  as  Tulipa  graminifolia. 

ORIXA  JAPONICA.— ^  llj  (Ch'ang-shan),  30.  Also 
called  ^  ^  (Shu-ch'i),  "  Szechuan  varnish,"  If  il]  (Hen- 
shan),  and  g  '^  (Hu-ts'ao).  The  Pentsao  classifies  this  plant 
among  the  poisonous  drugs  (^  ^  |^,  Tu-ts'ao-lei),  and  says 
that  it  comes  from  the  provinces  of  Szechuan  and  Yunnan,  and 
especially  from  Chentehfu  in  the  former  province,  where  it 
grows  in  the  mountain  ravines.  It  is  also  found  in  the  forests 
of  -the  Yangtse  hills.  It  is  described  as  having  a  round, 
pointed  stalk,  and  being  not  over  three  or  four  feet  high,  with 
opposite  leaves  shaped  like  the  tea-leaf.  In  the  second  month 
appears  a  white  flower  with  green  carpels,  and  in  the  fifth 
month  a  fruit,  green  and  round,  and  with  three  seeds  in  each 
receptacle.  The  dried  leaves  have  a  greenish-white  color 
when  they  are  fit  for  use,  but  if  they  turn  black  they  are 
spoiled.  The  leaves  are  collected  in  the  fifth  or  sixth  month. 
One  author  says  that  the  Szechuan  varnish  is  the  stalk  of  the 
plant,  and  that  it  is  gathered  in  the  eighth  or  ninth  month. 
This  plant  is  also  said  to  be  brought  from  "Hainan,"  which 
probably  means  Cochin-China  and  other  places  in  the  south. 
The   only    places   from    which    it    is    reported  as   coming   in 


the  Customs  lists  of  1885  are  Canton  and  Hankow,  and  the 
following  record  is  found  :  ''Several  plants  supply  drugs  of 
this  name,  which  are  used  as  febrifuges,  as  Dichroa  febrifuga^ 
Lour,  Hydrangea  sp.,  and  an  unknown  herbaceous  plant." 
By  referring  to  Loureiro's  list,  we  find  a  plant,  the  name  of 
which  Romanized  according  to  the  Cantonese  dialect  is  chant 
chan  (the  Chinese  characters  are  lacking),  but  which  presum- 
ably is  this  same  plant,  and  is  called  by  him  Dichroa 
febrifuga.  As  Loureiro's  work  was  wholly  done  in  Cochin- 
China,  the  plant  he  thus  identifies  is  presumably  indigenous  to 
that  country.  Whether  it  is  the  same  as  the  Szechuan  plant 
described  by  the  Pentsao  remains  to  be  determined.  Tatarinov 
makes  Ch'^ang-shan  to  h^  Lysiniachia^  and  i  ^  llj  (T'u-ch'ang- 
shan)  is  also  a  Hydrangea.  In  addition  to  the  leaves  and 
stalk,  the  shoot  and  roots  are  used  in  medicine.  The  drug  is 
steeped  in  a  decoction  of  licorice  root  to  correct  its  nauseant 
properties.  The  tincture,  or  the  dessicated  drug,  is  not 
strongly  emetic,  but  if  prepared  with  vinegar  its  emetic  proper- 
ties are  increased.  All  forms  of  the  drug  are  used  in  fevers, 
specially  those  of  malarial  origin.  There  is  no  form  of  this 
latter  disease  for  which  it  is  not  recommended.  The  leaves 
are  used  in  goitre. 

OROBANCHE  AMMOPHYLA.  — |^  |g  ^  (Jou-tsung- 
jung),  1359.  Tsung-jiing  is  a  name  of  several  orobancaceous 
plants.  Another  variety,  or  possibly  species,  of  the  one  under 
consideration,  is  called  ^  ^  ^  (Ts'ao-tsung-jung)  or  ^ij  ^ 
(Lieh-tang).  The  ancients  thought  that  this  plant  sprang  up 
from  the  semen  dropped  on  the  ground  by  wild  stallions, 
somewhat  similar  to  the  supposed  origin  ,of  Balenopheray 
another  orobancaceous  plant.  The  growing  plant  is  scaly,  has 
a  scaly  root,  and  both  the  root  and  stalk  have  the  appearance 
of  flesh,  from  which  fact  it  receives  its  name.  Both  the  plant 
and  root  are  eaten  either  raw  or  cooked  with  meat.  The  root 
is  salted,  or  dried  in  the  sun,  for  use  as  medicine.  It  is  first 
cleaned,  soaked  in  wine,  and  the  central  fibres  rejected. 
These  latter  are  considered  to  be  deleterious.  Its  virtues  seem 
to  be  tonic  in  all  of  the  wasting  diseases  and  injuries,  as  well 
as    aphrodisiac,    promoting    fertility    in    women   and   curing 


impotence  in  men.  It  is  used  in  spermatorrhoea,  menstrual 
difficulties,  gonorrlioea,  and  all  forms  of  difficulties  of  the 
genital  organs.  The  Lieh-tang  has  similar  virtues,  but  is 
specially  recommended  in  impotence. 

ORYZA  SATIVA.-fS  (Tao),  f§;  (Thi),  ff  (No),  f^ 
(Keng),  fill  (Hsien).  These  characters  and  several  others 
are  used  in  the  classics  and  other  ancient  works  for  7'ice. 
Originally,  Tao  was  equivalent  to  No^  and  was  used  for  the 
glutinous  variety,  while  Keng  referred  to  the  non-glutinous 
variety.  At  present  Tao  is  a  general  term  for  rice  and 
includes  both  kinds,  but  refers  for  the  most  part  to  the 
non-glutinous,  while  the  glutinous  is  known  only  as  No, 
K^ng  is  also  written  f/^  (Keng).  |,^  (T'u)  is  a  very  old 
name,  and  is  no  longer  in  use.  The  common  name  now 
in  use  is  /jt  (^li),  which  refers  more  particularly  to  the  hulled 
rice.  In  fact,  every  stage  in  the  growth  and  preparation  of 
rice  gives  it  a  distinctive  name.  The  young  shoots  are  called 
jf^  (Yang),  that  growino  in  the  field  is  called  |Q  (Tao),  the 
unhuUed  rice  is  called  ^  (Keng),  the  hulled  rice  is  called  -)^ 
(Mi),  the  hulls  are  called  %%  (K'ang),  the  cooked  rice  is  called 
|g  (Fan),  and  the  rice  congee  is  called  5f5  (Chou).  The  gluti- 
nous rice  is  described  in  the  Pentsao  under  the  term  jfg  (Tao). 
It  may  be  used  for  distilling  spirits  (J@),  for  pastry  (^),  for 
sweet-meats  (|^),  for  dumplings  (|,:^),  and  as  puffed-rice  ^\}  %. 
AH  these  are  quite  common  uses  of  the  No-mi.  The  dump- 
lings, under  the  name  of  f^  -f  (Tsung-tzii),  are  made  at  the 
time  of  the  Fifth  Moon  Feast  and  consumed  in  large  quantities. 
They  are  also  made  of  glutinous  millet,  and  sometimes  are 
stuffed  with  meat  or  sweet-meats.  The  puffed  or  parched  rice 
is  sold  at  all  times  of  the  year,  and  is  largely  consumed  by 
children  and  persons  of  weak  digestion.  It  also  serves  as  a 
foundation  for  candy  balls,  which  are  made  by  sweet-meat 
makers,  and  which  vary  in  size  from  that  of  a  marble  to  balls 
a  foot  or  more  in  diameter.  A  sticky  confection  is  also  made 
of  this  rice  and  sold  by  street  vendors  in  strips  or  cakes.  The 
rice  is  considered  too  heating  as  a  constant  article  of  diet,  and 
it  is  said  to  produce  paralytic  symptoms  in  men,  cats,  dogs, 
and  horses,  if  consumed  for  some  time  (beri-beri  ?).    It  is  consid- 


ered  to  be  constipating,  and  therefore  is  recommended  to  be 
used  in  diarrhoeas.  Cakes  made  of  this  rice  and  fried  in  camel's 
fat  are  used  for  hemorrhoids.  The  congee  is  used  in  fevers  as 
a  diuretic,  and  both  internally  and  externally  as  a  demulcent. 
The  Chinese  often  heat  the  water  in  which  the  rice  is  to 
be  scoured,  and  after  thorough  washing  the  water  is  called 
^  '^y-  (Mi-kan).  This  is  considered  cooling  as  a  drink,  is 
administered  in  fluxes  from  the  bowels,  and  used  to  wash  foul 
sores.  The  rice  flowers,  |||  f^  :^  (No-tao-hua)  are  dried  and 
used  as  a  dentifrice  and  cosmetic.  The  root,  |||  f^  j^  (No- 
tao-ken),  912,  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao.  The  green 
culm  or  stalk  is  recommended  in  biliousness,  and  the  ash  of 
the  straw  is  used  in  the  treatment  of  wounds  and  discharges. 
The  awns  (^  ,^^,  Ku-ying)  are  also  recommended  in  jaundice. 
The  ashes  of  the  hulls  are  used  to  clean  discolored  teeth. 

The  non-glutinous  kind  is  described  under  the  title  ||? 
(Keng).  There  are  two  varieties  :  the  7]<C  ^  (Shui-mi)  and  the 
^u  ^  (Han-mi),  or  the  water-grown  and  the  upland  varieties. 
The  former  is  by  far  the  more  common.  The  Chinese  regard 
rice  as  the  best  food,  and  their  term  for  the  prepared  article,  |g 
(Fan),  has  about  the  same  signification  that  the  word  "bread" 
had  to  English-speaking  people  of  the  time  of  King  James  ; 
that  is,  a  term  signifying  food  in  general.  Their  estimate  is 
very  nearly  correct,  as  rice  is  the  one  cereal  which  comes 
nearest  having  all  the  elements  necessary  to  sustain  life.  It 
is  said  to  benefit  the  breath,  remove  anxiety  and  thirst,  check 
discharges,  warm  the  viscera,  harmonize  the  gases  of  the 
stomach,  and  cause  the  growth  of  flesh.  If  taken  in  the  form 
of  congee,  together  with  Euryale  ferox^  it  will  benefit  the 
vital  principle,  strengthen  the  will,  clarify  the  hearing,  and 
brighten  the  eye.  If  one  constantly  eats  the  dry  cooked  rice, 
he  will  not  have  hiccough.  The  second  water  in  which  non- 
glutinous  rice  is  scoured  is  called  J|f  [H  \'^  (Hsi-erh-kan)  and 
%.  V§  (Mi-shen),  and  is  regarded  as  cooling  to  the  blood  and 
diuretic.  It  is  given  in  hematemesis,  epistaxis,  and  in  cases  in 
which  medicine  has  beeu  taken  in  excessive  doses.  Parched 
rice  broth,  'j:j;  %  (^  (Ch'ao-nii-t'ang),  benefits  the  stomach  and 
drives  away  the  vicious  humor  produced  by  eating  too  much 
farinaceous  food  ;  but  if  the  element  of  fire  is  not  driven  out  of 


tile  preparation,  it  will  produce  thirst.  The  rust  sometimes 
found  growing  on  the  ears  of  rice,  called  f H  ^  ^  (Keng-ku- 
nu),  is  administered  in  acute  paralysis  of  the  fauces.  The 
lixiviated  ash  of  rice  straw,  ^  f^  (Ho-kan),  is  used  as  an 
antidote  in  arsenical  poisoning. 

Another  sort  of  rice  is  described  under  the  term  fjli  (Hsien). 
It  was  brought  irom  Cochin-China  (i5  M  W)  ^Y  ^^^^  Fukienese, 
and  is  therefore  called  ^  |Q  (Chan-tao).  It  is  an  upland  rice, 
and  as  it  ripens  earlier  than  other  varieties  it  is  called  ^  |g 
(Tsao-tao).  Its  qualities  are  the  same  as  the  ordinary  rice. 
The  lixiviated  ash  of  the  straw  is  used  in  nausea  and  to  destroy 
stomach  worms.  The  Chinese  dry  boiled  rice  in  the  sun  and 
then  grind  it  into  flour,  called  ^  ^  (Mi-fen).  This  is  used 
for  making  gruel  to  feed  dry-nursed  infants  and  invalids. 
It  also  makes  an  exceilent  poultice.  (For  malted  rice  see  Malt^ 
and  for  Congee  see  that  article  in  the  Addenda.) 

OSMANTHUS  FRAGRANS.— 1  1^  (Yen-kuei),  %  ^ 
(Mu-hsi).  This  tree  grows  on  cliffs ;  hence  the  first  name.  It 
is  spoken  of  in  the  Pentsao  at  the  close  of  the  article  on 
cinnamon,  where  it  is  said  that  there  are  three  varieties :  one 
with  white  flowers,  called  ^  j^  (Yin-kuei),  one  with  yellow 
flowers,  called  ^  j^  (Chin-kuei),  and  one  with  red  flowers, 
called  ^  j^  (Tan-kuei).  There  are  some  varieties  that  flower 
in  the  autumn,  some  in  the  spring,  some  each  season,  and  some 
monthly.  The  bark  of  the  tree  is  thin,  has  not  the  properties 
of  true  cinnamon,  and  is  not  used  in  medicine.  The  flowers 
are  very  fragrant,  are  employed  for  scenting  tea  and  wine,  and 
an  oil  is  distilled  from  them,  called  i^  ^*  f^I  (Kuei-hua-yu)^ 
662.  This  tree  is  much  cultivated  in  China  for  its  fragrant 
flowers,  which  appear  in  great  profusion  in  the  axils  of  the 
leaves.  These  are  used  semi-medicinally  as  a  flavor  for  other 
medicines,  to  disguise  foul  odors,  as  a  tussic  remedy,  and  in 
cosmetic  preparations  for  the  hair  and  skin.  The  plant  is  the 
same  as  the  Olea  fragrans  of  Thunberg. 

OSMUNDA  REGALIS.— ^  (Wei).  This  is  a  Japanese 
identification,  but  without  doubt  the  same  term  is  sometimes 
applied  to  this  fern  in  China.     However,  the  plant  described 


in  the  Phttsao  under  this  title  is  a  leguminous  one,  probably 
Vicia  gigantea  or  Lathyj-ns  maritimus.  But  in  the  same 
article  the  character  is  made  to  refer  to  j^  ^  (Mi-chiieh),  which 
under  the  article  on  ^  (Chiieh),  Pteris  aqiiilina^  is  described 
as  a  "flowering"  fern,  thus  evidently  referring  to  Osmunda. 
But  it  is  not  distinguished  medicinally  from  Pteris. 

OXALIS  CORNICULATA.— g|  ff  (Tso-chiang),  ^  ^E 
(Suan-chiang),  1204,  >]■»  |^  ^  (Hsiao-suan-ts'ai).  This  well 
known  small  plant,  with  its  ternate,  sour  leaves  is  found  in  all 
parts  of  China.  Children  like  to  eat  the  young  fresh  leaves. 
In  the  fourth  moon  it  bears  a  small,  yellow  flower.  It 
is  confounded  with  Rumex  japoniais.  Cooling,  anthelmintic, 
emmenagogue,  diuretic,  lithontriptic,  astringent,  and  styptic 
qualities  are  referred  to  the  plant,  and  the  juice  is  held  to  be 
antidotal  to  mercurial  and  arsenical  poisoning,  as  well  as  bene- 
ficial when  applied  to  burns,  insect  and  scorpion  bites,  and 



PACHYMA  COCOS.— :gl^  ;^  (Fu-ling),  332.  This  is  a 
fungus  growth  upon  the  roots  of  fir  trees,  and  is  used  by- 
the  Chinese  both  as  a  food  and  medicine.  It  is  met  with 
in  the  form  of  large  tubers,  having  a  corrugated,  blackish- 
brown  skin,  and  consisting  internally  of  a  hard,  starchy  sub- 
stance of  a  white  color,  but  sometimes  tinged  with  pale- 
red  or  brown,  especially  towards  the  outside.  The  tuber  is 
sometimes  perforated  by  an  irregular  channel  lined  with 
red  membrane,  marking  its  attachment  to  the  root.  The 
tubers  vary  in  size  from  that  of  a  fist  to  that  of  a  peck 
measure.  The  smaller  ones,  and  especially  those  which  cling 
to  the  root,  are  called  {^  jpi^  (Fu-shen).  They  are  met  with 
on  the  sites  of  old  fir  plantations,  or  actually  connected  with 
living  fir  trees.  The  Chinese  suppose  these  tubers  to  be  pro- 
duced either  from  the  metamorphosed  resin  of  the  fir  tree,  or 
from  the  spurious  vapors  of  the  tree.  They  do  not  easily 
decay,  and  are  said  to  be  found  unchanged  after  lying  in 
the  ground  for  a  period  of  thirty  years.  The  Chinese  con- 
found them  with  the  genuine  root  of  the  Smilax  pseudo- 
China^  and  the  two  substances  are  exported  to  India  or  else- 
where as  China-root.  The  hardest  and  whitest  is  the  best. 
The  substance  probably  consists  largely  of  pectine,  and  is 
free  from  smell  or  taste.  A  similar  substance  is  found  in 
Japan  and  in  America,  in  which  latter  country  it  is  called 
Indian-bread.  In  China  it  is  ground  up,  mixed  with  rice 
flour,  and  made  into  small  square  cakes,  which  are  sold  hot 
by  hawkers  on  the  streets  of  most  cities  in  the  Central  prov- 
inces. Medicinally,  it  is  considered  to  be  peptic,  nutrient, 
diuretic,  and  quieting,  especially  in  the  nervous  disorders  of 
children.  It  is  prescribed  in  wasting  diseases.  The  red 
variety  is  specially  recommended  in  diarrhoeas  and  disorders 
of  the  bladder,  while  the  skin  of  the  tuber,  333,  is  considered 
useful  as  a  diuretic  in  dropsy.  The  smaller  and  younger 
varieties,  {%  %^  (Fu-shen),  are  considered  to  be  superior  as  a 
nerve  tonic  and  sedative  to  those  which  are  older  and  larger. 
The  portion  of  the  root  of  the  fir  tree  which  is  encircled  by 


these  growths  is  called  fii^  Tf;  (Shen-mu),  and  is  prescribed  ia 
contractions  of  the  tendons  and  convulsive  disorders.  (See 
articles  on  Smilax  and  Fungi.) 

PAdMftfilzUS  THUNBERGIANUS.--:^  (Ko),  599. 
This  is  a  wild  growing  creeper,  of  the  order  of  Leguminosse, 
furnishing  a  textile  fiber  of  which  a  kind  of  cloth  is  made. 
The  cloth  somewhat  resembles  in  texture  that  made  from 
Boehmeria  iiivea.,  and  is  also  called  grass-cloth.  The  Chinese 
name  for  this  cloth  is  %  ^  (Ko-pu)  or  ;^  ^  (Kung-pu),  and 
it  is  of  a  yellow  color,  very  fine  and  durable,  and  is  much 
prized  by  the  Chinese  as  a  summer  cloth.  The  root  of  the 
plant,  600,  601,  is  used  both  as  food  and  medicine,  although 
that  portion  which  is  above  the  ground  is  considered  to  be 
somewhat  poisonous,  having  emetic  properties.  The  plant  is 
much  cultivated  both  on  account  of  its  textile  fiber  and  of  its 
root.  The  latter  is  considered  to  be  thirst-relieving,  antifebrile, 
anti-emetic,  and  counter-poisonous.  It  is  prescribed  in  colds, 
fevers,  influenza,  dysentery,  snake  and  insect  bites,  and  to 
counteract  the  effects  of  croton  oil  and  other  poisonous  drugs. 
Externally,  it  is  applied  in  dog  bites.  The  seeds,  '%  ^  (Ko- 
ku),  are  prescribed  in  adults  for  dysentery  and  in  alcoholic 
excess.  The  flowers  are  also  prescribed  in  the  latter  difficulty. 
The  leaves  are  applied  in  wounds  as  a  styptic.  The  shoots 
are  used  in  insuflScient  secretion  of  milk,  as  an  application  in 
incipient  boils,  and  in  aphthous  sore  mouth  in  children. 
Every  part  of  the  plant  is  also  used  in  the  treatment  of  skin 
rashes.  The  root  is  made  into  an  arrowroot-like  preparation 
called  %  %  (Ko-fen). 

P^DERIA  FCETIDA.— ^  %  (Nii-ch'ing).  This  plant 
is  also  called  ^  %  (Ch'iao-piao),  "sparrow's  calabash;"  the 
latter  character  indicating  the  shape  of  the  fruit,  and  the 
former  its  small  size,  which  is  about  that  of  a  jujube.  The 
stem  and  leaves  have  an  ofi'ensive  odor.  To  the  root  is  ascribed 
remarkable  virtues  in  driving  away  the  Ku  poison,  expelling 
foul  gases,  destroying  evil  demons,  and  curing  ague.  It  is 
used  in  virulent  epidemics,  and  is  said  to  restore  to  life  those 
who  are  already  in  articulo  mortis. 


P^ONIA  ALBIFIvORA.— ^-  ^  (Shao-yao),  143,  11 12, 
959.  Properly  speaking  this  Chinese  name  is  generic  ;  there 
being  two  kinds  described  in  the  Pentsao:  one  with  white 
flowers  called  ^  ^  |^  (Chin-shao-yao),  which  is  Pisonia  albi- 
flora  and  the  other  with  red  flowers  called  Tfc  Sj  ^  (Mii-shao- 
yao),  which  may  be  Pceonia  officinalis  in  some  cases,  while  in 
others  it  is  confounded  with  PiBonia  niotctan.  The  plant  is 
found  growing  wild  in  Anhui  and  Honan,  as  well  as  in  Sze- 
chuan.  It  is  also  cultivated  in  Kiangsu  for  its  root,  which  is 
used  in  medicine.  It  is  a  drug  much  prized  by  Chinese  doctors, 
who  use  it  as  a  tonic,  alterative,  astringent,  and  general  remedy 
in  diseases  of  women.  As  found  in  the  shops,  it  is  in  hard, 
heavy  pieces,  tapering,  of  the  size  of  the  thumb  or  middle 
finger,  and  from  four  to  six  inches  long.  It  is  of  a  pinkish- 
white  color  on  the  outside,  and  marked  with  scars  and  tuber- 
cles, and  is  whitish,  or  brownish,  and  semitranslucent  in  the 
interior.  It  is  said  to  be  anodyne,  diuretic,  and  carminative. 
It  is  specially  recommended  in  the  diseases  of  pregnancy  and 
all  forms  of  puerperal  difficulty.  It  has  also  special  action 
upon  the  spleen,  liver,  stomach,  and  intestines,  and  is  pre- 
scribed in  nosebleed,  wounds,  and  other  hemorrhages. 

P^ONIA  MOUTAN.— iH::J5-(Mou-tan).  This  is  known 
as  the  tree  pcaony^  and  is  also  called  'j^  3E  (Hua-wang),  "the 
king  of  flowers,"  and  U  fg  ^  (Pai-liang-chin),  "a  hundred 
ounces  of  gold."  This  latter  name  is  given  on  account  of  the 
value  in  which  the  Chinese  hold  this  exceedingly  popular  flower. 
It  is  a  plant  which  is  always  discussed  at  length  in  all  Chinese 
works  on  botany  ;  more  than  thirty  varieties  being  described. 
By  long  care,  the  plant  has  been  rendered  suffructicose.  It  is 
grown  in  Szechuau,  where  it  seems  to  have  been  indigenous, 
but  it  has  been  cultivated  for  such  a  long  period  that  the  wild 
variety  is  no  longer  valued.  During  the  Han  dynasty,  Lo- 
yang  in  Honan  was  famous  for  its  nioiitan  flowers.  The  bark 
pf  the  root,  857,  1245,  i^  ^^^  P^^^  Vi^t^  in  medicine,  and  is  met 
with  in  quills  three  or  four  inches  long,  dark  brown  on  the 
putside,  aiid  of  a  purplish  color  on  the  inside  and  on  the  broken 
surface.  It  has  a  warm  flavor  and  but  little  smell.  It  is  pre- 
scribed in  fevers,  colds,  nervous  disorders,  hemorrhages,  head- 


aches,  and  menstrual  difficulties.  Its  prolonged  use  is  supposed 
to  give  vigor  to  the  body  and  to  lengthen  life.  The  root  of  this 
paeony,  fj*  ^  (Tan-ken),  1242,  and  the  small  rootlets,  jf  ^ 
(Tan-hsii),  1241,  are  mentioned  in  the  Customs  list,  but  do  not 
appear  in  the  Pentsao. 

PALIURUS  RAMOSISSIMUS.  — &  ^  (Pai-chi).  This 
is  a  rhamnaceous  shrub,  found  in  the  south  of  China  growing 
to  the  height  of  three  or  four  feet.  The  wood  of  its  stem  is 
very  white,  which  distinguishes  it  from  the  jujube  tree.  It 
has  rather  long,  straight  spines,  and  the  branches  and  leaves 
are  more  or  less  tomentose.  The  drug  seems  to  consist  of  the 
spines,  and  for  this  reason  they  are  by  some  said  to  be  the 
spines  of  the  jujube  tree,  and  it  may  well  be  that  these  are 
sometimes  substituted.  They  are  prescribed  in  spontaneous 
pains,  neuralgias,  "stitch  in  the  side,"  and  the  like.  They  are 
also  said  to  increase  virility  in  married  men  and  to  benefit  the 
genito-urinary  system.  The  ashes  of  the  twigs,  mixed  with  oil, 
are  used  to  cleanse  filthy  hair.  Here  the  Chinese  came  very 
near  to  making  soap.  The  flowers  are  used  as  an  application 
to  discharging  wounds.  The  fruits  are  said  to  be  cooling  and 
diuretic.      The  leaves  are  applied  in  chronic  ulcer  of  the  leg. 

PANAX  GINSENG.— A  #  (Jen>shen),  554,  jjii^  :^  (Sh8n- 
ts'ao).  This,  with  the  Chinese,  is  the  medicine /ar  exccllance ; 
the  dernier  ressort  when  all  other  drugs  fail  ;  reserved  for  the 
use  of  the  Emperor  and  his  household,  and  conferred  by 
Imperial  favor  upon  high  and  useful  officials  whenever  they 
have  a  serious  breakdown  that  does  not  yield  to  ordinary 
treatment,  and  which  threatens  to  put  a  period  to  their  lives 
and  usefulness.  The  principal  Chinese  name  is  derived  from 
a  fancied  resemblance  of  the  root  to  the  human  form,  and  to 
certain  astral  influences  said  to  be  derived  from  the  constel- 
lation of  Orion.  It  is  related  that  during  the  reign  of  Wenti, 
of  the  Sui  dynasty  (581  to  601  A.D.),  at  Shangtang  in  Shensi, 
at  the  back  of  a  certain  person's  house,  was  heard  each  night 
the  imploring  voice  of  a  man,  and  when  search  was  made  for 
the  source  of  this  sound,  at  the  distance  of  about  a  //  there 
was  seen  a  remarkable  ginseng  plant.     Upon  digging  into  the 


earth  to  the  depth  of  five  feet  the  root  was  secured,  having 
the  shape  of  a  man,  with  four  extremities  perfect  and  complete; 
and  it  was  this  that  had  been  calling  out  in  the  night  with  a 
man's  voice.  It  was  therefore  called  i  |f|  (T'u-ching),  "spirit 
of  the  ground."  It  is  said  that  the  best  ginseng  formerly  came 
from  this  Shangtang,  but  at  present  no  true  ginseng  is 
produced  in  that  part  of  Shansi  ;  on  the  contrary,  the  place  is 
famous  for  its  production  of  "bastard  ginseng"  from  Adeno- 
piiora  (which  article  see)  and  other  campanulaceous  plants. 
The  ginseng  which  is  considered  to  be  the  best  is  the  wild 
growing  variety  of  Manchuria,  and  the  next  in  repute  is  that 
coming  from  Korea.  The  former  is  practically  all  reserved 
for  Imperial  use,  while  the  ordinary  qualities  of  the  latter  are 
the  best  that  appear  on  the  general  market.  Japanese  and 
American  ginseng  are  also  found  in  quantities,  but  these, 
especially  the  latter,  are  considered  to  be  much  inferior  to  the 
Korean  kind.  American  ginseng  is  considered  by  Western 
physicians  to  have  no  medicinal  virtues  worth  mentioning, 
and  is  thought  to  be  a  superfluous  member  of  the  Pharmaco- 
poeia. But  entirely  apart  from  ideas  of  its  astral  relations, 
true  Chinese  ginseng  is  persistently  held  by  the  Chinese  to 
have  stimulant,  tonic,  and  restorative  properties,  which  give  it 
its  high  place  in  their  pharmacology.  It  is  probable  that  the 
Manchurian  drug  has  not  been  carefully  studied  by  any  Euro- 
pean observer  on  account  of  its  scarcity,  the  Imperial  mo- 
nopoly, and  its  exceeding  high  price  ;  this  best  quality  being 
valued  at  Taels  6,400  a  picul,  and  the  superior  sort  costing  as 
much  as  250  times  its  weight  in  silver.  For  these  reasons 
also  only  two  or  three  complete  herbarium  specimens  of  the 
Manchurian  wild  ginseng  plant  are  to  be  found  in  the 
museums  of  Europe.  The  ordinary  ginseng  of  the  markets 
has  been  studied  and  has  not  been  found  to  possess  any  impor- 
tant medicinal  properties.  But  the  Chinese  describe  cases  in 
which  the  sick  have  been  practically  in  articulo  mortis,  when 
upon  the  administration  of  ginseng  they  were  sufficiently  restored 
to  transact  final  items  of  business.  Much  of  the  ginseng  on 
the  market  consists  of  campanulaceous  roots,  substituted  for 
those  of  the  araliaceous  Panax.  The  former  roots,  while  in  a 
general  way  resembling  those  of  the  true  ginseng,  are  more  or 


less  hard  and  woody,  and  free  from  worms;  while  the  latter  is 
succulent  and  very  liable  to  be  attacked  by  insects.  That 
prepared  for  Imperial  use  is  carefully  cleansed  and  dried, 
wrapped  in  paper  and  sealed  up  to  preserve  it  from  dampness 
and  worms.  It  is  said  to  have  an  aromatic,  sweet  taste,  with 
a  spice  of  bitterness.  It  may  contain,  therefore,  in  its  fresh 
state  an  essential  oil  and  a  small  amount  of  alkaloidal  or  other 
principle.  The  Chinese  count  five  kinds  of  ginseng,  viz.,  the 
one  under  consideration,  which  they  consider  to  be  the  true 
ginseng,  acting  on  the  spleen,  which  to  them  is  the  center  of 
life  ;  the  ^  ^  (Sha-shen),  Adeiiophora^  which  operates  upon  the 
lungs ;  ^  ^  (Hsiian-shen),  ScropJnilarin^  which  acts  upon  the 
kidneys ;  ^i  ^  (Mou-meng),  Polygomim  bistorta^  which  oper- 
ates on  the  liver;  and  ^  ^  (Tan-shen),  Salvia  mnltiorrhiza^ 
which  acts  on  the  heart.  Each  of  these  is  described  under  its 
appropriate  title.  The  true  ginseng  plant  has  five  parted,  palmate 
leaves,  bears  minute  flowers  in  an  umbellate  form,  and  has  red, 
berry-like  fruits.  It  somewhat  resembles  the  American  Aralia 
qiiinqiiefolia^  but  is  not  the  same.  In  Manchuria  and  Korea 
it  is  usually  found  growing  in  the  shade  of  trees,  notably 
that  of  the  \f^  (Kia)  Tilia  (?)  or  Paidownia  (?).  This  tree 
and  the  ginseng  plant  are  thought  to  have  mutual  sympathy, 
and  whoever  would  find  the  latter  must  look  for  the  tree. 
The  root  is  dug  up  both  in  the  spring  and  the  autumn.  It  is 
said  that  in  order  to  test  for  true  ginseng  two  persons  walk  to- 
gether, one  with  a  piece  of  the  drug  in  his  mouth  and  the  other 
with  his  mouth  empty.  If  at  the  end  of  three  to  five  li  the  one 
with  the  ginseng  in  his  mouth  does  not  feel  himself  tired,  while 
the  other  is  out  of  breath,  the  drug  is  true.  The  Manchu- 
rian  root  is  carefully  searched  for  by  the  natives,  who  boast  that 
the  weeds  of  their  country  are  the  choice  drugs  of  the  Chinese. 
The  drug  is  yellowish,  semitransparent,  firm,  somewhat  brittle, 
and  has  a  sweet,  mucilaginous  taste,  accompanied  with  a 
slight  bitterness.  It  is  usually  prepared  by  steaming  and  dry- 
ing in  still  air,  so  as  to  make  its  appearance  approximate  the 
accepted  standard  of  clearness.  Fabulous  stories,  similar  to 
that  above  given,  are  told  of  the  finding  of  special  deposits  of 
this  root,  associated  with  guiding  voices,  stars,  and  other  good 
omens.     The  drug  is  sometimes  prepared  for  use  as  an  extract, 


or  as  a  decoction,  silver  vessels  usually  being  employed  for  this 
purpose.  Medicinally,  the  Chinese  claim  it  to  be  "a  tonic 
to  the  five  viscera,  quieting  the  animal  spirits  (H  jjii^),  estab- 
lishing the  soul  (^  1^),  allaying  fear,  expelling  evil  effluvia, 
brightening  the  eye,  opening  up  the  heart,  benefiting  the 
understanding,  and  if  taken  for  some  time  it  will  invigorate  the 
body  and  prolong  life."  Alterative,  tonic,  stimulant,  carmina- 
tive, and  demulcent  properties  are  the  ones  principally  ascribed 
to  it,  and  it  is  prescribed  in  nearly  every  kind  of  disease  of  a 
severe  character,  with  few  exceptions,  but  with  many  reserva- 
tions as  to  the  stage  of  the  disease  in  which  it  may  be 
administered  with  the  greatest  benefit  and  safety.  All  forms 
of  debility,  spermatorrhoea,  the  asthenic  hemorrhages,  the 
various  forms  of  severe  dyspepsia,  the  persistent  vomiting  of 
pregnant  women,  chronic  malaria,  continued  fevers,  exhaust- 
ing discharges,  old  coughs,  and  polyuria  are  treated  with  this 
drug  in  confidence  of  relief  and  cure.  The  leaves,  ^  ^  (Shen- 
lu),  are  sold  in  bundles  of  the  green,  fragrant,  excellently 
preserved  foliage  of  the  shrub.  They  are  used  as  an  emetic 
and  expectorant  remedy. 

PANAX  REPENS.— i  ^  (T'u-shen),  1380.  This  is 
given  in  the  Customs  lists  as  an  article  of  commerce,  but  it  is 
not  mentioned  in  the  P^ntsao.  The  Chinese  term  may  also  be 
applied  to  native  ginseng,  referring  to  that  produced  within 
China  proper,  as  distinguished  from  that  brought  from  other 
places.  In  Szechuan  wild  Panax  repens  is  known  by  the 
name  ^  ^C  (Sau-ch'i),  1059,  but  in  other  parts  of  China  San- 
ch^i'\s  Gynura pinnaiifida, 

PANICUM  CRUS  CORVI,  Paniann  cms  galll—1^ 
(Pai),  %  %  (Wu-ho),  m  ^  (Shui-pai),  ^  ^  (Han-pai).  This 
panic  grass  takes  the  place  in  China  of  taj'cs  and  cheats  in 
western  countries.  It  grows  plentifully  in  a  wild  state  almost 
everywhere,  and  is  found  in  fields  of  millet,  wheat,  and  rice. 
The  seed  is  said  to  be  found  in  thrashed  millet  sometimes  to 
the  amount  of  three-tenths  of  the  total  bulk.  The  grain, 
although  somewhat  bitter  in  taste,  is  edible,  and  indeed  is 
sometimes  used  in  times  of  scarcity  as  a  substitute  for  other 


cereals.  Its  use  is  said  to  benefit  the  breath  and  to  act  on  the 
spleen.  The  shoots  and  roots  are  used  bruised  as  an  applica- 
tion to  wounds  to  check  hemorrhage. 

PANICUM  FRUMENTACEUM.— ff  -^  (Shan-tzu).  It 
is  not  certain  that  this  is  not  Elcusinc  indica^  the  '•'- raggi'''* 
of  India.  Both  were  found  by  Staunton  in  Shantung,  the 
former  cultivated  and  the  latter  wild.  It  is  also  called  ||  ^  ^ 
(Lung-chao-su),  "  dragon's-claw-millet,"  and  f|||  /I^  |^  (Ya- 
chao-pai),  *' duck's-claw-tare,"  on  account  of  the  shape  of  its 
head.  It  grows  in  moist  ground,  and  somewhat  resembles 
Paniann  cms  corvi^  having  a  grain  like  Pmiicum  miliaceum^ 
but  smaller.  It  is  cultivated  in  Shantung  and  Honan.  The 
grain  is  red,  and  has  a  rough  taste  when  prepared  as  food.  It 
has  no  particular  medicinal  uses,  but  is  considered  to  be  tonic, 
nutritious,  and  strengthening,  preserving  health  and  warding 
off  disease. 

PANICUM  MILIACEUM.— ^>  (Chi)  seems  to  be  a 
general  name  for  the  species  while  ^  (Ch'i)  seems  to  refer 
more  properly  to  the  non-glutinous  variety.  ^  (Shu)  is  the 
term  for  the  glutinous  variety.  ^  (TzQ)  is  another  common 
name  for  \\\^  panicicd  viillet.  This  comprises  two  of  the  31  ^ 
(Wu-ku)  of  Shcnnung,  the  others  being  rice,  wheat  and  barley, 
and  the  soy  bean.  Of  the  six  grains  of  the  Choiili^  it  also 
forms  two,  the  others  being  rice,  Setaria  italica^  wheat,  and 
Hydropyrum  ,•  and  of  the  nine  grains  enumerated  in  another 
part  of  the  C/iouh\  it  again  forms  two,  the  others  being  Setaria 
italica  glutinosa^  rice,  hemp,  soy  bean,  Phaseoliis  beans, 
barley,  and  wheat.  Both  varieties  have  been  known  and 
cultivated  in  China  from  the  earliest  times,  and  are  probably 
indigenous,  the  characters  being  exceedingly  ancient.  The 
first  character  refers  to  the  necessity  of  careful  plowing  for  the 
grain  (^  and  7^),  the  second  to  a  grain  suitable  for  sacrifice 
(tj^  and  ^),  while  the  third  is  a  grain  for  the  manufacture  of 
spirits  by  fermentation  (^  \  7JC).  The  fact  that  the  Chinese 
distinguish  so  clearly  between  these  two  varieties  of  panicled 
millet  has  led  Legge,  Biot,  and  other  translators  of  the  classics 
to    translate    1^    by    ''rice,"    "sorghum,"    and    other    similar 


attempts  at  keeping  the  translation  of  this  character  and  ^ 
distinct.  At  Peking  the  non-glutinous  millet  is  commonly 
called  ^1  ^  (Mi-tzu).  This  character  is  also  written  j^.  ^  /i^ 
(Huang-mi)  is  another  common  name.  There  are  several 
sub-varieties,  producing  red,  white,  yellow,  and  dark  colored 
grains.  This  is  considered  the  chief  of  grains,  and  as  the 
chiefest  and  best  should  be  offered  in  sacrifice,  it  is  the  proper 
sacrificial  grain  (^).  If  eaten  exclusively  it  is  said  to  predis- 
pose to  the  twenty-six  "cold"  diseases  (including  marasmus, 
ague,  paralyses,  and  the  like).  Its  use  is  considered  strengthen- 
ing and  nourishing.  It  is  cooling,  and  antidotal  to  the 
poisoning  by  cinnabar  or  Momo7'dica  charaiitia.  Its  action 
upon  the  stomach  is  considered  to  be  demulcent  and  beneficial. 
It  should  be  eaten  with  mutton.  The  cooked  mass  also  makes 
an  excellent  poultice  for  boils  and  abscesses.  The  root  of  the 
plant  is  used  in  decoction  for  pyrosis  and  difficult  labor. 

The  glutinous  variety  (^)  has  also  several  sub-varieties. 
The  red  is  called  ^  (Men)  also  written  ^  ;  the  white  "g  (Ch'i); 
the  dark  colored  fg  (Chii)  ;  and  a  kind  said  to  contain  two 
seeds  within  one  glume  is  called  f^i  (P'ei).  Prolonged  use  of 
this  millet  as  food  is  said  to  cause  fever  and  discomfort,  to 
produce  in  children  and  animals  which  eat  it  continuously 
incoordination  of  voluntary  motion,  and  to  predispose  to 
infection  with  pin  worms.  The  former  condition  is  probably 
due  to  the  presence  of  some  parasitic  growth  upon  the  grain, 
and  the  latter  is  probably  a  co-incidence,  nematode  infection 
being  exceedingly  common  in  China.  Its  ordinary  use  as  food 
is  considered  to  be  nutritious  and  strengthening.  If  inciner- 
ated, mixed  with  oil  and  applied  to  venereal  sores,  they  will 
heal  without  a  scar.  If  chewed  and  the  juice  applied  to  gaping 
sores  of  children,  it  is  considered  to  be  a  sovereign  remedy. 
The  red  variety  is  especially  recommended  in  coughs,  fevers, 
fluxes,  to  restore  the  yin  principle  in  males,  and  to  prevent 
jealousy  in  females.  The  stalks  and  root  are  considered  to  be 
slightly  deleterious.  A  decoction  is  prescribed  in  Momordica 
poisoning,  and  is  used  in  the  bath  for  prickly  heat  and  skin 
eruptions.  When  taken  with  Phaseolus  beans,  it  is  diuretic. 
It  is  also  administered  in  the  hematuria  of  pregnant  women, 
and  in  sprains  it  is  used  as  a  fomentation. 


PAP  AVER  RHCEAS.— M  §  :f  (Li-ch'un-ts'ao).  It  is 
probable  that  J^  H  A  (Yii-niei-jen)  is  the  same,  but  this  is 
considered  to  be  a  species  of  Lychnis.  It  is  also  called  f|I]  2^  ^' 
(Hsien-nii-liao),  or  "fairy  artemisia. "  Its  habitat  is  said  to  be 
the  mountain  valleys  south  of  the  Huai  river.  The  flower  and 
root  are  used  in  medicine,  and  are  prescribed  for  jaundice. 

PAPAVER  SOMNIFERUM.— ^  ^  H  (Ying-tzu-shu). 
It  has  a  jar-shaped  capsule,  and  seed  like  those  of  Sctaria 
viridis  ;  hence  the  Chinese  name.  Another  name,  ^^p  %,  (Yii- 
mi),  was  derived  from  the  tact  that  the  grain  was  paid  as 
Imperial  taxes.  The  plant  was  originally  grown  on  account  of 
its  beautiful  flowers,  and  both  the  young  plant  and  the  seeds 
were  used  for  food.  The  poppy  seed  oil  is  also  spoken  of,  and 
was  used  in  medicine.  The  seed  was  employed  in  the  treat- 
ment of  nausea  and  vomiting,  fluxes,  and  fever.  The  capsule, 
1359,  was  prepared  by  washing,  removing  the  outer  skin,  dry- 
ing in  the  shade,  slicing,  and  digesting  in  rice  vinegar  or 
honey.  It  was  used  in  the  treatment  of  diarrhoea,  dysentery, 
prolapse  of  the  rectum,  spermatorrhoea,  old  coughs,  and  for 
the  relief  of  spontaneous  pains  everywhere.  It  was  specially 
recommended  in  all  kinds  of  fluxes. 

Opium.— pnj  ^  ^^  (0-tu-jung),  ppj  y^  (0-p'ien),  ^  ^ 
(Ya-p'ien).  The  poppy  does  not  seem  to  have  been  indigenous 
to  China.  Evidence  goes  to  show  that  it  was  introduced 
during  the  Sung  period.  But  even  then  the  preparation  of 
opium  does  not  seem  to  have  been  known.  Li  Shih-chen 
mentions  its  appearance  just  prior  to  his  time  (end  of  XVI 
Century),  and  quotes  a  contemporary  work,  which  says  that  it 
came  from  5c  3fr  P  (T*ien-fang-kuo)  ;  for  this  reason  it  is  also 
called  PpJ  "^  (O-fang).  The  method  of  piercing  the  capsule 
and  scraping  off  the  inspissated  juice  that  oozes  out,  as  prac- 
ticed at  the  present  time,  is  described  in  the  Phttsao  as  the 
method  introduced  from  ^C  ")$•  The  author  of  the  Appendix 
to  the  Pentsao^  who  wrote  in  the  Chienlung  period,  mentions 
the  prevalence  of  the  opium  smoking  habit,  and  describes  the 
manner  of  preparing  and  smoking  the  drug.  He  speaks  of 
the  opium  dens,  and  says  that  after  one  has  smoked  a  few 
times  the  habit  becomes  established.     As  a  result  of  this  there 


is  physical  and  moral  deterioration,  insomnia  develops,  sexual 
degeneracy  supervenes,  and  there  is  lack  of  moral  control. 
The  drug  is  here  said  to  have  been  brought  from  p^  5$i]  P£  -^ 
(Ko-la-pa-hai),  "Arabian  sea"  (?),  and  was  said  to  be  produced 
in  ^  Bg  PE  (Chiao-liu-pa)  and  g  ^  (Lii-sung),  the  Philip- 
pines. Although  it  was  a  prohibited  article  of  commerce, 
there  were  those  who  insisted  upon  having  it,  claiming  that  it 
increased  strength  and  promoted  sleep.  As  a  consequence,  con- 
sumption was  then  on  the  increase.  Some  had  smoked  to  the 
extent  that  they  had  ^^^  $!(  (P'o-chia-shang-shen),  "  broken 
up  the  home  and  destroyed  the  body."  The  confirmed  opium 
smoker  is  described  as  black-faced,  weak-voiced,  watery-eyed, 
with  prolapse  of  the  bowels,  and  prospect  of  an  early  death. 

The  Chinese  names  at  the  head  of  this  article  are  all 
intended  to  imitate  the  Arabian  name,  ajioiim^  or  the  Persian 
ajioun.  It  is  said  that  the  resemblance  of  the  flower  of 
the  poppy  to  that  of  the  Hibiscus^  '^-^  ^  (Fu-jnng),  gives 
cause  for  the  use  of  these  two  characters  in  transliterating. 
The  drug  seems  to  have  first  come  from  Arabia  or  Persia, 
probably  at  the  beginning  by  overland  route  through  India. 
The  extension  of  its  use  seems  to  have  been  more  or  less 
gradual.  In  the  Ming  dynasty  it  came  into  general  use  in 
medicine.  It  was  then  given  as  an  astringent  and  sedative  in 
dysentery,  diarrhoea,  rheumatism,  catarrh,  coughs,  leucorrhcea, 
dysmenorrhcea,  and  spematorrhoea,  but  generally  in  combina- 
tion with  other  drugs.  At  the  present  time  this  practice  has 
largely  ceased,  and  the  drug  is  branded  with  all  the  infamy 
and  illegality  which  belong  to  the  habits  of  opium-smoking 
and  opium-eating.  From  the  researches  of  Mr.  Hobson,  made 
in  the  sixth  decade  of  the  last  century,  it  appears  that  opium 
was  a  recognized  product  of  the  prefecture  of  Yungchang,  in 
the  west  of  the  province  of  Yunnan,  in  the  year  1736,  the 
beginning  of  the  reign  of  Chienlung.  Growing  the  poppy  for 
the  proditction  of  opium  in  the  central  provinces  did  not  take 
place  until  about  the  middle  of  the  XIX  Century,  and  the 
popular  story  in  Szechuan  is  that  it  was  introduced  there  from 
India  and  Thibet  towards  the  end  of  Chienlung's  reign  (say 
about  1780).  Fully  one-half  of  the  best  arable  land  in  Sze- 
chuan  is    believed   by    ]\Ir.    Hobson    to    have  been   given    up 


to  the  bearing  of  an  annual  crop  of  poppy.  And  he  found 
that  probably  seven-tenths  of  the  dwellers  in  towns  in 
Szechuan  were  habitual  opium-smokers,  and  that  more  than 
one-half  of  the  country-people  had  fallen  victims  to  this 
seductive  and  injurious  habit. 

Foreign  opium  has  a  number  of  names,  the  principal  of 
which  are  ^  tg  (Kung-yen),  ^  ^  (Kung-kao),  ^  j;  (Kung- 
t'u)  or  ^  jfiE  i  (Kung-pan-t'u),  from  the  Chinese  name  for  the 
East  India  Company,  ^  Ijtt  (^  (Kung-pan-ya).  These  terms  are 
also  used  for  Patna  opium  and  for  the  "first-class"  quality. 
Another  name  for  Patna  opium  is  ^^  j;^  (Ta-t'u),  while  the 
Malwa  is  known  as  >J^  i  (Hsiao-t'u).  jt0  ±  (Yen-t'u),  '^  ± 
(Yang-t'u),  and  ^  j;  (Kuang-t'u),  "Canton-earth,"  are  com- 
mon names  for  opium,  while  M  ^  (Hei-t'u),  "black-earth,"  is 
a  slang  term  for  it.  The  commonest  colloquial-term  of  all, 
however,  is -{^  jiQ  (Yang-yen),  "foreign-smoke."  The  foreign 
drug  is  still  considered  the  best,  and  is  not  noticeably  replaced 
by  tiie  native  article,  although  this  latter  is  considerably  cheaper 
than  the  other.  The  increase  in  the  opium  trade  is  explained 
by  the  wider  prevalence  of  the  habit  and  the  ever  increasing 
consumption  on  the  part  of  each  indivdual  smoker.  Hence, 
although  there  has  been  a  greatly  increased  production  of  the 
native  drug,  there  has  also  been  a  substantial  increase  in  the 
foreign  importations.  In  the  light  of  this  increased  consump- 
tion, it  is  small  wonder  that  the  Chinese  government  and  people 
are  anxious  to  prohibit  the  production  of  the  native  drug  and 
to  get  rid  of  the  traffic  in  the  foreign  article.  The  Szechuan 
opium  is  called  Jl[  j^  (Ch'uan-t'u),  and  in  favorable  years  can 
be  produced  at  about  half  the  cost  of  the  Indian  drug.  It  is 
made  to  imitate  Malwa  opium,  and  Dr.  R.  A.  Jamieson  found 
it  to  contain  6.94  per  cent,  of  morphia.  It  is  sometimes 
adulterated  with  mud,  sesamum  and  hemp  seeds,  and  an 
extract  from  the  fruit  of  SopJiora  japonica^  but  it  is  probably 
not  tampered  with  more  than  is  the  foreign  drug.  More  extract 
for  smoking  is  said  to  be  got  from  Szechuan  opium  than  from 
the  Indian  product.  Yunnan  opium,  and  that  from  Kiieichou, 
are  called  ]^  j^  (Nan-t'u),  while  that  from  Kansu,  Shensi,  and 
Shansi  is  called  "g"  j:  (Hsi-t'n).  These  all  represent  a  good 
quality  of  the  native  drug.     According  to  Baron  Richtofen,  a 


large  quantity  of  opium,  some  of  it  of  a  very  inferior  kind,  is 
produced  in  Honan  province,  and  is,  for  the  most  part,  consumed 
locally.  Other  provinces,  including  Manchuria,  have  produced 
smaller  quantities  of  the  drug.  In  fact,  no  part  of  tlie  empire 
has  been  entirely  free  from  the  scourge  of  its  growth. 

The  prepared  drug  is  called  jtS  ^  (Yen-kao)  or  ^  'Jtg  (Shu- 
yen),  and  is  prepared  on  a  large  scale  by  mixing  the  ashes  from 
opium-pipes  with  the  raw  opium,  which  facilitates  the  making 
of  the  watery  infusion.  This  is  further  filtered  and  evaporated 
to  the  consistence  of  a  thin  extract,  which  is  combustible  in 
the  opium-pipe  when  held  in  the  flame  of  a  small  lamp. 
Water  dissolves  from  one-half  to  three-fourths  of  ordinary 
opium,  but  nothing  is  lost  by  the  Chinese  practised  manipu- 
lator. The  extract  is  usually  made  by  the  keepers  of  the 
opium-joints,  but  rich  people  and  Buddhist  priests  usually 
make  their  own  extract.  The  burning  of  this  extract  in  an 
incomplete  manner,  as  is  practiced  by  the  Chinese,  yields  a 
smoke  containing  sundry  empyreumatic  compounds  unknown 
to  the  chemist,  but  producing  by  absorption  into  the  pulmon- 
ary vessels  a  stimulant,  or  some  perfectly  indescribable  effect, 
unknown  to  all  but  the  actual  smoker.  Of  the  effects  of  this 
habit  one  has  heard  all  but  too  much.  The  positive  necessity  of 
improving,  or  increasing  the  quantity  of,  the  extract  used,  leads 
to  the  loss  of  the  volitional,  digestive,  and  sexual  powers,  or  in 
other  words,  to  the  gradual  degradation  of  the  man.  That  the 
habit  may  be  suddenly  and  permanently  broken  ofif  is  a  fact  of 
frequent  experience.  But  the  failures  are  far  more  frequent 
than  the  cures,  from  the  fact  that  it  requires  great  will  power 
on  the  part  of  a  weakened  and  enslaved  will.  The  use  of  tonics 
and  stimulants,  under  careful  supervision,  combined  with  the 
provision  of  good  food  for  body  and  mind,  with  restraint  and 
disciplinary  measures  in  certain  cases,  will  greatly  aid  in  curing 
the  habit.  The  substitution  of  decreasing  doses  of  morphia 
may  also  be  practiced,  but  should  only  be  done  under  the 
supervision  of  a  competent  and  conscientious  physician  or 
dispenser,  lest  a  morphia-eating  habit  be  substituted  for  that  of 
opium-smoking.  The  indiscriminate  sale  or  distribution  of 
anti-opium  pills,  most  of  which  contain  morphia,  is  reprehen- 
sible, not  to  use  a  more  severe  term. 


PARDANTHUS  CHINENSIS.— |j-  ^  (She-kan),  1120. 
Other  names  for  this  are  Be/amcanda  chinensis^  Ixia  chviensis^ 
and  MorcBa  chinensis.  It  is  one  of  the  Iridaceae.  and  is  erown 
in  gardens.  It  resembles  Iris  tectorum  in  its  leaves,  grows 
two  to  three  feet  high,  has  orange  flowers,  and  black,  berr\-like 
fruits.  It  has  a  number  of  other  names  ;  a  common  one  being 
^  fj-  (P'ien-chu).  It  grows  wild  in  the  Peking  mountains, 
but  the  wild  variety  bears  white  flowers  {PardantJiiis  dicho- 
ionms).  The  rhizomes  are  used  in  medicine,  and  as  found  in 
the  shops  they  are  very  hard,  bristled  with  rootlets,  and  of  a 
chrome-yellow  in  the  interior.  The  taste  is  acid  in  the  fresh 
state,  and  the  drug  is  considered  by  the  Chinese  to  be  delete- 
rious. It  is  described  as  having  expectorant,  deobstruent, 
carminative,  and  diuretic  properties,  and  seems  to  have  some 
special  popularity  in  diseases  of  the  throat.  It  is  prescribed 
in  amenorrhoea,  malaria,  dropsy,  cancer  of  the  breast,  arrow 
poison,  and  a  number  of  dissimilar  difl&culties. 

PARIS  POLYPHYLLA.— ^  {jfi  (Tsao-hsiu).  This  plant 
has  a  solitary  stem,  bearing  at  the  top  two  or  three  whorls  of 
7  or  8  leaves  each,  with  yellow  and  purple  flowers.  The  leaves 
are  of  a  reddish-yellow  color,  and  run  out  into  gold-colored, 
drooping  filaments.  The  fruit  is  red,  and  the  root  has  a 
purplish-red  skin  and  white  flesh.  The  plant  is  likened  to 
Euphorbia  sieboldiana^  and  is  somewhat  confounded  with  it. 
The  root  is  bitter  and  poisonous.  It  is  prescribed  in  nervous 
aflfections,  epilepsy,  chorea,  mania,  puerperal  eclampsia,  and 
ague.  It  is  also  a  counter  poison  against  snake,  insect,  and 
rat  bites.      It  is  administered  in  the  form  of  an  aqueous  extract. 

PARIS  QUADRIFOUA.— I  ^,  (Wang-sun).  This  grows 
in  the  river  valleys  of  Kiangsu.  In  is  similar  to  the  last,  but 
the  whorls  have  only  four  leaves.  The  root  resembles  that 
of  Nehimbiiim  speciostim^  and  is  bitter,  but  not  poisonous.  It 
is  prescribed  in  rheumatism,  and  is  considered  as  a  sort  of 
general  prophylactic  and  preservative  of  life  and  black  hair. 

PARMELIA  Sp.— ;j5  g  (Shih-erh),  1146.  Faber  is 
authority  for  the  identification  of  this  gymnocarpous  lichen. 
Another  observer  calls  it  Leptogitun  fuliginosiun.     The  plant 


is  not  described  in  the  books,  and  without  observation  in  its 
habitat  nothino^  more  definite  can  be  said.  For  its  medical 
uses,  see  the  article  on  Muslwooms. 

PATRINIA  SCABIOS.EFOLIA.— lit  ^  (Pai-chiang.) 
Faber  also  gives  ^  ^  (K'u-chih),  but  this  term  is  also  applied 
to  Physatis  cDigulata  and  to  SopJiora  Jiavcsccns.  The  root  of 
the  plant  smells  like  spoiled  soy,  hence  the  Chinese  name. 
The  plant  is  quite  common,  and  is  sometimes  called  ^  ^ 
(K'u-t'u),  because  the  aborigines  eat  it.  In  the  spring,  when 
the  plant  first  comes  up,  the  leaves  lie  on  the  ground.  They 
appear  four  in  a  whorl.  The  stem  attains  to  the  height  of  two 
or  three  feet,  and  is  jointed.  The  white  flowers  appear  on  the 
top  of  the  stem  in  an  umbel.  The  root  is  the  part  used  in 
medicine,  and  its  properties  are  considered  to  be  counter 
poison,  resolvent,  anodyne,  and  astringent.  It  is  prescribed 
in  abscesses,  post-partum  pain  and  other  puerperal  difficulties, 
various  poisions,  and  parasitic  skin  diseases. 

PAULOWNIA  IMPERIALIS.— tisl  (T'ung).  This  is  also 
known  as  ^  \^  (Pai-t'ung),  ^  Wi  (Huang-t'ung),  J^  ^  (P'ao- 
t'ung),  II  tisl  (I-t'ungj,  and  :^  ^  (Jung-t'ung).  Li  Shih-chen 
gives  the  following  description  of  the  tree  :  "It  has  very  large 
leaves,  of  various  shapes.  The  bark  is  of  a  dirty  white  color, 
and  the  wood  is  light  and  not  attacked  by  insects.  It  is  used 
in  making  various  utensils,  and  is  also  very  good  for  posts  and 
beams  in  building  houses.  It  bears  flowers  in  the  second 
month,  resembling  those  of  Ipomoea  hcderacea^  of  a  white  or 
purple  color.  The  fruit  is  more  than  an  inch  long  and  as 
large  as  a  jujube.  Within  the  capsule  are  the  seeds,  which 
are  light,  flattened,  and  winged  like  the  seeds  of  the  elm  tree. 
When  ripe,  the  capsule  bursts,  and  the  seeds  are  carried  away 
by  the  wind."  The  leaves  are  used  in  decoction  as  a  wash 
for  foul  sores,  and  to  promote  the  growth  of  the  hair  and  to 
restore  its  color.  The  wood  and  bark  are  used  as  an  astringent 
and  vermicide,  in  ulcers,  in  falling  of  the  hair,  and  are  admin- 
istered in  the  delirium  of  typhoid  fever.  The  flowers  are 
considered  to  be  a  good  remedy  for  skin  diseases  of  swine,  and 
if  fed  to  these  animals  will  fatten  them  three-fold.      They  are 


also  given  to  those  who  are  suffering  from  hallucinations,  which 
would  indicate  that  the  fattening  of  the  pigs  could  not  be  a 
hallucination  ! 

PEDICULARIS  RESUPINATA.— ^^  ^  ^  (Ma-hsien- 
hao)  ;  properly  ^  ^  7^"  (Ma-shih-hao),  because  the  herbage 
has  the  odor  of  horse  excrement.  It  bears  a  reddish  tinted, 
white  flower.  The  herbage  is  gathered  in  the  second  and 
eighth  moons  and  dried  for  medicine.  It  is  used  in  fevers, 
rheumatism,  leucorrhoea,  sterility,  urinary  difficulties,  and  in 
decoction  as  a  wash  to  foul  sores.  This  plant  is  confounded 
with  Ayic}}iisia  japoiiica  and  Incarvillca  sinensis. 

(Lin-hao),  f^  '%  (0-hao).  This  is  a  Japanese  identification, 
and  somewhat  uncertain  as  to  the  Chinese  plant.  It  grows  in 
swampy  places,  and  can  be  eaten  raw  or  cooked.  It  is  fragrant. 
Its  properties  are  considered  to  be  resolvent  and  carminative. 

PERILLA  OCIMOIDES.— ^  jf  (Tzu-su),  1417.  Li 
Shih-chen  distinguishes  two  varieties  of  this  plant,  the  purple 
and  the  white,  g  |^  (Pai-su),  according  to  the  color  of  the 
leaves.  The  young  leaves  are  eaten  as  a  vegetable,  also 
pickled  with  plums.  They  are  used  to  prepare  a  fragrant 
beverage.  The  seeds,  1202,  grow  in  capsules,  and  are  about 
as  large  as  mustard  seeds,  and  an  oil  is  expressed  from  them 
called  ^  -^  fft  (Su-tzii-yu).  The  seeds  are  also  fed  to  ducks 
under  the  name  of  ;^  ^  (Kuei-jen).  The  stalk  and  the  leaves, 
1203,  are  used  for  driving  away  colds,  as  a  stomachic  and 
tonic,  in  cholera,  and  to  benefit  the  alimentary  canal.  They 
are  considered  to  be  diaphoretic  and  pectoral,  and  antidotal  to 
fish  and  flesh  poison.  The  seeds  have  similar  properties  and 
uses,  and  are  also  thought  to  be  highly  nutritious.  They  are 
also  prescribed  in  rheumatism,  seminal  losses,  asthma,  and 
obstinate  coughs. 

PERSE  A  NANMU.— fi  (Nan).  The  character  is  more 
commonly  written  \^.  This  is  a  large  tree  found  in  the 
province  of  Szechuan,  and  furnishes  the  highly  esteemed 
nanniu^   a  tough   wood  which  does  not  easily  rot,   and  which 


for  this  reason  is  much  used  for  buildings  and  furniture.  The 
tree  has  reddish-yellow  flowers,  and  a  fruit  resembling  cloves, 
green  in  color,  but  which  is  not  edible.  The  tree  grows  to  the 
height  of  more  than  a  hundred  feet,  and  the  wood  is  red  in 
color  in  the  best  varieties.  The  white  wood  is  more  brittle 
than  the  red.  The  root  is  called  ^  ^  |"^  (T'ou-pai-nan),  and 
is  used  for  making  utensils.  The  twigs  of  the  tree  are  used  in 
decoction  for  the  treatment  of  choleraic  difficulties,  and  as  a 
fomentation  in  sprains  and  swellings.  The  bark  is  similarly 
used,  as  well  as  in  infants  that  vomit  up  their  milk. 

PEUCEDANUM  DECURSIVUM.— fi|  fS  (Tu-huo), 
1364.  Faber  also  gives  'fjlf  ^  (Ch'ien-hu),  but  this  is  Angelica 
refracta  (which  see).  The  Chinese  name  is  derived  from  the 
belief  that  the  plant  is  not  moved  by  the  wind,  but  that  it  is 
self-moving  when  there  is  no  wind.  For  this  reason  it  is 
also  called  Jg  ^  ]^  (Tu-yao-ts'ao).  Another  name  is  ^  fg 
(Ch'iang-huo),  81,  but  this  is  said  to  indicate  another  species 
or  variety.  As  this  latter  name  indicates,  the  plant  is  found 
in  Thibet,  Kokonor,  Kansu,  and  now  in  Szechuan  ;  that  from 
the  latter  place  being  more  distinctively  known  as  Tji-huo. 
There  is  a  difference  in  the  appearance  of  the  drug  between 
these  two  kinds,  the  Tu-huo  coming  in  long,  twisted  pieces, 
deeply  marked  both  lengthwise  and  crosswise  with  ribs  or  strise, 
with  portions  of  the  crowning  leaves  of  the  root-stock  sometimes 
still  attached.  The  exterior  surface  is  of  a  dark  or  yellowish 
brown  color,  and  the  interior  is  open  in  texture  and  is  of  a 
dirty-white.  The  ChHang-huo  is  much  darker  in  color,  and  is 
marked  off  into  short  internodes  of  nearly  three  quarters  of  an 
inch  in  length,  by  rings  or  ridges  of  tissue  which  indicate 
joints.  This  is  less  apparent  in  some  samples,  which  are 
probably  mixed.  The  interior,  yellow,  woody  tissue  is  very 
brittle,  and  loosely  arranged  in  wedge-shaped  masses,  a  thick- 
ness of  red  cortical  fibers  intervening  between  the  vascular 
bundles  and  the  epidermis.  Both  drugs  are  similarly  prescribed 
as  stimulant,  arthritic,  antispasmodic,  and  derivative  remedies. 
They  are  administered  in  catarrh,  colds,  rheumatism,  apoplexy, 
leprosy,  post-partum  difficulties,  dropsy  of  pregnancy  and  other 
dropsies,  and  in  headache. 



PEUCEDANUM  JAPONICUM.— jSjJ  ^  (Fang-k'uei). 
The  root  and  leaves  are  like  those  of  Malva,  and  tlie  flowers, 
seeds,  and  the  odor  and  taste  of  the  root  are  like  ^  |^  (Fang- 
feng)  (see  the  next  article),  hence  the  name.  The  plant  has 
palmately  three-divided  leaves,  and  an  umbelliferons  flower 
head  with  white  flowers.  The  drug,  which  is  the  root,  easily 
decays.  It  is  tested  in  water  ;  if  it  sinks  it  is  good,  but  if  it 
floats  it  is  decayed.  Most  observers  regard  the  root  as  non- 
poisonous,  but  by  some  it  is  considered  to  be  slightly  delete- 
rious. Its  properties  are  represented  as  eliminative,  diuretic, 
tussic,  nerve  sedative,  and  if  taken  for  some  time  is  thought  to 
benefit  the  marrow,  increase  the  vitality,  and  give  activity  to 
the  body.  It  is  prescribed  in  constipation,  suppression  of 
urine,  various  mental  and  epileptoid  affections,  delirium  and 
hallucinations,  nocturnal  polyuria,  malaria,  and  typhoid  fever. 

PEUCEDANUM  RIGIDUM,  Pencedamun  terebintha- 
ceuni. — ^  ^  (Fang-feng),  292.  At  Peking  this  Chinese  name 
is  sometimes  applied  to  the  former  species,  and  in  the  mount- 
ains of  Hnpeh  it  represents  the  latter.  But  it  properly  refers 
to  Slier  divaricatiini  (which  see). 

PHARBITIS  HEDERACEA.— See  Ipomcea  hederacea. 

PHASEOLUS  MUNGO.— i^  1;  (Lu-tou).  Vicia  saliva 
is  known  by  this  Chinese  name  in  Hupeh.  This  is  a  small 
bunch-bean,  the  stalk  growing  to  the  height  of  a  foot  or  more, 
and  having  small,  roundish,  hairy  leaves.  It  is  grown  exten- 
sively for  food,  the  bean  being  made  into  a  congee,  or  only 
cooked  soft.  It  is  also  ground  into  a  meal  and  used  as  a 
porridge  or  pancake,  and  it  is  used  for  distilling  into  spirit. 
It  is  also  sprouted  and  the  sprouts  used  as  food.  The  beans 
are  largely  fed  to  horses  and  cattle.  Prolonged  use  of  these 
beans  as  food  is  thought  to  produce  billiousness.  The  bean  is 
recommended  to  be  used  together  with  its  tegmen,  and  is 
considered  to  be  a  resolvent,  carminative,  antifebrile,  and 
counter-poisonous  remedy.  It  is  prescribed  in  the  sequelae  to 
smallpox,  obstinate  dysentery,  bladder  difficulties  in  the  aged, 
and   all  sorts  of  poisons.     The   bean    meal,    778,    is  similarly 


used,  and  is  highly  esteemed  as  a  poultice  in  boils  and  abscesses. 
It  is  also  regarded  as  an  antivinous  remedy.  The  tegmen, 
781,  alone  is  considered  as  an  antifebrile,  and  is  used  in  opacity 
of  the  cornea.  The  pods  are  used  in  obstinate  dysentery,  the 
flowers  to  counteract  the  effects  of  wine,  the  sprouts  are  con- 
sidered to  be  countervinous  and  antifebrile,  and  the  leaves  are 
steeped  in  vinegar  and  used  in  cholera. 

PHASEOLUS  RADIATUS.— ^,  >J.  ^  (Ch'ih-hsiao-tou), 
14I)  5^1  Ja.  (Hung-tou).  The  leaves  are  called  ^  (Huo).  On 
account  of  the  second  name,  the  Chinese  sometimes  confound 
Abrits  prccatorins  with  this,  and  Tatarinov  and  other  western 
botanists  have  fallen  into  the  same  error.  This  bean  is  largely 
cultivated  north  of  the  Yangtse.  The  plant,  in  its  character 
and  growth,  is  very  similar  to  Phaseoliis  nmngo^  of  which  it  is 
sometimes  considered  to  be  a  variety.  It  is  considered  to  be 
good  food  for  donkeys,  but  is  too  heavy  and  heating  for 
mankind.  Medicinally,  it  drives  away  dropsy  and  scatters 
carcinomatous  and  purulent  swellings.  Otherwise,  its  proper- 
ties are  similar  to  those  of  Phascolus  vmngo^  and  it  is  prescribed 
in  even  a  larger  number  of  similar  difficulties  than  is  this  latter. 
Threatened  abortion,  menstruation  during  pregnancy,  diffi- 
cult labor,  retained  placenta,  post-partum  troubles,  and  non- 
secretion  of  milk  constitute  a  series  of  obstetrical  difficulties  for 
which  its  use  is  recommended.  The  leaves  are  recommended 
in  fever  and  urinary  difficulties,  and  the  sprouts  in  threatened 
abortion  whether  from  an  abortive  tendency  or  from  injury. 

^  H  (Huang-po).  This  last  is  also  wrongly  written  |^  || 
(Huang-po),  518.  Loureiro  calls  this  Pterocarpiis  fiavus., 
and  F'aber  calls  it  Pterocarpiis  indiciis.  But  Henry  has  shown 
the  identification  at  the  head  of  this  article  to  be  the  correct 
one.  The  root  is  said  to  be  called  ;j;^  ^  (T'an-huan),  and  it  is 
covered  with  nodular  masses  resembling  Pachyma  cocos^  which 
are  probably  fungoid.  The  tree  grows  to  the  height  of  thirty 
or  forty  feet,  having  a  whitish  outer  bark  and  an  inner  yellow 
one.  The  latter  is  used  in  dyeing  silk  yellow,  as  well  as  iu 
medicine.     The  drug,  as  it  appears  in  the  market,  is  in  square 


or  rectangular  pieces,  from  three  to  five  inches  long,  rough  on 
the  outer  surface,  and  smooth,  or  striated  longitudinally,  on 
the  inner  surface.  The  interior  is  of  a  deep  yellow  color,  and 
the  taste  is  very  bitter.  It  varies  a  good  deal  in  thickness, 
that  from  Hupeh  province  being  the  thinnest.  It  is  regarded 
as  tonic,  diuretic,  alterative,  aphrodisiac,  and  antirheumatic. 
It  is  prescribed  in  jaundice,  hemorrhoids,  fluxes,  menstrual 
difficulties,  chancre,  sexual  incompetence,  intestinal  worms, 
nosebleed,  dysuria,  and  favus.  This  list  only  includes  types 
of  difficulties  for  which  it  is  prescribed.  To  see  the  complete 
list  as  given  in  the  Chinese  books,  one  would  be  led  to  think 
that  it  was  a  universal  panacea.  The  root  is  said  to  be  taken 
for  medicinal  uses  only  when  one  hundred  years  old.  The 
therapeutic  virtues  ascribed  to  it  seem  to  depend  upon  some 
mysterious  power  connected  with  age  and  geomantic  aspect. 
It  is  said  to  relieve  the  hundred  diseases  of  the  heart  and 
abdomen,  to  quiet  the  soul,  to  relieve  hunger  and  thirst,  and  if 
taken  for  a  long  time  to  prolong  life  and  permeate  the  spirit. 

PHOTINIA  GLABRA.— ^^  :^  ^  (Ts'u-lin-tzu).  This 
evergreen  tree,  with  its  luxuriant  foliage,  is  said  to  grow  on 
the  hills  of  Szechuan.  It  bears  white  flowers  in  early  summer, 
and  in  the  winter  becomes  covered  with  bunches  of  red  berries, 
much  resembling  cherries  in  appearance.  These  are  dried  in  the 
shade,  or  are  pickled  by  the  natives  for  food.  The  leaves  are 
sour  in  taste,  and  are  pickled  and  eaten  with  fish.  The  fruits 
are  recommended  in  obstinate  dysentery,  piles,  intestinal  worms, 
and  jaundice.  The  pickled  fruits  are  said  to  be  appetizing  and 
peptic,  but  if  taken  in  excess  will  make  the  mouth  and  tono-ue 
rough  and  crack  open. 

PHRAGMITES  COMMUNIS.—^  (Lu),  ^  (Wei),  ^ 
(Chia),  also  known  as  Arinido  phragmites  and  Phraginites 
roxburghii.  The  flowers  are  called  ^  ^  (P'eng-nung),  and 
the  shoot  ^  (Ch'iian).  Of  the  names  given  at  the  beginning 
of  this  article  the  third  is  said  to  indicate  the  young  plant,  and 
is  explained  by  ^  H  "excellent  ;"  the  first  refers  to  the  stage 
before  blooming,  and  is  explained  by  ^,  "black,"  denoting 
its  color;  the  second  refers  to  the  reed  when  it  is  fully  grown, 


and  is  explained  by  •^  "strong,  fine-looking,"  This  plant,  next 
to  the  bamboo,  is  one  of  the  most  nsefnl  plants  in  China. 
Indeed,  north  of  the  Yangtse  it  in  a  large  measure  takes  the 
place  occupied  by  the  bamboo  in  the  southern  provinces.  The 
shoots  are  eaten  like  bamboo  shoots  ;  the  stalks  are  used  for 
building  the  hovels  of  the  poor,  for  wattled  fences,  for  mats, 
screens,  and  blinds,  and  as  the  principal  kitchen  fuel  of  the 
Yangtse,  under  which  circumstances  it  is  known  as  ^  ^  (Xn- 
ch'ai);  the  large,  long  leaves  are  used  as  wrappings  for  the 
glutinous  rice  dumplings  so  largely  consumed  at  the  Fifth 
Moon  Feast,  and  the  broken  leaves  and  autumnal  sweepings 
are  used  for  bedding  ;  and  lastly,  these  leaves  and  tops,  when 
boiled  in  water  and  the  water  afterwards  evaporated,  yield  a 
dark,  glutinous,  sweet  substance,  used  as  a  substitute  for  sugar. 
The  whole  plant  is  used  as  fodder  for  cattle,  and  the  stalk, 
roots,  leaves,  tops,  old  house  and  fence  wattles,  broken  screens 
and  blinds,  and  the  rakings  of  the  reed  fields  and  cattle  yards, 
are  all  added  to  the  pile  of  kitchen  fuel.  The  portion  of  the 
root  growing  in  the  mud  is  also  in  times  of  scarcity  used  as 
food  ;  that  above  the  ground  being  bitter  and  unpalatable.  The 
plant  grows  in  river  valleys  at  flood  water,  and  in  marshes.  It 
is  almost  the  only  thing  one  sees  sailing  up  the  lower  Yangtse 
in  August.  Medicinally,  the  root,  768,  is  regarded  as  cooling 
and  diuretic.  It  is  administered  in  nausea  and  vomiting, 
"internal"  fevers  including  typhoid  fever,  hiccough,  and 
fluxes.  The  shoot  is  slightly  bitter,  and  is  considered  cooling 
and  counter  poison,  and  is  highly  recommended  for  choleraic 
difficulties  and  various  kinds  of  flesh  and  medicinal  poisons. 
The  stalks  and  leaves  are  used  in  cholera  and  fetid  bronchitis, 
and  the  ash  is  applied  to  foul  sores,  unhealthy  granulations, 
and  the  like.  The  use  of  the  plant  which  grows  in  the  waters 
of  the  Yangtse  by  married  couples  is  supposed  to  conduce  to 
harmony  in  their  sexual  relations.  The  flowers  are  made  into 
a  strong  decoction  in  water,  and  administered  as  a  very  effica- 
cious remedy  in  cholera,  fish  and  shrimp  poisoning,  and  the 
ashes  are  used  for  checking  hemorrhage. 

PHYLLANTHUS    URINARIA.—^   3^  i^    (Chen-chu- 
ts'ao),  37.     See  LyswiacJiia  eleutheroides^  also  Spoiidias  amara. 


PHYLLOSTACHYS.— ^    ft    (Tzii-chu),    i^   ft    (Shui- 
chu).      See  Bavibitsa. 

PHYSALIS  AIvKEKENGL— |$^(Snaii-chiang).  This 
is  a  common  plant,  its  habitat  being  the  provinces  of  Hukiiang; 
but  it  is  also  grown  in  fields  and  gardens  in  other  parts  of  the 
empire.  The  plant  resembles  Solanum  7iigrum^  bears  small 
white  flowers,  and  a  reddish-yellow,  cherry-like  fruit,  enclosed 
in  an  inflated  calyx.  On  account  of  this  bladder-like  calyx,  the 
plant  is  called  '^  ||  :^  (Teng-leng-ts'ao),  "lantern  plant". 
The  fruit  is  edible,  bat  does  not  have  much  taste.  The  seeds 
are  sour  and  the  shoot  is  bitter.  A  smaller  kind  is  called  ^  Ij^ 
(K'u-chih).  This  is  Physalis  angiilata.  The  shoot,  leaves, 
stalk,  and  root  are  used  in  medicine,  and  are  considered  to  be 
antifebrile,  diuretic,  and  expectorant.  They  are  prescribed  in 
a  number  of  feverish  conditions,  especially  those  of  children. 
The  seeds  are  also  used,  and  besides  the  properties  ascribed  to 
the  other  parts,  they  are  said  to  promote  easy  labor,  and  to 
specially  benefit  children. 

PHYTOLACCA  ACINOSA.— •^-  ^  (Shaug-lu),  iiii. 
This  term  also  evidently  includes  Phytolacca  dccandra.  Two 
kinds  are  described  ;  one  with  white  flowers  and  a  white  root 
which  is  edible  when  cooked,  and  the  other  with  reddish- 
purple  flowers  and  a  purple  root  which  is  poisonous.  The 
former  is  cultivated  in  some  parts  of  the  empire  for  food.  The 
toxic  action  of  the  drug  is  said  to  manifest  itself  in  bloody 
stools  and  hallucinations.  It  is  prescribed  in  dropsy  and  as  a 
counter-poison,  especially  in  abdominal  parasites.  Externally 
it  is  used  in  foul  sores  of  all  kinds.  The  flowers,  called  ^  f^ 
(Ch'ang-hua),  are  prescribed  in  apoplexy. 

PICRIS  REPENS.— j^  ^-  ii  (Hu-huang-lien).  See 
Barkhaiisia  repens. 

PIERIS  OVALIFOLIA.— f,i  %  (Li-mu).  No  description 
is  given  of  this  tree,  except  that  its  wood  is  veined  in  dark 
green,    from   which   fact  it  receives  its  name.      A  tincture  (of 


what  part  is  not  nieiitioued)  is  recommeuded  in  wasting,  and 
is  said  to  benefit  the  male  principle  and  to  act  as  a  tonic  to  the 
loins  and  legs. 

PILEA. — yfC  ^  (Shui-ying).  There  is  not  much  descrip- 
tion of  this  plant,  and  it  is  confounded  with  QliiantJie  stolojiifcra. 
It  grows  in  Szechuan,  and  is  there  used  for  the  treatment  of  the 
form  of  rheumatism  known  as  >^  JU,  (Ku-feng). 

PILLS. — This  is  a  favorite  method  of  exhibiting  drugs 
among  the  Chinese.     But  the  remarkable   diflference    between 
the  Ciiinese  and  western  practice  in  the  use  of  these,  is  that  the 
former  never  use  this  form  of  preparation  for  the  exhibition  of 
cathartics.      iV  pill   with  the  Chinese  usually  means  a  tonic  or 
astringent  rem,edy.      The  general  term  for  these  is  '^  (Wan), 
although  ^  (Tan)  nearly  always  refers  to  a  similar  preparation, 
while  '%  (Kao)  frequently  refers  to  a  pill-mass,  rather  than  to  a 
medicinal  extract.    In  regard  to  the  character  ^  (Tan),  it  refers 
to   what   is  considered   to  be  an   efficacious  drug   compound, 
usually  exhibited  in  the  form  of  pill  or  pill  mass,  and  almost 
seems  sometimes  to  have  been  miswritten  for  %^  (Wan).      Pills 
are  usually  made  up  with  honey  as  an  excipient,  but  if  they 
are    to    be    eaten   fresh,    they   are   prepared    with   rice-flour   or 
wheat-flour  paste.      Those  which  are  not  desired  to  dissolve  at 
once  in  the  stomach  are  usually  made  small  and  coated  with 
wax,      Pills  are  made  of  all  sizes,  from  that  of  a  millet  seed  to 
that  of  a  pigeon's  ^^^^  and  are  most  frequently  not  swallowed 
whole,   but  are  chewed   up  in  the  mouth  and  swallowed  with 
some   approved   decoction,    with   spirits,    or   with    meat   broth. 
This  explains  why  patients  in  mission  hospitals  are  sometimes 
seen  to  chew  up  the  sugar  or  gelatine  coated  pills  given  them 
by   the  dispenser.      Sometimes   the   pill   mass  is  not  made  up 
into  pills  or  bolu^s,  but  the  patient  simply  helps  himself  to  a 
piece  as  large  as  he   likes,    and   eats  it  as  he  would  confec- 
tionery.    There   is  a   very   large   number  of  formulae  extant, 
and  we  give  below  the  most  famous  of  these. 

Accumidation  Pill;  ^  >^  ;^  (Chiao-chia-wan).  Atractylis 
sinensis,  Zanthoxylum,  Psoralea  coryli folia,  Phellodendron  amu- 
rense,  fennel,  and  honey.    This  causes  water  to  ascend  and  fire  to 


descend  in  the  bod}',  and  therefore  is  a  good  remedy  in  almost 
any  disease. 

Anti-dysentery  Pills  ;  ^  ^\  ^  %  %  (Chih-li-hsiang-lien- 
wan).      Aristolochia  recurvilabra,  Coptis  teeta,  and  honey. 

Aphrodisiac  Pills ;  ^  ]^  :f5*  (Chiao-kan-tan).  Cyperus 
rotundus,  Pachynia  cocos  (the  kind  that  encircles  the  root),  and 
honey.  For  impotence  in  middle  age,  and  to  prolong  virility 
into  old  age  (fifty -one  to  eighty).  Another  formula  is  as  follows : 
Atractxlis  sinensis,  Zanthoxylum,  fennel,  and  paste.  Tonic 
and  strengthening  to  the  virile  powers,  producing  fertility. 

Apricot-gold  Pills;  '^  ^  ^  (Hsing-chin-tan).  The  for- 
mula of  this  pill  reminds  one  of  those  of  the  old  alchemists. 
It  is  made  entirely  of  the  kernels  of  apricot  seeds,  but  there  is 
a  long  process  of  preparation,  extending  to  the  selection  during 
the  winter  of  a  tree  having  auspicious  surroundings,  the  use 
of  geoniantic  influences,  the  combination  of  the  various  ele- 
ments, water,  fire,  earth,  and  frost,  the  collection  of  the 
kernels,  giving  preference  to  those  seeds  containing  double 
kernels,  the  use  of  south-flowing  water  for  the  digestion  of  the 
kernels,  followed  by  a  process  of  fermentation,  decoction,  and 
mixing  with  the  pulp  of  dates  to  form  the  pill-mass.  It  is  said 
that  Chaos  i^^.  ^)  took  these  pills  and  for  long  ages  did  not 
die.  Hsia-chi  (^  ^[ij)  took  them  and  attained  to  the  age  of 
seven  hundred  years,  and  afterwards  became  an  immortal. 
"The  people  of  the  world  will  not  believe  this,  but  their 
unbelief  is  due  to  their  unwillingness  to  purify  their  hearts." 

Atractylis  Pills;  ^  yft;  \  (Tsang-shu-wan).  These  consist 
of  Atractylis  sinensis  and  black  sesamum  seeds.  The  former  is 
prepared  in  a  special  manner,  mixed  with  the  latter  and  made 
into  pills  with  flour-paste.  For  rheumatism  and  malaria. 
There  is  another  formula,  into  the  composition  of  which 
Atractylis  sinensis,  Zanthoxylum,  fennel,  Psoralea  corylifolia, 
and  Ipomoea  hederacea  enter.  These  are  said  to  give  strength 
to  the  eyesight. 

Asnre-excellent  Pills ;  ^  ^  ^  (Ch'ing-6-wan).  These 
are  composed  of  Psoralea  corylifolia,  walnuts,  and  licorice,  and 
are  regarded  as  tonic,  reconstructive,  and  diuretic. 

Barkhausia  Closijig-passages  Pills;  ^  ^  ^  ^  %  (Huang- 
lien-pi-kuan-wan).     Barkhausia  repens,  pangolin  scales,  Ca.ssia 


occidentalis,  piS  Jjfil  ^  (T'niior-hsiieh-lisiang),  and  flowers  of 
Sophora  japonica.  These  are  for  the  cure  of  excebsive  dis- 
charges of  all  kinds. 

Beating  Age  Pills  ;  :^J  ^  ^  ;/{,  (Ta-lao-erh-wan).  Cotton 
seeds,  walnut  kernels,  and  congee  paste.  Said  to  be  preserva- 
tive and  rejuvenating. 

Blac/c  and  White  Pills  ;  M  ^  ;jlL  (Hei-pai-wan).  Volunteer 
(wild)  black  beans  and  white  Tribulus  terrestris.  Peptic  and 

Cannabis  Kernel  Pills ;  |^  -^  fc  j^  (Ma-tzU-jen-wan). 
Kernels  of  Cannabis  seeds,  Pseonia  albiflora,  Magnolia  hypo- 
leuca,  rhubarb,  Citrus  fusca,  apricot  kernels,  and  honey.  Used 
in  constipation  and  profuse  urination. 

Checking  Ague  Pills ;  ^  %  %  (Chieh-nio-wan).  There 
are  a  number  of  formulse  for  these,  the  principal  ingredient  in 
all,  and  the  only  active  one  in  some,  being  Orixa  japonica. 
For  ague  in  all  stages. 

Cinnabar  Five  Odor  Pills ;  ^^^  %^  %  (Ch 'en-sha-wu- 
hsiang-wan).  These  are  made  of  cinnabar  from  Chenchou  in 
Hunan,  dragon's  blood,  olibanum,  myrrh,  Corydalis  ambigua, 
Huachou  orange  flowers,  and  honey.  They  are  carminative, 
anti-spasmodic,  and  anti-emetic. 

Citrus- Atractylis  Pills  ;  |a  -^  \  (Chih-shu-wan).  Citrus 
fusca,  Atractylis  ovata,  Pterocarpus  indicus,  and  honey. 
Peptic  and  digestive. 

Controlling  Saliva  Pills ;  ^  }^  j^  (K'ung-hsien-tan). 
Euphorbia  pekinensis,  Euphorbia  sieboldiana,  white  mustard 
seed,  ginger  juice,  and  paste.  These  check  phlegm  and 
salivation,  and  relieve  rheumatic  and  sciatic  pains. 

Cotton  Seed  Pills  ;  %  T^  ^  X  (Mien-hua-tzu-wan).  Cot- 
ton seed,  Eucommia  ulmoides,  ginger  juice,  Lycium  sinense, 
Cuscuta  chinensis,  and  honey.      Tonic  and  constructive. 

Cutting-away  Pills;  j^  ||  ;^  (K'an-li-wan).  Atractylis 
ovata,  Zanthoxylum,  Psoralea  corylifolia,  Schizandra  sinensis, 
Conioselinum  univittatum,  Pterocarpus  indicus,  and  honey. 
Considered  to  be  peptic,  digestive,  and  antirheumatic. 

Date  a7id  Ghiseng  Pills ;  ^  ^  %  (Tsao-shen-wan). 
These  are  made  of  large  southern  dates  and  ginseng.  They 
are  strengthening  to  the  respiratory  organs. 


DiagJiostic  Pills ;  ^  '^  \  (Fen-ch'ing-wan).  Euryale 
ferox,  Pacliyma  cocos,  yellow  wax  and  honey.  For  gonor- 

Dissolving-poiso7i  Protccting-infant  Pills  ;  ^^'  ^  {^  ^  i5* 
(Hsiao-tu-pao-ying-tan).  The  vine  of  a  creeping  bean  with  its 
beans,  both  the  red  and  the  discolored,  the  flesh  of  Crataegus 
fruits,  Cimicifuga  davurica,  Rehniannia  glutinosa.  Salvia 
plebia,  Siler  divaricatum,  Peucedanum  decursivum,  licorice, 
Pseonia  albiflora,  Cryptotaenia  canadensis,  Forsythia  suspeusa, 
Coptis  teeta,  Platycodon  grandiflorum,  Arctium  lappa,  ver- 
niillion,  and  Momordica  charantia.  These  pills  are  intended 
as  a  preventive  of  smallpox  when  it  is  epidemic.  They  are 
considered  not  only  to  prevent  the  disease,  but  to  make  it 
lighter  in  those  who  have  already  become  infected. 

Driving  away  Boils  and  Saving-life  Pills  ;  '^fs  ^^  ^ 
(T'ui-ting-t'ao-ming-tan).  Siler  divaricatum,  green  orange 
peel,  Peucedanum  decursivum,  Coptis  teeta,  red  Paeonia, 
Asarum  sieboldi,  silk  worms,  cicada  exuvia,  Eupatoriura 
flowers,  Lonicera  chinensis,  licorice  root,  Diphylleia,  Paris 
polyphylla,  and  ginger  juice.  These  are  only  used  in  the  treat- 
ment of  boils,  abscesses,  and  carbuncles. 

Everlasting  Spring  Pills ;  -g.  %  \  (Ch'ang-ch'un-v^^an). 
Fish-glue,  powdered  oyster  shell,  cotton  seed,  lotus  stamens, 
Rosa  laevigata,  Dendrobium  nobile,  Tribulus  terrestris,  Lycium 
sinense,  deer's  horn,  and  honey.     Tonic,  diuretic,  and  cooling. 

Eye  Medicitie  Pills  ;  ^^^  %  (Yen-yao-wan).  Volunteer 
(wild)  beans,  cicada  exuvia,  Equisetum  hiemale,  Cuscuta 
chinensis,  Anthemis,  white  Tribulis  terrestris,  and  honey.  To 
be  used  in  eye  diseases. 

Fairy  Flat-peach  Pills  ;  f[Ij  j^  $t^B  %  (Hsien-ch«uan-p'au- 
t'ao-wau).  Cotton  seed,  red  dates,  Achryanthes  bidentata, 
Lycium  sinense,  Orobanche  ammophila,  Cornus  officinalis, 
Cuscuta  chinensis,  isinglass,  Pachyma  cocos,  and  woman's 
milk.      For  all  sorts  of  weaknesses  and  injuries. 

Firm-true  Pills;  WiM^^  (Ku-chen-tan).  The  two  charac- 
ters probably  refer  to  the  name  of  one  of  the  ingredients. 
Atractylis  sinensis,  Zanthoxylum,  Melia  azedarach,  fennel, 
Psoralea  corylifolia,  and  paste.  Antirheumatic  and  diges- 


First  Quality  Pure  Pills;  J^  '^  ;|vL  (Shang-ch'ing-wan). 
Soochow  peppermint,  white  borax,  black  plums,  Fritillaria 
Toylii,  Terminalia  chebula,  mixed  with  honey,  for  the  treat- 
ment of  syphilis. 

Five  Tiger  Pills  ;  ^^f^  (Wu-hu-tan).  Aconite,  ginger 
juice,  wild  sesamum  seeds,  dragon's  blood,  flowers  of  sulphur, 
and  scaly  ant  eater  skin.      For  wounds,  boils,  and  colds. 

Fotir  Essences  Pills;  0  j^h  ;^  (Ssu-ching-wan),  Urea, 
Pachyma  cocos,  Euryale  ferox,  and  lotus  root.  Anaphrodisiac, 
and  iised  in  polyuria  and  spermatorrhoea. 

Four-precious  Great-spirit  Pills  ;  0  ^  ;/v  iP^  :f5*  (Ssu-pao- 
ta-shen-tan).  Volunteer  (wild)  beans  boiled  in  the  bath  water 
from  a  public  bath  house  (t^  ^),  Astragalus  hoangtchy 
cooked  in  woman's  milk,  Cryptotaenia  canadensis  washed  in 
spirits,  and  Rosa  laevigata  soaked  in  child's  urine.  These  are 
said  to  be  tonic,  and  to  one  who  is  able  to  swallow  them  they 
should  prove  to  be  so. 

Four  spirit  Pills;  0  ^f  ^  (Ssu-shen-wan).  Lycium 
sinense,  spirits,  Zanthoxyhnn,  fennel  seed,  sesamum  seed, 
Melia  azedarach,  Rehmannia  glutinosa,  Atractylis  ovata, 
Pachyma  cocos,  and  honey.  For  kidney  and  eye  troubles,  as 
a  tonic. 

Gastrodia  Pills ;  "^  ^  %i  (T'ien-ma-wan).  Gastrodia 
elata,  Conioselinum  univittatum,  and  honey.  Tonic  and  con- 

Helping  the  Yin  atid  Bringing  back  the  Soul  Pills ;  ^ 
1^  M  ^  f3*  (Chi-yin-fan-hun-tan).  These  are  made  of  the  whole 
plant  of  Leonurus  sibirica,  dried,  powdered,  and  mixed  with 
honey.  They  are  said  to  have  preserved  the  lives  of  many,  and 
are  specially  recommended  in  the  difficulties  of  pregnancy  and 
of  the  puerperal  state. 

Hundred  Felicities  Pill ;  W  H  #  (Pai-hsiang-kao).  These 
are  simply  the  red  sprouted  Euphorbia  lasiocaula,  thoroughly 
cooked  in  starch  water,  and  made  into  a  pill  mass,  or  rolled 
into  pills  the  size  of  millet  grains.  They  are  used  in  coughs, 
nausea,  and  smallpox  of  an  irregular  type. 

Hypoxis  Pills;  Jifj  ^  %  (Hsien-mao-w^an).  Hypoxis 
aurea,  glutinous  rice,  Atractylis  sinensis,  Lycium  sinense, 
Plantago    major,    Pachyma    cocos,    feunel,    kernels   of  Thuja 


orientalis,  Rehmaiinia  glutinosa,  spirits,  and  paste.      These  are 
a  tonic,  reconstructive,  and  aphrodisiac  remedy. 

Jadc-lock  Pills  ;  3£  ^  f^  (Yii-so-tan).  The  joints  of  lotus 
root,  stamens  of  the  lotus  flower,  lotus  arrowroot,  Euryale 
ferox,  Dioscorea  quinqueloba,  both  kinds  of  Pachyma  cocos, 
Rosa  laevigata,  and  flour.  This  a  famous  prescription  for 
seminal  losses  and  gonorrhoea.  It  is  aphrodisiac  and  strength- 
ening to  virility. 

Long-life  Pills ;  ^  '^  %  (Iving-chih-vvan).  Atractylis 
sinensis  made  into  a  pill  mass  with  date  pulp.  These  give 
virility  and  strength. 

Lwig-tonic  Pills  ;  ^  IJijj  \  (Pu-fei-wan).  These  consist  of 
apricot  kernels  soaked  in  child's  urine  in  summer  seven  days, 
in  winter  twenty-seven  days,  and  then  decocted  until  sott.  They 
are  used  for  coughs. 

Man-red  Pills  ;  A  ifl  %  (Jen-hung-wan).  That  which  is 
called  A  t|,  "man  dragon,"  which  is  nothing  more  nor  less 
than  a  tape-worm,  is  washed  in  child's  urine,  pulverized,  and 
mixed  with  red  dates,  radish  seeds,  Rehmannia  glutinosa, 
lotus  arrowroot,  and  Melia  azedarach.  These  are  used  for 
marasmus  in  children. 

Magnolia  Decoction  Pills;  ^  ^Y  M  ^  (Hou-pu-chien- 
wan).  Decoct  the  bark  of  Magnolia  hypoleuca  with  ginger 
and  licorice  to  dryness.  Mix  the  extract  with  dates  and  make 
into  pills.      These  are  carminative,  stomachic,  and  astringent. 

Moistening  the  Passages  Pills ;  ^  T  At  (Jun-hsia-wan). 
Ripe  orange  peel,  licorice,  and  honey.  They  dissolve  phlegm 
and  cool  fever. 

Most  Virtuous  Pills  ;  S  ^  j^  (Chih-sheng-tan).  Former- 
ly croton  beans  were  used  under  this  title,  but  they  were  found 
to  be  too  drastic,  especially  in  cases  in  which  the  patient's 
physical  strength  was  very  much  reduced.  Latterly,  the  seeds 
of  Sophora  kronei  have  been  substituted,  and  are  considered  to 
be  equally  efficacious  and  less  dangerous.  They  are  used  in 
chronic  dysentery  and  chronic  intestinal  discharges  of  all  kinds. 
Diuretic  properties  are  also  ascribed  to  them. 

Myriad  Diseases  Pills ;  "^  "%  %  (Wan-ping- wan).  One 
has  heard  of  nostrums  regarded  as  panaceas  for  all  ills,  and 
here  we  have  one  of  these.     It  is  composed  of  the  kernels  of 


apricot  seeds  boiled  in  child's  urine  until  soft,  mixed  with 
honey,  and  again  steamed  in  child's  urine  until  of  a  pill  mass. 
This  may  be  eaten  ad  libitum  by  those  suffering  from  any 

Myriad  Harmonies  Pills;  ^  ^  j^  (Wan-ying-tan). 
Human  urine  sediment,  spirit  leaven,  white  grapes,  withered 
carrot  root,  lign  aloes,  and  honey.  Used  for  jaundice  and  all 
billions  difficulties. 

Nine  Dragons  Pills;  \  f |  j'}  (Chiu-lung-tan).  Lycium 
sinense,  Rosa  laevigata,  flesh  of  Crataegus  fruits,  stone  lotus, 
lotus  stamens,  Rehmannia  glutinosa,  Euryale  ferox,  Pachyma 
cocos,  CryptotcCnia  canadensis,  and  honey.  For  the  treatment 
of  venereal  diseases  and  as  an  anaphrodisiac. 

Nine  Fairies  Life-saving  Pills ;  :/L  Jtlj  3^  '^  j^  (Chiu- 
hsien-t'ao-ming-tan).  Cinnabar,  flowers  of  sulphur,  olibanum, 
myrrh,  Baroos  camphor,  dragon's  blood,  sulphate  of  copper, 
copperas,  musk,  burnt  alum,  bear's  gall,  yellow^  lead,  centi- 
pedes, earth  worms,  silk  worms,  plum  flowers,  cow  bezoar, 
toad  spittle,  white  jade  dust,  borax,  tree  grubs,  and  snails. 
For  the  treatment  of  all  sorts  of  infected  sores  and  boils. 

One  Grain  of  Gold  Pills ;  —  ^1  #  sFJ  (I-li-chin-tan). 
These  are  made  of  opium  and  glutinous  rice,  and  are  for  the 
relief  of  pain  and  for  the  purpose  of  checking  discharges. 
They  are  taken  with  a  variety  of  teas  and  congees  for  various 

One  Sort  Pills  ;  —  p^  %  (I-p'in-wan).  Cyperus  rotundus 
is  boiled,  dried,  powdered,  mixed  with  honey  and  made  into 
pills.      For  the  treatment  of  hemicrania  and  other  headaches. 

Penetrating-bones  Pills;  ^  ^i' fj  (T'ou-ku-tan).  Azalea 
sinensis,  distilled  spirit,  child's  urine,  olibanum,  myrrh,  musk, 
and  dragon's  blood.  Broken  bones,  rheumatic  pains,  diseases 
of  bones,  and  the  like,  are  treated  with  this  remedy. 

Pepper-red  Pills ;  -jifjj  ^  %  (Chiao-hung-wan).  Zanthoxy- 
lum  pods  and  Rehmannia  glutinosa.  Injuries  to  the  viscera, 
eyes,  and  ears  are  treated  with  these.  They  enable  one  to 
do  without  sleep,  and  still  preserve  his  health  and  strength. 

Physalis  alkekengi  Pills ;  |t  ^  m.  X  (Suan-chiang-shih- 
wan).  Fruits  of  Physalis  alkekengi,  of  Amarantus  blitum, 
Valeriana     villosa,    white    elm    bark,     Buplureum     falcatum, 


Scutellaria  macrantha,  Tricosanthes  multiloba,  Euphorbia 
lathyris,  and  honey.  As  an  antifebrile  remedy,  and  in  difficult 

Pbim-floiver  Pills ;  \^  \%  ^  (:\Iei-t'ao-tan).  Plum  flow- 
ers, peach  kernels,  cinnabar,  licorice,  and  Luffa  cylindrica 
pulp.      To  bring  out  the  eruption  in  smallpox. 

Plum-fltnver  Lozenge' Pi  Us  ;  )^  {^  1(5  §  :f5-  (Mei-hua-tien- 
she-tan).  Olibanum,  pearl  bean  flowers,  woman's  milk,  and 
toad  spittle.  These  are  both  swallowed  and  allowed  to  dissolve 
under  the  tongue,  for  all  sorts  of  sores  and  abscesses,  especially 
those  in  the  mouth. 

Preserving  Youth  Pills;  ;i[;  :^  ^p}  (Pu-lao-tan).  Atracty- 
lis  chinensis,  Zanthoxylum,  Polygonum  multiflorum,  black 
beans,  red  dates,  Lycium  sinense,  mulberries,  and  honey. 
Benefits  the  spleen  and  kidneys.  Those  taking  these  pills 
will  retain  their  youthful  appearance  until  seventv. 

Prophet's  Print  Pills;  M  ^  T^  :^  (Yu-chih-tzu-w^an), 
These  are  made  of  the  kernels  of  an  unknown  plant  called 
fl  ^  ■?)  Pachyma  cocos,  Lycium  sinense,  Acorns  calamus, 
kernels  of  Thuja  orientalis,  ginseng,  Polygala  sibirica,  Dios- 
corea,  Polygonatum  multiflorum,  and  honey.  They  are  used 
in  nervous  affections,  insomnia,  mania,  physical  debility,  and 
the  like. 

Protecting  the  True  Pills  ;  ffc  ^  :^(Pao-chen-wan).  Rosa 
rugosa,  Psoralea  corylifolia,  Atractylis  ovata.  Astragalus 
hoangtchy,  Scutellaria  macrantha,  Cuscuta  japonica,  Coniose- 
linum  univittatum,  Cryptotaenia  canadensis,  Paeonia  albiflora, 
Rehmannia  glutinosa,  walnut  kernels,  Eucommia  ulmoides. 
Allium  odorum,  and  honey.  These  are  a  blood  remedy,  and 
are  prescribed  in  all  diseases  of  the  blood  vessels,  hemorrhages, 
and  the  like. 

Protecting  Pregnancy  Pills;  ^^  |^  %  (Pao-t'ai-wan). 
Pachyma  cocos,  Atractylis  ovata.  Hibiscus  rosa  sinensis, 
myrrh,  Cyperus  rotundus,  coriander,  Leonurus  sibiricus,  and 
honey.  These  are  to  prevent  threatened  abortion  and  to  render 
labor  easy. 

Protecting  Health  Pills ;  %%^  (Pao-yiian-tan).  Poly- 
gonatum multiflorum,  Lycium  sinense,  must,  yellow  spirits, 
decocted    together.      This   decoction    is    to    be    drunk    by    the 


cupful,  aud  pills  made  of  the  lees  by  addiug  waluut  keruels, 
large  black  dates,  aud  dried  persimmous.  For  colds,  seminal 
losses,  gouorrhoea,  difficult  labor,  and  failure  of  smallpox 
eruption  to  appear. 

Psoralen  Pills ;  %  %  ^  %.  (Pu-ku-chih-wan).  Psoralea 
coryli folia,  dodder  seeds,  walnut  meats,  olibanum,  myrrh,  lign 
aloes,  and  honev.      Tonic,  and  healing  to  wounds  and  injuries. 

Purple  Clavaria  Pills  ;  %  -'±  %  (Tzu-chih-wan).  Purple 
Clavaria,  Dioscorea  quinqueloba,  Aconitum  fischeri,  kernels  of 
Thuja  orientalis,  Polygala  reinii,  Pachyma  cocos.  Citrus  fusca, 
Rehmannia  gluLinosa,  Ophiopogon  spicatus,  Schizandra  chi- 
nensis,  Pinelia  tuberifera,  Aconitum  variegatum,  Pseonia 
moutan,  ginseng,  Polygala  sibirica,  fruits  of  Polygonum 
hvdropiper,  Alisma  plantago,  kernels  of  melon  seeds,  and 
honev.  This  remarkable  array  of  drugs,  all  of  which  the 
Chinese  regard  as  being  tonic,  and  especially  since  the  plant 
of  felicity  is  included  as  the  principal  ingredient,  can  only  be 
regarded  as  a  most  wonderful  touic  and  reconstructive  remedy 
in  all  wasting  diseases. 

Purple-gold-creeper  Pills ;  %  ^M%  (Tzii-chin-t'eng- 
wan).  The  principal  ingredient  in  this  pill  is  the  bark  of  an 
unknown  creeper  called  ^  ^  gi  and  ^  It  %■  The  others 
are  Polygala  reinii,  Boymia  rutacarpa,  galangal  root,  cinna- 
mon, salt,  and  paste.  Its  virtues  are  highly  extolled  as  a 
strengthening  remedy  in  "cold"  uterus,  menstrual  difficulties, 
and  deficiency  in  the  vital  and  virile  elements. 

Purple-gold  Pill  Mass;  %^i%  (Tzu-chin-ting).  Ver- 
milion, Euphorbia  lasiocaula,  Sagittaria  sagittifolia,  ^  ^  .^, 
powdered  oyster  shell,  Paris  polyphylla,  pearls,  amber,  flowers 
of  sulphur,  Baroos  camphor,  best  quality  India  ink,  plum- 
flower  stamens,  ox  gall,  musk,  and  rice  flour  paste.  This  pill 
is  for  tuberculosis  and  tuberculous  like  sores. 

Reducing  the  Yang  Pills;  *p  ^  -^  (Shao-yang-tan). 
Atractylis  ovata,  Lycium  chinense,  mulberries,  and  honey. 
Taken  according  to  directions  for  one  year,  grey  hair  or 
whiskers  will  turn  black,  and  if  taken  for  three  years  the 
countenance  will  become  rubicund  like  that  of  a  youth. 

Preventing  Epidemics  Pills  ;  ^  ^  :J5*  (Pi-wen-tan).  Red 
dates,    Artemisia    capillaris,    rhubarb,    aud    benzoin.     This   is 


beaten  into  a  pill  mass  or  confection,  and  eaten  when  epidem- 
ics threaten. 

Relieving  the  Centers  Pills  ;  '^  f\f  ;^  (K'lian-chung-wan). 
Orange  peel,  Atractylis  ovata,  spirits,  and  paste.  Warming 
and  carminative, 

Returjiing  Youth  Pills  ;  jg  'J?  j5"  (Huan-shao-tan).  Plan- 
tago  major  and  Cyperus  rotnndus,  prepared  by  a  complicated 
process  described  in  the  Pentsao.  Marvelous  properties  are 
ascribed  to  these.  If  the  aged  (80  years)  use  them,  the  hair 
and  whiskers  will  again  turn  black,  and  the  teeth,  if  they  have 
fallen  out,  will  be  renewed.  If  the  young  use  them,  their 
strength  and  virility  will  be  preserved  to  old  age. 

Rhinoceros  Pills ;  ^  ]^  -p^  (Niu-hsi-wan).  Conioselinum 
univittatum  soaked  in  millet  congee  for  two  days,  dried, 
powdered,  and  mixed  with  the  brain  of  the  musk-ox  and 
rhinoceros  skin,  and  boiled  in  honey  to  the  consistence  to 
make  pills.  These  are  considered  to  be  depurative  and 

Rice  Crust  Pills ;  i^  ^^  \  (Kuo-chiao-wan).  The  rice 
that  is  baked  on  the  pot  in  the  process  of  cooking  is  called 
^  ^^.  This  is  taken  and  mixed  with  cardamoms,  chrysanthe- 
mums, the  flesh  of  Crataegus  fruits,  lotus  seeds,  chicken  skin, 
sugar,  and  ground  rice,  boiled  together,  and  made  into  cakes. 
They  are  considered  to  be  very  good  for  children  who  are 
weakly  or  ill  nourished. 

Rose-maloes  Pills  ;  j^  -^  ^  ;^  (Su-ho-hsiang-wan).  Rose 
maloes,  benzoin,  Atractylis  ovata,  Cyperus  rotnndus,  Aristolo- 
chia  recurvilabra,  sandalwood,  lign  aloes,  cloves,  musk,  Ficus 
religiosa,  Terminalia  chebula,  rhinoceros  horn,  Baroos  cam- 
phor, olibanum,  and  honey.  An  antispasmodic  in  all  nervous 
afifections,  ague,  cholera,  and  obstinate  dysentery. 

Seven-precious  Handsome-whiskers  Pills ;  't  ^  ^  ^  ^ 
(Ch'i-pao-mei-jan-tan).  Polygonum  multiflorum,  black  beans, 
Pachyma  cocos,  lign  aloes,  woman's  milk,  Achryanthes  biden- 
tata,  Cryptotaenia  canadensis,  Lycium  chinense  seeds,  Cuscuta 
chinensis,  Psoralea  corylifolia,  black  sesamum  seeds,  and  honey. 
Tonic,  constructive,  preserving  life  and  youthfulness,  which 
last  is  marked  by  the  flourishing  state  of  the  health  and  dark 
color  of  the  whiskers  and  hair. 


Siegsbeckia-Dryandra  Pills ;  i%  ^  %  (Hsi-t'ung-wan). 
These  two  substances  are  powdered  and  mixed  with  honey, 
made  into  pills,  and  used  for  rheumatic  affections. 

Skivimia  Pills  ;  %^  \  (Yin-yu-wan).  Leaves  of  Skim- 
mia  japonica,  Coix  lachryma,  Prunus  japonica  kernels,  Ipomoea 
triloba  seeds,  and  honey.      For  colds  and  constipation. 

Strengthenhig  the  Vitality  Pills ;  %%^  (Ku-yuan-tan). 
Atractylis  sinensis,  fennel,  salt,  Zanthoxylum,  Psoralea  coryli- 
folia,  aconite,  i\Ielia  azedarach,  alcohol,  vinegar,  paste.  For 
all  sorts  of  wasting  difficulties,  especially  those  of  sexual  origin. 

Ten-parts  Perfect  Pills ;  ■\^  ^  %  (Shih-ch'iien-wan). 
Musk,  Aplotaxis  auriculata,  dragon's  blood,  flowers  of  sulphur, 
sesamum  seeds,  Strychuos  nux  vomica,  maggots,  centipedes, 
and  honey.  This  is  for  the  curing  of  wounds,  of  cancerous 
sores,  and  as  a  tonic. 

The  Tartar  General  Rcsiimcs  the  Battle  Pills ;  7^  j^l  ^ 
1^  f5"  (Chiang-chiin-fu-chan-tan).  Soak  wild  sesamum  seeds 
in  child's  urine  for  four  times  and  in  distilled  spirit  for  three 
times.  Dry  and  add  olibanum,  myrrh,  and  dragon's  blood. 
This  is  for  wounds  and  broken  bones. 

Thousand-li-pium-flower  Pills  ;  ^  ^  f#  ^  A*  (Ch'ien-li- 
mei-hua-wan).  Eriobotrya  leaves,  Pachyrhizus  augulatus, 
black  plum  flesh,  wax  plum  flowers,  licorice,  and  honey.  To 
be  used  by  travellers,   but  for  what  is  not  stated. 

Three  Flozvers  Pills  ;  H  ^  ::^  (San-hua-tan).  Plum  flow- 
ers, peach  flowers,  and  pear  flowers,  made  into  a  pill  and 
coated  with  flowers  of  sulphur,  is  taken  in  a  congee  of  Phaseo- 
lus  and  black  Hispidia  beans  for  smallpox. 

Three  Tonic  Pills ;  H  H  ^  (San-pu-wan).  Coptis  teeta 
and  Pterocarpus  indicus,  mixed  with  honey.  Tonic  and 

Three  Yelloiv  Pills ;  H  M  ^  (San-huang-wan).  Scutel- 
laria macrantha,  rhubarb,  and  Coptis  teeta,  mixed  with  honey. 
Tonic  and  corrective  in  men  and  women. 

Twenty  Pearls  Pills  ;  ;^  |^  ^/-L  (Nien-chu-wan).  Benzoin, 
seeds  of  Nephelium  longana,  and  yellow  wax.  For  hernia, 
orchitis,  and  the  like. 

Two  AurcB  Pills ;  ~  ^  ;^  (Erh-ch'i-wan).  An  umbil- 
ical  cord   is  said   to    represent    the   aura    of  the   abyss,   while 


the  plum  flower  represents  that  of  nature.  These  two  things  are 
therefore  combined  in  this  pill,  which  is  used  as  a  prophylactic 
of  smallpox. 

Uniting  the  Viscera  Pills;  H  jS  :^  (Tsang-lien-wan). 
Take  Barkhausia  repens  and  j§  jfiL  ^i  place  in  a  pig's  large 
intestine,  cook,  and  put  through  the  process  described  in  the 
Pentsao.  For  hemorrhoids  of  all  kinds,  prolapse  of  the 
rectum,  and  the  like. 

Universal  Conntcrpoison  Pills  /  II  5|^  HI  ^  j^  (Wan-ping- 
chieh-tu-wan).  Orithia  edulis,  Galla  sinensis,  two  Euphorbia 
products,  Potentilla  cryptotaenia,  and  musk.  Geomantic 
influences  and  auspicious  days  are  observed  in  the  preparation 
of  this  pill,  and  many  details  and  conditions  are  regarded  as 
necessary  in  its  administration. 

Vegetable  Resurrection  Pills ;  !^  ?!;  j5"  (Ts'ao-huan-tau). 
Cornus  ofhciualis,  Psoralea  corylifolia,  Cryptotaenia  canadensis, 
musk,  and  honey.  This  acts  on  the  foundations  (;^)  of  health 
and  life,  and  is  tonic  and  restorative. 

VValmit  Pills ;  ^^\  (Hu-t'ao-wan).  Walnut  kernels, 
Psoralea  corylifolia,  Eucommia  ulmoides,  Dioscorea  sativa, 
mixed  and  made  into  a  pill  mass.  Tonic  to  the  blood,  liga- 
ments, bones,  muscles,  and  preventive  of  fever. 

PIMPINELLA  ANISUM.— ^f  %  (Huai-hsiang),  ff  # 
(Huei-hsiang),  A  >^  1^  (Pa-yiieh-chu).  The  Chinese  confound 
aniseed,  fennel,  and  star-anise.  But  what  is  described  in  the 
Pentsao  is  an  umbelliferous  plant,  and  since  fennel  is  distinct- 
ly described  in  another  place,  and  as  the  odor  of  this  is  said  to 
be  similar  to  that  of  star  anise,  it  is  entirely  probable  that 
aniseed  is  referred  to  under  this  title.  The  leaves  and  seeds 
are  likened  to  coriander.  The  plant  bears  umbels  of  yellowish 
white  flowers,  followed  by  the  fruits.  It  is  cultivated  in 
gardens  for  the  seeds,  which  are  used  as  a  condiment.  The 
stalks  and  leaves  are  also  eaten  in  Szechuan.  The  plant  is 
said  to  grow  wild  in  Kansu.  The  seeds  are  considered  to  be 
warming  and  stimulant,  being  prescribed  in  choleraic  affec- 
tions and  flatulence.  They  are  thought  to  be  a  stimulant  to 
the  kidneys  and  warming  to  the  pubic  region.  Some  anodyne 
properties  are  ascribed  to  them,  and  it  is  probable  that  in  the 


description  of  their  medicinal  uses  they  are  not  discriminated 
from  star  aniseed.  The  stalks  and  leaves  when  eaten  are 
considered  to  be  chiefly  carminative,  relieving  flatulence  and 
griping  in  the  bowels. 

PINELUA  TUBERIFERA.— .^  ^  (Pan-hsia),  975. 
This  aroid  plant  is  found  in  the  northern  provinces,  notably 
Shensi,  Shantung,  and  Kiangsu.  It  is  cultivated  in  Szechuan 
and  Hupeh.  The  plant  has  tripartite  leaves  of  a  light  green 
color.  In  preparing  for  medicinal  use,  the  tubers  are  soaked 
for  seven  days  in  warm  water  and  dried.  After  slicing,  978, 
they  are  mixed  with  ginger  juice  and  kept  for  use,  or  else 
powdered,  977,  and  mixed  with  ginger  juice,  dried,  and 
repowdered.  This  last  is  called  ^  M  W  (Pan-hsia-fen).  Or 
this  is  made  into  cakes,  ^  ^^  (Pan-hsia-ping),  or  the  powder 
mixed  with  ginger  juice  and  alum,  made  into  cakes,  wrapped 
in  paper  mulberry  leaves,  and  preserved  in  salt,  is  called  ^  ^ 
fll  (Pan-hsia-ch'ii),  976.  There  are  a  number  of  other 
methods  of  preparation,  in  which  it  is  mixed  with  other  sub- 
stances besides  ginger,  and  these  are  more  or  less  carefuly 
distinguished  from  each  other  as  to  their  uses  in  medicine. 
The  simple  prepared  drug  is  called  J^  ^  ^  (Fa-pan-hsia), 
978.  The  drug,  as  met  with  in  the  market,  consists  of  the 
tubers  in  the  form  of  small  spherical  bodies,  either  flattened  on 
one  side,  pyriform,  or  ovoid,  which  are  from  three-tenths  to 
six-tenths  of  an  inch  in  diameter.  The  surface  is  white,  or 
yellowish-white,  and  for  the  greater  part  of  the  tuber  is  dotted 
over  with  little,  dark  pits,  and  these  are  more  especially  found 
around  the  umbilicated  depression  which  marks  the  flat  surface. 
The  interior  of  the  tubers  is  white,  dense,  and  amylaceous.  In 
the  prepared  state  they  have  little  smell  or  taste  ;  but  in  the 
fresh  state  they  are  said  to  be  bitter,  acrid,  and  poisonous,  pro- 
ducing vomiting  and  diaphoresis.  The  prepared  drug  is  said 
to  be  antifebrile,  tussic,  counter-emetic,  ecbolic,  antimalarial, 
astringent,  and  slightly  laxative.  It  is  administered  in  fevers, 
influenza,  jaundice,  coughs,  constipation,  gonorrhoea,  leucor- 
rhoea,  and  seminal  losses.  All  diseases  attended  by  "phlegm" 
(^)  are  particularly  its  therapeutic  field.  The  number  of 
difiiculties   for  which   it  is  recommended   is  very  large,    and 


includes  a  great  variety  of  very  dissimilar  troubles.  That  the 
prepared  drug  is  comparatively  inoccuous  is  proveu  by  the  fact 
that  in  some  mission  hospitals  it  has  been  substituted  for 
sulphate  of  potash  in  the  preparation  of  Dover's  powder.  The 
viscid  sap  of  the  stalk  of  the  plant  is  said  to  restore  fallen  hair 
and  whiskers. 

PINUS  SINENSIS.— ;^  (Sung).  This  character  includes 
Pinus^  Abies^  and  Laj'ix^  but  refers  most  specifically  to  this 
species,  which  is  the  same  as  Pinus  massoniana.  Other  species, 
some  of  which  are  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao^  are  g  j^  (Pai- 
sung),  Plnus  bungeana  ;  H  ^  (Hei-sung),  Pimis  thunbcrgii ; 
■^  ^  (Ch'ih-sung),  Pinus  doisifiora ;  and  \%  i^  (Hai-sung), 
Pinus  koraiensis.  This  last  bears  large  seeds,  called  \%  ^  ^ 
(Hai-sung-tzu),  1214,  which  are  included  among  the  edible  nuts. 
They  are  also  called  ilf  ^  ^  •?  (Hsin-lo-sung-tzu),  as  they  come 
from  the  country  of  Hsinlo  (southern  Korea),  although  they 
are  also  brought  from  Yunnan.  They  are  like  the  ordinary 
pine-nuts  found  in  other  countries,  three-cornered,  and  contain- 
ing a  rich,  aromatic,  meaty  kernel.  They  are  considered  to 
be  very  nutritious,  improving  the  flesh,  prolonging  life,  curing 
constipation  and  coughs.  Of  the  other  species  of  Pinus  a 
number  of  products  are  mentioned,  the  first  of  which  is  ^  ^ 
(Sung-chih),  resin,  also  called  ;^  ^  (Sung-kao),  ^  "^  (Sung- 
fang),  ;^  ^  (Sung-chiao),  and  most  commonly  ^  ^  (Sung- 
hsiang),  121 1.  This,  if  it  lies  in  the  ground  for  a  thousand 
years,  becomes  changed  into  amber.  It  is  administered  inter- 
nally, and  is  said  to  be  carminative  and  antifebrile.  But  it  is 
used  for  the  most  part  externally  in  various  skin  eruptions, 
old  ulcers,  and  indolent  wounds.  It  is  considered  to  be  bene- 
ficial to  the  tendons,  eyes,  and  ears.  It  is  administered  in  pill 
in  leucorrhcea.  The  joints  of  pine  twigs,  called  ;^  f^  (Sung- 
chieh),  1 2 10,  form  another  product  used  in  medicine.  They 
are  prescribed  principally  in  decoction,  in  colds,  rheumatism, 
toothache,  and  vomiting.  ^  fp  (Sung-i)  is  an  extract  prepared 
by  roasting  the  twigs  of  the  pine  (turpentine  ?).  There  is  no 
description  of  the  process,  and  the  product  is  employed  in 
ulcers,  itch,  and  the  skin  diseases  of  horses  and  cattle.  The 
pine  needles  are  also  used  in  medicine  ;  decocted,  or  chopped 


fine  and  mixed  with  meal,  they  are  administered  iu  rheumat- 
ism, evil  diseases,  and  intestinal  parasites.  The  decoction  is 
also  used  externally.  The  white  bark  of  the  root,  12 13,  is 
considered  tonic,  while  the  bark  of  the  tree  is  healing  to 
wounds,  astringent,  and  parasiticide.  The  flowers,  ;^  :f^  (Sung- 
hua),  12 1 2,  also  called  ^  ^  (Sung-huang),  are  considered  to 
have  especial  action  on  the  heart  and  lungs,  and  to  be  astrin- 
gent. They  are  distilled  into  a  sort  of  "wine,"  which  is  used 
in  "fullness  in  the  head"  and  post-partum  fever. 

PIPER  NIGRUM.— ]^J  lli  (Hu-chiao).  This  is  said  to 
have  originally  been  brought  from  Magadha,  where  it  was 
called  ^  ^  j^  (Wei-fu-chih),  possibly  the  transliteration  of 
an  Indian  name.  It  is  now  imported  from  the  islands  of  the 
East  Indian  archipelago.  Black  and  white  pepper  are  both 
used  as  a  condiment  by  the  Chinese,  but  not  so  exclusively  as 
in  the  west.  Capsicum  and  Zajithoxyhun  are  so  plentiful  and 
cheap  that  they  are  used  rather  than  the  more  expensive 
pepper.  It  is  said  that  some  attempts  have  been  made,  though 
rather  unsuccessfully,  to  domesticate  the  pepper  vine,  which 
ofrows  indiojenous  on  the  island  of  Hainan.  Prior  to  the 
coming  of  Europeans,  the  ground  pepper  was  apparently  not 
known  in  China ;  the  pepper-corns  being  either  used  whole,  or 
crushed  as  required.  Carminative,  warming,  and  eliminative 
properties  are  ascribed  to  the  drug,  and  it  is  administered  in 
cholera,  dysentery,  vomiting,  summer  diarrhoea,  and  dysuria.  It 
is  said  to  correct  fish,  flesh,  shell-fish,  and  mushroom  poisoning. 

PIPER  LONGUAI.— H  %  (Pi-po),  1008.  See  Chavica 

PISTACIA  VERA.— PpJ  ^  \%  ^  (O-yiieh-chun-tzu),  ^  . 
^  ^  (Hu-chen-tza),  3^  ^  -^  (Wu-ming-tzu. )  This  is  of  foreign 
origin,  and  the  first  Chinese  name  is  said  to  be  in  imitation 
of  the  Persian.  There  is  no  description  of  the  tree,  although 
it  is  said  to  grow  in  Lingnan.  The  kernels  of  the  nuts  are  said 
to  be  good  for  dysentery,  and  to  be  very  nutritious,  promoting 
the  growth  of  flesh.  The  bark  of  the  tree  is  said  to  be 
strengthening  to  the  female  principle,  and  is  used  in  decoction 
iu  pruritus  of  the  genitals. 


PISUM  SATIVUM.— H^S  (Wan-toii).  ^  ^  (Juiig-sbu), 
W  *h  3-  (Ch'ing-hsiao-tou).  Peas  are  of  foreign  origin,  but 
are  now  extensively  cultivated  in  China.  They  are  planted 
in  the  autumn,  and  the  young  stalks  are  used  for  food  in  the 
spring.  The  peas,  both  green  and  dry,  are  much  relished, 
and  they  are  also  ground  into  flour  and  used  in  this  way  as  a 
sort  of  gruel  or  porridge.  Peas  are  thought  to  promote 
flatulence.  They  are  considered  cooling,  and  are  recommended 
in  feverish  conditions,  fluxes  from  the  bowels,  nausea,  urinary 
difficulties,  to  promote  the  secretion  of  milk,  and  to  increase 
the  flesh. 

PLANTAGO  MAJOR.— $  ti  (Ch'e-ch'ien^  34.  This, 
the  common  plantain^  is  as  much  of  a  pest  in  China  as  it  is  in 
other  lands.  It  grows  at  the  roadside  and  in  dooryards,  and  is 
exceedingly  prolific,  springing  from  both  seeds  and  roots  and 
killing  out  all  other  grass.  P'ormerly  the  plant  and  the  seeds 
were  eaten,  and  in  rare  cases  this  is  still  done.  The  seeds,  35, 
are  mucilaginous,  and  have  a  sweetish,  cooling  taste.  They 
are  considered  to  be  quieting,  diuretic,  antirheumatic,  and  tonic. 
The  drug  is  good  for  wasting  diseases  in  male  and  female, 
promotes  the  secretion  of  the  semen,  and  therefore  conduces 
to  fertility.  It  nourishes  the  liver,  assists  in  difficult  labor, 
and  cures  summer  diarrhoea.  The  plant  and  the  root  are  used 
as  astringents  in  wounds,  nosebleed,  hematuria,  and  other 
hemorrhages,  as  a  diuretic,  in  seminal  emissions,  and  in  gravel. 

PLASTERS.— The  character  ^  (Kao)  is  used  for  these, 
as  it  is  also  for  medicinal  extracts,  ointments,  fats,  gelatinous 
and  cereose  substances.  In  order  to  distinguish  plasters  from 
these  latter,  medical  missionaries  use  B,^  %  (T'ieh-kao)  for  the 
former.  The  Chiijcse  do  not  have  a  very  large  number  of 
these  preparations,  but  they  use  what  they  have  in  season  and 
out.  An  adhesive  plaster  pure  and  simple  is  practically 
unknown,  unless  the  common  compound  of  resin  and  wood-oil 
can  be  called  such,  '  Even  this  is  not  often  used  uncombined 
with  other  drugs.  But  all  sorts  of  gaping  wounds  are  often 
plastered  over  with  some  of  the  medicinal  plasters.  A 
Universal   Plaster  Basis ^   called   "%  M-  ^  (Wan-ying-yu),   is 


made  in  the  following  manner  :  Take  of  fragrant  sesamiim  oil, 
sixteen  ounces  ;  peach  twigs,  willow  twigs,  Sophora  japonica 
twigs,  mulberry  twigs,  cinnamon  twigs,  and  Allium  fistulosum, 
of  each  one  ounce  ;  male  hair  (?,  ^  ^),  four  ounces  ;  Zan- 
thoxylum  bungei,  half  an  ounce;  castor  oil  bean,  two  ounces  ; 
Strychnos  nux  vomica  (?  ^  ||^),  four  ounces  ;  Chavica  rox- 
burghii,  half  an  ounce  ;  and  Angelica  anomala,  two  ounces. 
Soak  the  drugs  in  the  oil  in  the  winter  seven  days,  in  the 
summer  three  days,  and  in  the  spring  or  autumn  five  days. 
Then  boil  until  the  drugs  are  withered  and  dry,  when  the  oil 
should  be  drained  off  and  boiled  until  it  is  reduced  to  eight- 
tenths  of  its  volume.      It  is  then  ready  for  use. 

Baroos  Camphor  Plaster;  ^  ^  ^  |^  (Ping-p'ien-kao- 
yao).  This  is  an  expensive  warm  plaster,  at  present  in  much 
repute  among  the  Chinese.  Its  composition  is  not  given  in 
the  books. 

Dissolving  Abscesses  Plaster ;  \^  -^  ^  (Hsiao-chii-kao). 
This  is  made  by  crushing  nine  kernels  of  the  castor  oil  bean, 
and  beating  up  with  this  three-tenths  of  an  ounce  each  of  pine 
resin,  white  lead,  and  finely  powdered  Luan  tea  leaves.  If  it 
is  too  dry,  a  little  sesamum  oil  is  added,  and  it  is  then  spread 
on  a  piece  of  cloth,  applied  to  the  abscess  and  the  whole  covered 
with  a  layer  of  cotton  paper.      It  is  said  to  heal  in  seven  days. 

Four  Perfection  Plaster  or  Ointment ;  Q  ^  :f3*  (Ssu-sheng- 
tan).  Incinerate  forty-nine  peas,  three-hundredths  of  an  ounce 
of  hair,  and  fourteen  real  pearls.  Beat  up  the  ash  with  oily 
cosmetic  to  a  paste.  This  is  for  vicious  smallpox  eruption  in 
children,  in  those  cases  in  which  eight  or  nine  out  of  ten  die. 
Use  a  hair-pin  and  press  out  the  bad  blood  ;  and  then  apply  a 
little  of  the  paste  to  the  sore,  when  it  will  turn  red  and  healthy 
in  appearance. 

Healing  Ringworm  Plaster ;  ^  ^  %  —  ^  J5*(Chih- 
hsien-ti-i-ling-tan).  Crush  to  a  pulp  three-hundred  day  lilies 
(Funkia  subcordata),  and  add  cloves,  six  ounces  ;  lign  aloes, 
four  ounces  ;  Baroos  camphor  and  musk,  of  each  three-tenths 
of  an  ounce  ;  pulverized  city  wall  brick  from  Shansi,  twelve 
ounces.  Boil  all  in  three  and  a  half  catties  of  sesamum  oil. 
Mix  with  charcoal  dust,  and  drop  into  water  to  form  pellets. 
Place  in  a   porcelaiu  jar  and  seal   with  yellow  wax,  and  then 


bury  in  the  ground  for  twenty-one  days.  Take  out  and  apply 
to  the  ringworm,  and  this  will  soon  be  cured. 

Healing  Abscess  Plaster ;  '/p  M"  $  '^  (Chih-chung-tu- 
kao).  Mix  four  ounces  of  Siamese  gamboge  with  eight  ounces 
of  white  wax.  Boil  thoroughly  twelve  ounces  of  sesamuni  oil, 
and  add  the  above  mixture.  Keep  in  a  porcelain  bottle  with 
a  little  sesaraum  oil  on  top  to  preserve  it.  This  is  to  be 
applied  to  any  sort  of  abscess  or  sore. 

The  Chin  Family  Plaster ;  ^  "^^^^  %  (Chin-shih-li- 
tung-kao).  To  five  ounces  of  Universal  Plaster  Basis  add  of 
Siamese  gamboge,  one  and  a  half  ounces  ;  yellow  wax,  two 
ounces.  Boil  to  a  dark  brown  color,  spread  on  cloth  and 
apply.      Said  to  be  a  sure  cure  for  varicose  ulcer. 

PL  AT  YC  ARIA  STROBILACEA.— jf  %  (Huai-hsiang), 
^'  ^  M  fr  (Tou-lo-p'o-hsiang).  This  is  described  as  a  small 
tree,  growing  in  the  mountains  of  mid-China  and  used  for  fuel. 
It  has  long,  pinnate,  green,  fragrant  leaves,  serrated,  and 
resembling  thistle  leaves.  The  root  resembles  that  of  Lyciuni 
but  is  larger  and  is  very  fragrant  wlien  burnt.  It  is  used  in 
the  bath  to  give  fragrance  to  the  body.  The  root  is  used 
medicinally  only  in  the  preparation  of  an  ointment  to  be 
applied  to  sores  on  the  scalp.  \^  (K'ao)  is  also  suggested  for 
Platycaria^  but  it  is  also  used  for  Mangrove  bark. 

keng),  89,  94.  This  is  often  confounded  with  Adenophora^  and 
the  latter  is  sometimes  called  ~B  %n^  (K'u-chieh-keng).  The 
young  plant  is  eaten  as  a  pot-herb,  and  is  considered  to  have 
vermicidal  properties.  The  root  is  of  a  yellowish-white  color 
and  is  about  as  thick  as  a  little  finger.  It  is  one  of  several  roots 
that  are  fraudently  substituted  for  true  ginseng.  Its  medicinal 
properties  are  given  in  the  article  on  Adenophora.  The  stem 
and  the  leaves,  ^  fi^  (Lu-t'ou),  are  also  used  in  medicine,  and 
are  prescribed  in  decoction  in  dyspeptic  vomiting  of  mucus. 

^iu)>  ^  ^  fe  (Lo-han-sung).  The  fruit  of  this  tree,  which 
is  said  to  resemble   the  pine,    is  given   in   the   Customs  Lists 


under  the  term  of  ^  ^  ^  (Lo-han-kuo),  749.  But  there  has 
been  no  description  of  the  plant,  or  of  its  medicinal  properties 
and  uses,  found  in  the  Chinese  books. 

lien).  According  to  Ford  and  Crow,  this  is  the  identification  at 
Canton.  This  Chinese  name,  however,  is  used  for  different 
plants  in  different  parts  of  China.  For  description  and  medicin- 
al action  and  uses,  see  the  article  on  Diphylleia. 

POGONIA  OPHIOGLOSSOIDES.— :^  li  (Chu-lan). 
This  is  not  distinguished  from  CJiIorantliiis  and  other  orchida- 
ceous plants. 

POLLIA  JAPONIC  A.— ;y:  ^  (Tu-jo).  Another  term 
given  for  this  is  ;^  ^j  (Tu-heng),  but  this  properly  is  Asariim 
forbesii  (which  see).  It  is  also  much  confounded  with  Aipinia 
offLcinariim^  and  the  descriptions  of  the  plant  given  in  the 
Pentsao  are  almost  inextricably  confused  with  Alpinia  and 
other  zingiberaceous  plants.  The  root  is  the  part  used  in 
medicine,  and  is  considered  to  be  carminative,  sedative,  stim- 
ulant, and  tonic.  Taken  for  some  time,  it  benefits  the  animal 
spirits,  brightens  the  eye,  and  strengthens  the  memory.  It  is 
administered  as  a  warming  remedy  in  colds  and  fluxes,  in 
dizziness,  and  as  an  aromatic  in  foul  breath. 

POLYGALA  REINIL— G  ^|  5c  (Pa-chi-t'ien),  926. 
This  is  a  polygalaceous  zvintergreen^  and  is  therefore  also 
called  ;^  (^  ^  (Pu-tiao-ts'ao),  and  was  by  Loureiro  called 
Septas  repens^  and  by  Bentham  Herpestis  moimiera.  The 
description  in  the  Pentsao  is  not  clear.  The  root  is  used  in 
medicine,  and  is  considered  to  be  warming  and  tonic.  It 
strengthens  the  bones  and  sinews,  quiets  the  five  viscera,  is 
tonic  to  the  centers,  increases  the  will  power,  and  benefits  the 
breath.  It  is  specially  beneficial  to  males,  preventing  seminal 
losses  and  nocturnal  pollutions. 

POLYGALA  SIBIRICA,  Poly  gala  tennifolia.—'^  * 
(Yiian-cliih),  1557.  A  classical  name  is  ^  ^  (\''ao-jao),  and 
a  .common  name  is  i\\  ^  (Hsiao-ts'ao).     There  are  two  kinds, 


a  large  leaved  and  a  small  leaved,  as  indicated  by  the  botanical 
names  given  above.  There  is  not  much  description  of  the 
plant  ;  but  the  drug,  which  consists  of  the  root,  and  is  called 
j^  J^  j^  (Yiian-chih-jou),  is  brought  from  the  northern  prov- 
inces, especially  from  Shensi  and  Honan,  and  is  found  in 
contorted,  quilled  pieces,  larger  tlian  a  lead-pencil,  marked 
transversely,  and  of  a  brownish-yellow  color.  It  is  sometimes 
quite  tubular,  the  central  vascular  portion  of  the  root  having 
been  removed.  The  taste  is  sweetish  and  somewhat  acrid. 
It  is  supposed  to  have  special  effect  upon  the  will  and  mental 
powers,  giving  strength  of  character,  improving  the  under- 
standing, strengthening  the  memory,  and  increasing  the  phys- 
ical powers.  It  is  prescribed  in  cough,  jaundice,  hysteria  in 
females,  infantile  convulsions,  mammary  abscess,  and  gon- 
orrhoea. The  leaves  are  also  recommended  for  spermator- 

ching),  514.  This  Cliinese  term  is  applied  in  different  parts 
of  tlie  empire  to  Polygonatum  macropodum^  Polygoiiatii77i 
chinense^  Polygonatum  giganteum^  and  Polygonatum  mnlti- 
florum.  Tatarinov  erroneously  identifies  it  as  Car ag  ana 
flava  ;  but  the  plant  is  liliaceous,  not  leguminous.  The  plant 
grows  in  the  mountains,  and  its  leaves  so  much  resemble  those 
of  the  bamboo  that  it  is  sometimes  called  "hare  bamboo,"  or 
"deer  bamboo."  The  leaves  also  resemble  those  of  the  R/ms 
radicans^  and  the  plants  are  sometimes  confounded,  disastrous- 
ly if  the  RJins  is  substituted  for  this.  The  root,  leaves,  flowers, 
and  fruit  are  all  eaten.  For  medicinal  use,  the  root  is  steeped 
in  wine,  or  administered  in  powder.  The  Taoists  make  much 
of  this  plant,  and  call  it  the  food  of  the  immortals.  The 
following  legend  is  found  in  the  Pownchi  (111  Century) :  "The 
Emperor  Huangti  once  asked  one  of  his  councilors  if  he  knew 
of  a  plant  which,  when  eaten,  would  confer  immortality.  The 
reply  was  that  the  plant  of  the  great  male  principle  {-jx,  f^,  the 
sun)  which  is  called  Hiiang-ching^  when  eaten,  would  prolong 
life.  On  the  other  hand  the  plant  of  the  great  female  principle 
(:1c  ^1  t^^^  moon)  which  is  called  ^ijj  !%  {Rhics)^  when  it  even 
enters  the  mouth   produces   death.      The  root  of  the   Hnang- 


chijtg  is  prepared  for  food  by  steaming  and  drying.  In  this 
condition  it  may  be  used  as  a  substitute  for  grains,  and  is 
called  ^  If'  (Mi-pn).  The  root  is  the  part  used  medicinally, 
and  is  met  with  in  the  sliops  in  flat  pieces,  from  one  to  two  and 
a  quarter  inches  long,  having  a  greenish-yellow  color,  with  a 
varying  degree  of  translucency  and  flexibility.  The  outer 
surface  is  marked  with  small  circular  cicatrices,  tubercles,  or 
transverse  lines.  The  inner  surface  is  paler,  and  shows  signs 
of  having  been  attached  to  the  stalk.  The  taste  is  sweetish 
and  mucilaginous.  The  drug  is  regarded  as  chiefly  tonic  and 
constructive  in  its  properties  ;  but  it  is  also  regarded  as 
demulcent,  arthritic,  lenitive,  and  prophylactic.  It  is  also 
administered  in  confirmed  leprosy. 

POLYGON ATUM  OFFICINALE.—^  %  (Wei-jui),  3g 
f^  (Yii-chu),  1547.  The  first  character  is  also  written  ^.  The 
leaves  resemble  bamboo  leaves;  hence  the  second  name  (jade 
bamboo).  The  leaves  and  root  are  edible.  It  is  a  common 
plant  in  the  mountains  of  northern  China.  The  drug  as  found 
in  the  shops  consists  of  pale  yellow  or  brown,  brittle,  semi- 
translucent,  twisted  pieces,  pretty  evenly  jointed,  and  varying 
a  good  deal  in  size,  length,  and  hygrometric  state.  The  taste 
is  sweet  and  mucilaginous,  and  the  odor  something  like  that 
of  newly  baked  bread.  It  is  very  liable  to  become  mouldy. 
When  macerated  in  water  the  roots  swell  up  again  to  their 
original  dimensions,  and  are  three  or  four  times  as  thick  as  in 
the  dry  state.  Cooling,  demulcent,  sedative,  tonic,  antiperiod- 
ic,  and  arthritic  qualities  are  attributed  to  the  rhizome,  and 
it  is  prescribed  as  a  wash  in  ophthalmia,  to  be  taken  with 
peppermint,  ginger,  and  honey  in  muscse  volitantes,  in  other 
combinations  for  gravel,  the  fevers  of  influenza  and  caked 
breast,  and  in  the  anaemias  of  epileptic  children. 

POLYGONUM  AMPHIBIUM.— 5^^  (T'ien-liao).  This 
is  given  in  the  Pentsao  in  a  note  to  the  article  on  Polygonum 
orientale,  and  the  plant  is  not  clearly  distinguished  from  this 
latter.  The  root  and  stalk  are  bruised,  and  the  juice  taken 
and  employed  in  the  treatment  of  foul  sores  and  rheumat- 


POLYGONUM  AVICULARE.— ^  ^  (Pien-hsii).  This 
is  the  ordinary  knot-grass^  or  goose-grass^  growing  by  the 
road-side  and  spreading  out  so  as  to  cover  the  ground.  The 
stem  is  covered  with  a  white  powder,  and  on  this  account  the 
plant  is  called  ^  |^  ]^  (Fen-chieh-ts'ao).  The  whole  plant 
is  used  in  medicine  and  its  juice  is  prescribed  in  itching  affec- 
tions of  the  skin,  venereal  sores,  especially  in  women,  and  as  a 
diuretic  and  anthelmintic  remedy.  Piles  is  one  of  the  diffi- 
culties for  which  it  is  specially  recommended. 

POLYGONUM  BISTORTA.— ^  ^  (Tzu-shen),  ^  ^ 
(Ch'iian-shen),  ^^  ^  (Mou-meng).  These  are  not  identified 
with  each  other  in  the  Pentsao.  Neither  is  described  in  any 
detail,  and  all  furnish  a  dark  purple  or  black  root.  That  from 
the  first  is  considered  to  be  antifebrile,  diuretic,  and  laxative. 
It  is  prescribed  in  hemorrhages,  wounds,  tumors,  anemorrhoea, 
ague,  and  fluxes.  It  stirs  up  the  dual  principles.  The  second 
is  used  in  dropsy. 

POLYGONUM  BLUMEL— J^  p  (Ma-liao).  This  is 
also  called  ^  ^  (Ta-liao).  The  second  character  is  generic 
for  Polyg07iiiui.  The  plant  grows  to  the  height  of  four  or  five 
feet,  and  the  leaves  are  marked  b\-  a  black  splotch  in  the 
center.  It  is  the  same  as  Polygoinun  Persicaria.  The  stalk 
and  leaves  are  used  in  medicine  as  a  vermicide. 

POLYGONUM  CHINENSE,  Polygomnn  cyvwsiim.—^. 
%M  (Ch'ih-ti-li).  This  is  the  ilj  ^'  ^  (Shan-ch'iao-mai), 
or  "hill-buckwheat."  It  grows  in  mountain  valleys,  has  a 
red  stem,  green  leaves,  and  bears  a  white  flower,  followed  by 
greenish  seeds.  The  root  resembles  that  of  Smilax^  has  a 
purplish-red  skin  and  a  yellowish-red  interior.  It  is  adminis- 
tered in  all  sorts  of  fluxes,  as  an  anthelmintic,  in  insect  and 
scorpion  poisoning,  for  this  last  both  internally  and  the  bruised 
plant  is  applied  locally. 

POLYGONUM  CUSPIDATUM.— J^  j^  (Hu-chang). 
The  stem  of  this  is  covered  with  spots,  and  for  this  reason 
it    is   also    called    Jg    )^    (Pan-chang).      The    plant    is    some- 


■what  prickly,  and  its  leaves  resemble  those  of  the  apricot. 
It  grows  plentifully  in  waste  places.  The  root  is  the  part 
used  in  medicine.  It  is  recommended  in  menstrual  difficulties, 
as  an  antifebrile  and  diuretic  remedy,  in  post-partum  troubles, 
and  to  scatter  swellings  and  ecchymoses.  It  is  also  used  as  a 
prophylactic  in  epidemics, 

POLYGONUM  FILIFORME.— ^  1^  ^  (Chin-ssu-ts'ao), 
'^  W:  ^  (Chin-hsien-ts'ao).  This  is  confounded  with  Cusatta 
and  Hypersiciun.  It  grows  in  niountain  valleys,  and  the  whole 
plant  is  used  m  hemorrhages  and  fluxes. 

POLYGONUM  FLACCIDUM.— 7jC  %  (Shui-liao).  This 
is  also  known  as  |^  ^  (Yii-liao)  and  -.^  ^  (Tse-liao),  "marsh, 
or  water,  smartweed."  It  is  probably  the  S2i\n&  q.s  Polygonum 
hydropiper.  It  grows  on  the  margin  of  ponds  and  in  other 
damp  places,  and  has  a  red  stem.  One  variety  is  cultivated, 
and  is  called  ^  ^  (Chia-liao).  It  is  used  in  the  preparation 
of  one  sort  of  leaven  (lllll).  Medicinally,  it  is  used  in  snake 
bites,  bruised  and  applied  locally  ;  and  also  in  blistered  and 
swollen  feet. 

POLYGONU:\I  JAPONICUM.— ^  H  ]g  (Ts'an-chien- 
ts'ao).  This  is  Faber's  identihcation  ;  but  the  species  is  not 
mentioned  in  any  other  works  consulted.  It  grows  in  wet 
erouud,  and  has  a  red  stem  and  white  flower.  It  is  bruised 
and  applied  to  caterpillar  stings  and  to  ulcers. 

This  is  a  hairy-leaved  Polygomiin  growing  in  mountain  valleys. 
The  plant  is  applied  to  tumors  and  foul  sores,  and  is  considered 
to  be  antiseptic  and  healing.  A  decoction  is  also  used  to 
wash  sore  feet. 

POLYGONUM  INIULTIFLORUM.— inj  "t  %  (Ho-shou- 
wu),  376.  The  Pentsao  describes  this  plant  as  being  dioecious. 
It  grows  principally  in  the  Lingnan  region.  The  root,  wiien 
old,  is  said  to  have  mysterious  properties.  At  fifty  years  it  is 
as  large  as  a  fist,  and  is  designated  "  mountain  slave  "  (|Ij  ^), 


and  if  taken  for  a  year  will  preserve  the  black  color  of  the 
hair  and  moustache  ;  that  at  a  hundred  years  is  as  large  as 
a  bowl,  is  called  "hill-brother"  [\\]  If),  and  if  taken  for  one 
year,  a  rubicund  and  cheerful  countenance  will  be  preserved  ; 
that  at  a  hundred  and  fifty  years  is  as  large  as  a  basin,  is 
called  "hill  uncle"  (ll]  fg),  and  if  taken  for  one  year  the 
teeth  will  fall  out  and  come  afresh  ;  that  at  two  hundred  years 
is  the  size  of  a  one  peck  ozier  basket,  is  called  "hill  father" 
(ill  m)i  ^^^^  if  taken  for  a  year  the  countenance  will  become 
like  that  of  a  youth,  and  the  gait  will  equal  that  of  a  running 
horse  ;  and  that  at  three  hundred  years  is  the  size  of  a  three 
peck  ozier  basket,  is  called  "mountain  spirit"  ([1]  jf^),  has  a 
pure  ethereal  substance,  and  if  taken  for  some  time,  one  be- 
comes an  earthly  immortal  (|^  Jllj).  Therefore,  wonderful 
restorative  and  reviving  powers  are  ascribed  to  the  ordinary 
root,  and  it  is  also  prescribed  in  tumors,  piles,  post-partum 
and  menstrual  difficulties,  colds,  and  diarrhceas.  Its  use  is 
also  said  to  promote  fertility.  It  is  commonly  sold  in  flat, 
oblong  or  round  pieces,  often  of  a  very  irregular  shape  and 
thickness,  their  outline  being  for  the  most  part  crenated, 
showing  a  tendency  to  the  distribution  of  the  vascular  tissue 
into  five  concentric  portions  around  the  central  mass.  The 
cuticle  is  shrivelled,  and  of  a  dark,  reddish-brown  color,  and 
the  interior  woody  structure  is  of  a  rufous  tint.  The  taste  is 
rough  and  bitterish.  The  stalk  and  leaves  are  used  in  decoc- 
tion in  scabious  and  itching  skin  diseases. 

Faber  also  identifies  ^^  M  ^  (She-chien-ts'ao)  as  Poly- 
gomiui  multifloi'um,  but  this  cannot  be  confirmed  from  other 
observers.  It  is  described  in  a  different  volume  of  the  Pentsao 
from  the  last,  is  said  to  have  leaves  like  the  Colocasia^  and  red- 
jointed  stems.  Snakes  are  said  to  avoid  the  plant.  The  root 
and  leaves  are  bruised  and  applied  to  snake  and  scorpion  bites. 
If  they  are  proving  efficacious,  the  wound  will  discbarge  a 
yellow  serum. 

POLYGONUM  ORIENTATE. —|E  %  (Hung-ts'ao). 
There  are  said  to  be  two  kinds  of  this  plant,  that  growing  on 
dry  ground  and  that  growing  in  water  ;  the  latter  being  called 
5c  ^  (T'ien-liao).      But  this  is  Polygomim  aniphibiuni.     The 


leaves  are  large,  pinkish  in  color,  and  the  plant  grows  to  the 
height  of  several  feet.  The  stalk  is  as  thick  as  a  thumb  and 
hairy.  The  plant  bears  reddish-black  seeds  with  white  kernels, 
which  when  steamed  or  roasted  can  be  eaten.  They  are  said 
to  relieve  thirst  and  fever,  brighten  the  eye,  and  benefit  the 
breath.  They  are  prescribed  in  tuberculous  swellings  and 
flatulence.  The  flowers  are  said  to  thin  the  blood,  remove 
obstructions,  and  ease  pain. 

POLYGONUM  Sp.—W-  (Liao).  In  addition  to  those 
already  given,  the  Pentsao  speaks  of  others  under  this  title. 
It  is  probable  that  the  term  more  particularly  refers  to  Poly- 
gonum hydropiper^  Polygonum  persicaria^  and  Polygonum 
bistorta  ;  but  there  are  others  mentioned,  such  as  -^^  (Ch'ing- 
liao),  ^  ^  (Hsiang-liao),  and  ^  ^  (Ch'ih-liao),  including 
Polygonum  barbatum  and  other  edible  species.  They  are 
somewhat  pungent  in  taste,  but  used  for  food.  The  seeds  are 
considered  to  be  stimulant,  carminative,  and  diuretic.  They 
are  also  used  in  scalp  eruptions  in  children.  The  shoots  and 
leaves  are  carminative,  warming,  and  anthehnintic.  They 
are  prescribed  in  the  cramps  of  liver  diseases  and  cholera,  in 
dysentery  in  children,  and  for  mad-dog  bite. 

POLYGONUM  TINCTORIUM.— ^^(Liao-lan).  This 
is  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao  under  the  article  on  Lidigofera  Sp. 
(see  that  article).  No  medicinal  properties  are  therefore  dis- 
tinguished from  those  belonging  to  the  latter. 

Another  tinctorial  plant  is  mentioned  in  the  Pentsao  under 
the  name  ^  '^  (Chin-ts'ao).  An  identification  of  Phalaris 
arundinacea  has  been  suggested  for  it,  but  the  plant  described 
in  the  Pentsao  is  not  Phalaris.  The  description  corresponds 
more  to  that  of  the  Polygonaceae.  Its  common  names  are  ^  ^ 
(Lii-ju)  and  ^  ft  (Lu-chu),  and  it  is  used  for  making  a 
greenish-yellow  dye  for  cloth.  It  is  used  medicinally  in  old 
coughs,  asthma,  tremor,  itch,  tinea,  as  an  insecticide,  in  fevers 
of  children,  and  as  a  wash  for  foul  sores. 

POLYPODIUM  BAROMETZ.— ^  ^  (Kou-chi),  606. 
This  is  Loureiro's  term,  and  is  the  same  as  Cibotium  barometz 
of  J.  Smith.     The  plant  is  found  extensively  in  eastern  Asia, 


including  the  whole  of  China,  Annam,  Cochin-China,  the 
Philippines,  and  the  islands  of  the  Malaysian  Archipelago. 
The  Chinese  name,  "dog's  spine,"  refers  to  the  form  of  the 
root,  which  suggests  the  appearance  of  a  cadaverous  dog  with 
its  spine  showing,  and  especially  the  kind  covered  witn  yel- 
lowish root  filaments  suggesting  the  ordinary,  nearly  starved 
Chinese  wouk,  with  its  bristly  hair.  There  is  some  confusion 
of  this  with  other  kinds  of  ferns  ;  but  not  so  much  as  is  usually 
the  case.  The  drug,  as  it  has  appeared  in  the  European 
markets,  consists  of  the  stipes  of  the  fern  so  thickly  covered 
with  golden-brown  hairs  as  to  suggest  the  skin  of  some  animal. 
The  native  names  under  which  this  appeared  were  penghawar 
djambi  and  pakoe  kidang.  According  to  the  authors  of  the 
Dutch  Pharmacopoeia,  this  plant  is  identical  with  the  so-called 
Agnus  ScythicHS^  or  Scythian  lamb^  which  in  the  sixteenth 
and  seventeenth  centuries  was  regarded  as  a  sort  of  plant- 
animal,  springing  from  a  seed,  attached  to  the  earth  by  a  root 
like  a  plant,  while  it  had  flesh  and  blood  like  an  animal,  and 
fed  upon  the  herbs  which  surrounded  it  until  they  were  all 
gone,  after  which  it  starved  to  death,  because  it  could  not  move 
from  its  place.  Adam  and  Eve  were  said  to  have  been  aston- 
ished on  seeing  this  vegetable  lamb  in  the  Garden  of  Eden. 

In  Chinese  medicine  the  drug  is  considered  strengthening 
to  the  spine,  antirheumatic,  stimulating  to  the  liver,  kidneys, 
and  male  generative  organs,  and  is  recommended  as  an  old 
man's  remedy.  General  tonic  properties  are  also  ascribed  to  it. 
In  Europe  the  hairy  filaments  from  the  stipes  were  recommended 
as  a  hesmostatic  in  wounds,  and  this  use  is  also  mentioned  in 
the  Appendix  to  the  Pentsao.  Their  action  seems  to  be  purely 

POLYPODIUM  FORTUNEI.— -i-^IKKu-sui-pu),  624. 
The  name  of  this  was  originally  ^  ^  (Hou-chiang),  but  the 
Emperor  Kaiyuen  (713  A.D.),  because  he  considered  it  capable 
of  mending  broken  bones,  commanded  that  the  former  name 
should  be  given  to  it.  It  grows  in  the  shade  of  trees,  about 
the  roots  and  on  stony  ground.  The  rhizome,  11 25,  is  said  to 
somewhat  resemble  ginger,  and  is  filamentous.  Its  taste  is  bit- 
ter and  cooling,  and  it  checks  hemmorrhage  and  heals  wounds. 


It    is    prescribed    in    wasting    diseases,    ulcerations,    gangrene, 
toothache,  failing  of  the  hair  after  sickness,  and  ear  difficulties. 

POLYPODQ:,!  lingua.— :5^  (Shih-wei),  1161,  ^^ 
;j^  (Chin-hsing-tsao).  Tiie  second  name  applies  wiien  the 
plant  is  spornlating.  It  is  also  called  ^  j^  (Snili-p'i),  on 
account  of  its  b'^^-'t  of  growing  on  rocks  and  its  leatherv  leaves. 
One  kind  which  grows  on  old  brick  walls  is  called  ^  :^  (Wa- 
wei).  This  is  Polypodiimi  lineare.  It  is  useful  in  the  treat- 
ment of  urinary  calculus.  The  leaves  of  the  Shih-zvei  are 
gathered  in  the  second  moon  and  dried  in  the  shade.  "The 
best  kind  is  that  which  grows  in  places  where  neither  the  noise 
of  water  nor  the  human  voice  is  heard."  The  drug  is  consid- 
ered to  be  diuretic  and  tonic,  and  it  is  prescribed  in  gravel, 
urinary  difficulties,  menorrhagia,  hematuria,  wounds,  aud 

The  Chin-hsing-ls''ao^  or  sporulating  plant,  shows  fronds 
two  or  three  feet  long,  with  star-shaped  spore  cases  on  the 
back  arranged  iu  pairs.  The  fronds  and  root  are  both  used 
medicinally  in  carbuncle,  carcinomatous  ulcers,  scrofulous 
glands,  brimstone  poisoning,  and  digested  in  oil  as  an  applica- 
tion to  make  the  hair  grow.  It  cools  the  blood  and  promotes 
the  excretion  of  water, 

POPULUS  ALBA.— ^  }^  (Pai-yang).  This  Chinese 
name  refers  to  both  the  poplar  and  aspen^  the  name  of  the 
latter  being  more  specifically  \^  ^  (I-yang).  There  is  little 
discrimination  between  Popiilus  alba^  Populus  treniula^  and 
Populiis  siiiiveolens.  The  last  has  a  smaller,  green  leaf,  aud  is 
called  H  j:^  (Ch'ing-yaug).  A  name  common  for  this  and 
other  species  of  Populus^  refering  to  their  moving  leaves,  is  ^ 
^  (Tu-yao),  '* self-moving."  The  bark  of  the  tree  is  con- 
sidered to  be  antiseptic  and  astringent,  aud  is  prescribed  in  colds, 
hemorrhage,  fluxes,  the  bloody  stools  of  preguant  women,  and 
as  a  local  application  in  goiter.  The  decoction  in  water,  wine, 
or  vinegar  is  the  preparation  usualy  exhibited.  The  twigs  are 
used  in  colic,  herpes  labialis,  enlarged  spleen,  and  to  clear  the 
complexion.  A  decoction  of  the  leaves  is  used  in  decayed 
teeth  and  necrosis  of  bone  where  there  is  a  sinus. 


POPULUS  BALSAMIFEPA.— f#  m  (Hai-tHing).  Also 
called  $l]  ^  (Tz'ii-t'ung).  This  is  Faber's  ideiitificatiou,  but 
the  descriptiou  in  the  PSu/sao  would  rather  indicate  Acantho- 
panax  (see  p.  4).  It  grows  in  the  south  near  the  sea,  has 
leaves  as  large  as  a  hand  arranged  ternately,  a  firm  white 
bark  which  can  be  made  into  ropes  that  do  not  rot  in  water, 
and  bears  a  red  flower.  It  is  possible  that  two  or  more  genera 
are  confounded  under  this  name.  The  bark  is  used  as  an 
astringent  in  cholera,  chronic  diarrhoea  and  dysentery,  dis- 
charging skin  diseases,  decayed  teeth,  inflamed  eyes,  and  as  an 
anthelmintic  and  parasiticide.  The  flowers  are  used  as  a 
styptic  in  wounds. 

POPULUS  TREMULA.— ^^  %  (I-yang).  This  is  de- 
scribed in  the  P&ntsao  under  the  term  ^  \^  {^\\-\)^  and  the 
name  ^  -^  (T'ang-ti),  or  more  properly  %  ^  (Ch'ang-ti),  is 
given  as  a  synonym.  In  Japan  ^  \^  (Fu-i)  is  the  Chinese 
term  for  Aronia  asiatica^  a  small  tree  of  the  order  Rosaceae, 
with  white  flowers  in  racemes,  and  bearing  a  fruit  like  the 
P7'Uiius  japonica.  There  seems  therefore  to  be  some  confound- 
ing of  names  in  the  P^ntsao^  but  the  description  given  evidently 
refers  to  a  Populus.  The  bark  is  bitter  and  considered  to  be 
slightly  deleterious.  It  is  used  for  aflfections  of  the  feet,  one 
of  which  answers  pretty  well  to  the  description  of  gout.  It 
also  is  regarded  as  anthelmintic  and  is  highly  esteemed  in 
profuse  leucorrhcea. 

PORPHYRA  COCCINEA.— ^  %  (Tzu-ts«ai).  This  algal 
plant  is  a  sort  of  laver^  which  is  green  when  in  the  fresh  state 
and  purple  when  dry.  It  grows  on  the  sea  shore  of  south 
China,  and  the  Fukienese  gather  it  and  press  it  into  cakes.  It 
is  not  poisonous,  but  when  taken  in  excess  produces  colicky 
pains,  flatulence,  and  eructation  of  mucus.  It  is  recommended 
in  diseases  of  the  throat,  especially  goitre. 

PORTULACCA  OLERACEA.— J^  ^  %  (Ma-ch'ih- 
hsien).  The  purslanes  and  amaranths  are  rorifoanded  in 
China,  and  very  naturally  so,  since  the  plants  resemVtif  each 
other  in  general   appearance  and  habits,      i^  (Hsien)  refers  for 


the  most  part  to  Amarautus^  but  in  this  case  it  seems  to  be 
applied  to  the  common  purslane.  There  is  a  fairly  good 
description  in  the  Pentsao.  The  pl?ait  is  said  to  contain 
mercury.  It  is  eaten  as  a  cheap,  cooling,  spring  vegetable  by 
the  Chinese  of  all  classes.  Cooling,  lenitive,  antiscorbutic, 
alterative,  vulnerary,  and  discutient  properties  are  ascribed  to 
it,  and  the  plant  or  its  juice  is  recommended  to  be  used  in 
ulcers,  tumors,  indigestion,  leucorrhoea,  nausea,  gravel,  wounds, 
herpes,  anthrax,  eczema,  colds,  dysentery,  colic,  intestinal 
worms,  aud  pruritis  of  the  genitals.  The  seeds  are  considered 
to  be  tonic  and  constructive,  and  are  prescribed  in  opacities  of 
the  cornea  and  to  benefit  the  intestines. 

POTAMOGETON.— ^  (Yn).  This  spadiceous  endogen 
is  well  described  in  the  Penisao.  Horses  and  goats  are 
exceedingly  fond  of  it,  and  it  therefore  has  names  referring  to 
this  tact.  It  has  a  very  foul  odor,  and  the  name  above  given 
is  said  to  indicate  the  fact.  The  Tsochnan  says  :  "  There  is  a 
fragrant  herb  and  a  stinking  one,  and  for  ten  years  the  stench 
will  remain"  (—  H  —  l§  +  ^tp3®^  ^)-  The  root  is  used 
in  medicine.  It  is  considered  to  be  tonic,  giving  brightness 
to  the  eye  and  acuteness  to  the  hearing.  It  is  also  considered 
to  be  antifebrile  and  diuretic.  Faber  gives  0^  ^  |^  (Yen-tzu- 
ts'ai)  as  a  term  for  Potaniogcton  pol\gonifolins^  but  this  has  not 
been  found  mentioned  in  the  Chinese  works  consulted.  ,^  ^ 
(Ma-tsao)  is  usually  considered  to  be  Potamogeton  oxyphyllns^ 
but  this  is  not  distinguished  in  the  Pentsao  from  Myriophylluni 
spicahinc.      See  Digitaria  sanguinalis. 

POTENTILLA  CRYPTOT.ENIA.— 1|  ^  (Lang-ya). 
The  plant  grows  in  the  provinces  north  of  the  Yangtse,  and 
the  root,  which  is  officinal,  is  said  to  resemble  the  tooth  of  an 
animal  ;  hence  the  name,  "wolf's-tooth."  It  is  very  poisonous, 
and  is  prescribed  in  some  of  the  M.  (Feng)  diseases,  foul  sores, 
and  intestinal  worms.  Venereal  and  rodent  sores,  arrow  wounds, 
and  snakebites  are  also  treated  with  it. 

POTENTILLA  DISCOLOR.— |i  ^  if  (Fan-pai-ts'ao). 
This  grows  to  the  height  of  seven  or  eight  inches,  has  a  firm, 
thick,  .serrate  leaf,  light  colored  on  the  back,  rather  small,  and 

vegetabi:k  kingdom.  349 

lanceolate.  It  bears  a  yellow  flower,  and  the  root  is  about  the 
size  of  a  finger,  with  a  red  skin  and  white  flesh.  The  seed  is 
shaped  like  that  of  coriander.  Tlie  root  is  eaten  both  raw  and 
cooked,  children  preferring  it  in  the  former  condition.  Its  me- 
dicinal properties  are  those  of  an  astringent,  and  it  is  prescribed  in 
hematemesis,  hematuria,  menorrhagia,  malaria,  and  carbuncle. 

POTENTILLA  WALLICHIANA.— fig  ^  (She-han). 
See  Geum  dryadoides. 

POTERIUM  OFFICINALE.— ji^  It  (Ti-yii).  This  is 
the  same  as  Poteriian  sangiiisorba^  the  common  biirnet.  Its 
leaves  slightly  resemble  those  of  the  elm  and  spread  over  the 
ground,  and  these  facts  give  rise  to  the  Chinese  name,  "ground 
elm."  The  root  is  long,  tough,  wrinkled,  and  fibrous,  brown 
externally,  and  of  a  pink  or  yellowish  color  internally.  It  is 
astringent  and  slightly  bitter  to  the  taste,  and  is  u.sed  as  a 
styptic,  astringent,  vulnerary,  and  anodyne  remedy.  It  is 
prescribed  in  post-partum  difficulties,  wounds,  ulcers,  dysentery, 
hemorrhages,  snake  and  insect  bites,  and  skin  diseases. 
The  leaves  are  used  as  a  substitute  for  tea,  and  are  considered 
to  be  cooling  in  fevers. 

POWDERS. — The  Chinese  use  anumber  of  these;  some  for 
internal  medication,  some  for  external  use,  and  one  for  insuf- 
flation into  the  throat.  They  nearly  all  go  by  the  name  of  ^ 
(San),  and  consist  of  one  or  more  drugs  specially  prepared, 
dried,  and  thoroughly  powdered.  The  following  are  a  few  of 
the  more  popular. 

Amber  Powder ;  i^l;  JQ  ffc  (Hu-p'o-san).  It  is  made  as 
follows  :  Take  of  amber,  one  ounce  ;  turtle  shell,  one  ounce  ; 
Cyperus  rotundus,  one  ounce  ;  Corydalis  ambigua,  one-half 
ounce  ;  myrrh,  one-half  ounce  ;  rhubarb,  one-fourth  ounce. 
These  are  to  be  all  heated  together  and  beaten  into  a  powder. 
The  drug  is  considered  to  be  styptic  and  tonic,  and  it  is  used 
after  labor  with  a  view  to  restoring  the  normal  circulation  of 
the  blood,  in  whicli  case  the  rhubarb  is  left  out. 

Atractylis  Powder ,-  ^  yft  ^  (Tsang-shu-san).  Atractylis 
ovata  is  dried  and  prepared  by  a  complicated  process,  the  value 

350  CHiNEsr:  matkria  medic  a. 

of  which   is   not  very  apparent.      The  powder  is  administered 
in  rhev.:ncitic  difficuiLies. 

Brassica  Pozvder ;  ^  '^  ^  (Yiin-t'ai-san).  Use  seeds  of 
Brassica  juncea,  Cryptotsenia  canadensis,  cinnamon  heart,  and 
Pseonia  albiflora  in  equal  quantities,  and  beat  into  a  powder. 
It  is  used  in  indigestion,  vicious  lochia,  and  all  post-partum. 
difficulties.  It  is  said  tliat  the  first  three  days  after  labor  can 
not  safely  be  passed  without  using  this  remedy. 

Five  Yellows  Powder ;  3L  ^  Ht  (Wu-huang-san).  Take 
of  rhubarb,  brimstone,  flowers  of  sulphur,  turmeric,  and  gam- 
boge equal  parts  ;  powder  finely  and  mix  with  rape  seed  oil,  to 
be  applied  to  scaly  skin  diseases.  This  is  really  an  ointment, 
but  has  the  name  of  being  a  powder. 

Four-coynpound  Fai?'y  Atractylis  Pozvder ;  0  M  fill  ^fc  "Si^ 
(Ssu-chih-hsien-shu-san).  Use  Chekiang  x-Vtractylis  sinensis, 
four  ounces  ;  divide  into  four  parts,  and  decoct  one  part  to- 
gether with  Astragalus  hoangtchy  ;  combine  one  part  with 
hornet's  stings(?)  and  roast  dry  ;  bake  one  part  in  bran  until 
dry,  and  combine  one  part  with  Dendrobium,  Mix  these  four 
portions  together  and  powder.  Tiiis  is  valued  in  the  treatment 
of  profuse  perspiration. 

Fungus  Pozvder ;  /fC  i5  ^  "^  (Mu-chan-ssu-san).  This 
contains  a  substance  called  TfC  t5  ^  (Mu-chan-ssu),  which 
is  described  as  a  fungous  growth  on  the  camphor  tree.  Equal 
quantities  of  this,  of  licorice,  Magnolia  hypolenca,  Asarum 
sieboldi,  Tricosauthes  multiloba,  Siler  divaricatum,  ginger, 
ginseng,  Platycodon  grandiflorum,  and  Patrinia  villosa  are 
powdered  together.  It  is  useful  in  carbuncles  and  in  all  sorts 
of  carcinomatous  and  infected  sores. 

Glycine-malt  Powder ;  :^  fi  H  ^  (Ta-tou-nieh-san).  This  is 
made  of  malted  hyspidia  beans,  roasted  and  powdered.  It  is  used 
in  marasmus  and  like  difficulties,  and  is  considered  to  benefit 
the  five  viscera,  increasing  secretion  and  making  pliant  the  skin. 

Gourd  Peduncle  Powder ;  J^  ^  ^  (Kua-ti-san).  Take 
gourd  peduncles  browned  to  a  yellow  color,  and  Phaseolus 
radiatus,  equal  parts,  and  powder.  This  is  used  for  the  same 
purposes  for  which  melon  peduncles  are  recommended. 

Green  Plum  Powder ;  ^  ^  ^  (Ch'ing-mei-san).  Use 
the  kernels  of  green  Canarium  seed,  seven  in  number,  dry  and 


powder  fine  without  either  roasting  in  fire  or  washing  in  water. 
Also  take  twenty-one  of  the  jade-butterfly  plum  flowers,  ex- 
cluding the  peduncles.  Mix  the  powdered  kernels  and  the 
flowers  with  two  teaspoonfuls  of  white  honey  into  a  confec- 
tion. Tliis  given  to  a  child  will  prevent  smallpox,  or  if  already 
infected  there  will  not  come  out  more  than  two  or  three  small 
spots  of  eruption. 

Headache  Poivder ;  gg  il.  JP  at  (T'ou-feng-mo-san). 
This  is  for  external  application,  and  consists  of  aconite  root, 
pulverized,  mixed  with  salt,  and  finely  powdered.  It  is  either 
rubbed  directly  into  the  temples,  or  mixed  with  oil  and  made 
into  a  pomade  for  the  same  purpose. 

Insufflation  Powder ;  P^  P^  ^  (Ch'ui-hou-san).  Take 
large  black  dates,  remove  the  pits,  and  put  inside  a  Chinese 
nutgall,  after  having  removed  the  worms  from  the  latter. 
Add  Fritillaria  bulb,  removing  the  heart,  and  wrap  in  a  layer 
of  mud,  baking  until  dry.  Then  powder  finely  and  use  as  an 
insufflation  powder  for  all  diseases  of  the  throat. 

Jade  Dragon  Powder;  ^  ft  ^  (Yii-lung-san).  Use 
Funkia  subcordata  flowers  and  snake  skin,  of  each  one-fifth 
ounce  ;  cloves,  one-tenth  ounce,  and  powder.  This  is  used  in 
suppression  of  urine. 

Mux  vomica  Powder ;  J^  ~^  ^  (Ma-ch*ien-san).  Take 
half  an  ounce  of  Nux  vomica  seeds,  place  in  an  iron  vessel  and 
roast  in  a  sand  bath  until  yellow  ;  then  beat  up  in  a  mortar, 
and  sift  out  all  particles.  Also  of  wild  sesamum  seeds, 
removing  the  husks,  a  half  ounce ;  olibanum  and  bamboo 
leaves  roasted  dry,  a  half  ounce  ;  powder  all  finely  together. 
This  is  for  cancerous  sores  and  abscesses,  and  for  the  relief  of 
pain.  The  dose  is,  of  course,  very  limited  in  quantity,  on 
account  of  the  poisonous  character  of  the  Nux  vomica  seeds. 

Permeating  the  Spirit  Powder ;  %,  %%  ^  (T'ung-shen- 
san).  Use  Phaseolus  mungo  husks,  white  chrysanthemum 
flowers,  and  Eriocaulon  australe,  of  each  equal  parts.  This  is 
to  be  powdered  and  boiled  together  with  dried  persimmons  and 
millet,  and  used  in  the  treatment  of  eye 

Protecting  the  Heart  Powder ;  %  i(^  ^  (Hu-hsin-san). 
Use  Phaseolus  mungo  meal,  one  ounce  ;  olibanum,  one-half 
ounce  ;  mix  together  and  powder.      This  is  to  be  taken  with  a 


decoction  of  licorice  in   cases   of  abscess   and   wasting   due   to 
discharging  sores. 

Rubbing  Bright  Pozvder  ;  ^  ^%%  (Mo-kiiang-san).  Pre- 
pare a  powder  of  the  wild  water  chestnut  by  a  process  similar 
to  that  used  for  preparing  arrowroot  powder.  Also  take  equal 
parts  of  Coptis  teeta,  Pterocarpus  indicus,  Scutellaria  mac- 
rantha,  sweet  chrysanthemum  flowers,  and  peppermint.  First 
steep  in  water  and  evaporate  the  decoction,  and  then 
steep  in  child's  urine  and  evaporate  in  the  same  way  and 
mix  the  two  powders  ;  also  take  a  pearl  and  enclose  it  in  a 
piece  of  bean  curd  and  boil,  after  which  powder  finely.  Take 
one  ounce  of  the  water  chestnut  powder,  one-half  ounce  of  the 
second  preparation,  and  three-tenths  ounce  of  the  pearl  powder  ; 
mix,  powder  finely,  and  put  into  a  porcelain  bottle  and  cork 
tightly.  When  about  to  use,  add  a  little  Baroos  camphor  and 
drop  the  powder  into  the  eye.  This  is  considered  to  be  a 
remarkably  efficacious  remedy  in  all  forms  of  opacity  of  the 

Salvia  Pozvder;  j^  -^  "^  (Tan-shen-san).  This  is  simply 
Salvia  plebia  washed  clean,  cut  in  slices,  dried,  and  powdered. 
The  dose  is  a  fifth  of  an  ounce  to  be  taken  in  warm  wine  for 
all  menstrual  difficulties,  whether  early  or  late,  too  much  or 
too  little,  or  in  pregnancy  to  quiet  irritation  in  the  last  weeks, 
or  to  correct  the  discharges  after  delivery.  It  is  also  good  for 
all  forms  of  backache  and  pains  in  the  bones  and  joints. 

Seven  Candarin  Pozvder;  ^  ^  ^  (Ch'i-li-san).  Use 
dragon  bone  (||  »^),  borax,  dragon's  blood,  catechu,  Cannabis 
indica,  and  Forsythia  suspensa,  of  each  equal  parts  ;  powder 
finely.  The  dose  is  seven  candarins,  and  is  used  in  the  treat- 
ment of  wounds  as  an  anodyne. 

Seven  Fairies  Powder;  ^  \^  ^  (Ch'i-hsien-tan).  As- 
tragalus hoangtchy  two  ounces  ;  ginseng,  one  ounce  ;  licorice, 
one-half  ounce  ;  Paris  polyphylla,  one  ounce  ;  plum  flowers, 
one  and  a  half  ounces  ;  Monochasma  savatieri,  one  ounce  ; 
human  skull  bone  {^  g  ^),  one  piece  ;  all  powdered  together. 
This  is  a  remedy  for  preventing  smallpox  and  for  modifying 
the  eruption. 

Seven  Precious  Powder;  't  ^  ^  (Ch'i-pao-san).  Use 
dragon  bone,  elephant's  .skin,  dragon's  blood,  ginseng,  Gynura 

veg?:table  kingdom:,  353 

piiinatifida,  olibanum,  myrrh,  and  laka  wood,  all  powdered  to- 
gether. This  is  thought  to  promote  healing  in  wounds,  and 
is  a  military  men's  remedy. 

Tzvo  Floivers  Poivder;  Zl  f^  ^  (Erh-hna-san),  Take 
yellow  plum  flowers  in  any  quantity  and  peach  blossoms  dried 
in  the  shade  ;  Crataegus  fruits,  remove  the  seeds,  roast,  and 
powder  ■,  a  small  L,ufFa  cyiindrica,  dried  in  the  shade  and 
powdered  \  orange  peel,  ginseng,  Astragulus  hoangtchy,  lico- 
rice, vermilion,  Paris  polyphylla,  Monochasma  savatiera, 
scaly  ant  eater,  a  human  tooth,  piece  of  skull,  all  powdered 
together.  This  is  one  of  the  many  remedies  used  in  the 
treatment  of  smallpox. 

PREMNA  JAPONICA.— If  ^  (Fu-pei).  This  term, 
** worthless  slave-girl,"  is  applied  to  the  flower  of  Phaseolus 
nuDigo^  that  of  Pachyrizus  thuiibeygianus^  and  to  a  small  tree 
which  grows  near  the  sea-shore.  This  last  has  a  crooked  stem, 
bears  a  yellow  flower,  and  has  a  fetid  smell.  It  is  not  quite 
certain  which  of  these  three  is  the  drug  mentioned  in  the 
Pentsao.  Flowers  are  evidently  referred  to  in  the  discussion  of 
medicinal  uses.  Ague,  fever,  fluxes,  alcoholism,  and  hemor- 
rhoids are  treated  with  it. 

PRUNELLA  VULGARIS,— H  %  'W^  (Hsia-ku-ts'ao). 
See  Briuiella  vulgaris. 

PRUNUS  ARMENIACA.— ^-(Hsing),  H  fg  (T'ien-mei.) 
The  apricot  is  said  to  have  been  indigenous  in  Sliansi.  It  is 
now  cultivated  in  many  parts  of  the  country.  There  are 
several  varieties,  as  ^  ^  (Chin-hsing),  7^  '^  (Mu-hsing),  ^  ^ 
(Shan-hsing),  g  ^  (Pai-hsing),  ^  ;^-  (Sha-hsing),  |g  ^  (Mei- 
hsing),  *  ^  (Lai-hsing),  and  |^  ^  (Jou-hsing).  These  are 
all  distinguished  from  each  other  in  the  Pentsao.  The  fruit 
is  regarded  as  being  somewhat  deleterious,  and  if  eaten  in 
excess  is  thought  to  harm  the  bones  and  sinews,  to  promote 
blindness  and  falling  of  the  hair,  including  that  on  the  eye- 
brows and  the  e\e-lashes,  to  benumb  the  mental  faculties,  and 
to  injure  parturient  women.  It  is  considered  to  pertain  to  the 
heart,  and  therefore  should  be  used  in  cases  of  heart  disease. 
Dried   and   eaten,    it   is    thirst-relieving   and  antifebrile.      The 

354  chinesp:  materia  mrdica. 

kernel  of  the  seed,  466,  has  been  mistaken  for  the  almond. 
But  the  fact  is  that  the  kernels  of  the  apricot  and  of  the  peach 
are  used  in  China  instead  of  the  almond,  which  is  more  or 
less  rare.  The  kernel  is  considered  to  be  somevviiat  deleterious, 
and  it  is  said  tiiat  a  double  kernel  will  kill  a  man,  and  may  be 
used  to  poison  a  dog-.  Ordinarily,  the  cahx  of  the  apricot 
flower  is  five-parted,  but  it  a  six-parted  one  is  found,  the  seed 
will  contain  a  double  kernel.  Sedative,  tnssic,  antispasmodic, 
demulcent,  pectoral,  vulnerary,  and  anthelmintic  properties  are 
ascribed  to  these  kernels,  and  a  number  of  nostrums  are 
prepared  with  them,  and  they  are  prescribed  in  a  great  variety  of 
difficulties.  A  kind  of  fatty  confection,  called  ^  gf;;  (Hsing-su), 
is  made  from  the  kernels,  and  they  are  also  used  together  with 
peach  and  other  kernels  in  producing  a  kind  of  bland  oil,  called 
-rf  fc  ?Hl  (Hsing-jen-yu).  One  form  of  the  confection,  in  which 
oinger  and  licorice  are  combined  with  the  kernels,  is  used 
as  a  tnssic  and  expectorant  remedy,  while  the  other,  which 
is  prepared  by  a  process  of  fermentation,  is  more  especially 
used  as  a  prophylactic  and  tonic.  A  decoction,  called  :^  {z  '/# 
(Hsing-jen-t'ang),  is  made  by  crushing  the  blanched  kernels  in 
boiling  water,  with  the  addition  of  other  drugs  and  flavoring 
ingredients.  This  is  sold  in  the  streets  of  some  Chinese  towns, 
much  as  sassafras  tea  is  in  European  cities,  as  a  kind  of  ptisan. 
It  is  given  in  coughs,  asthma,  and  catarrhal  affections.  The 
juice  of  apricot  kernels  is  added  to  rice-congee,  and  given  in 
hemorrhages,  the  kernels  being  sometimes  parched  beforehand. 
They  are  also  crushed  and  made  into  a  paste,  which  is  applied 
to  the  eye  in  inflammations  of  that  organ.  Apricot  flowers  are 
considered  to  be  tonic  and  are  a  woman's  remedy,  promoting 
fecundity.  They  are  also  used  in  cosmetic  preparations.  The 
leaves  are  recommended  in  decoction  for  plethora,  the  branches 
in  injuries,  and  the  root  is  said  to  be  antidotal  to  the  poison  of 
the  kernels.  This  latter  illustrates  a  popular  belief  of  the 
Chinese  doctors,  who  regard  the  root  of  a  plant  as  the  polar 
antagonist  of  the  stem  and  all  that  is  borne  upon  it,  so  that  if 
one  is  poisonous,  the  other  will  furnish  the  antidote. 

PRUNUS  COMMUNIS,  Amygdala  communis.  —  '^  _£  :^ 
(Pa-tan-hsing).      This  is  brought  from  Mohammedan  countries, 


but  is  said  now  to  be  grown  in  Kansu  and  Mongolia.  The 
tree  and  fruit  is  fairly  well  described  in  the  Pentsao.  The 
kernel  is  used  in  coughs,  flatulence,  and  heartburn. 

PRUNUS  JAPONICA.— 15  ^  (Yu-li),  1551,  %  )^ 
(T'ang-ti),  '^  |^  (Ch'iao-niei).  Tlie  second  name  is  also 
written  H  kt  (T'ang-ti)  and  ^  \%  (Ch'ang-ti).  This  is  a 
small  tree,  six  or  seven  feet  in  height,  growing  in  the  mountain 
valleys  of  Kiangsu,  bearing  a  small,  red  fruit,  like  a  cherry, 
having  a  rather  harsh,  sour  taste  and  edible,  but  not  much 
used.  It  is  sometimes  made  into  sweetmeats,  and  for  that 
reason,  and  for  the  kernels  of  the  seeds,  the  tree  is  cultivated 
in  some  parts  of  China.  The  kernels  are  either  dried,  or  put 
lip  in  a  sort  of  confection  with  honey,  and  used  in  medicine. 
They  have  a  bitterish-sour-  taste,  and  demulcent,  diuretic 
lenitive,  and  deobstruent  properties  are  ascribed  to  them.  They 
are  given  in  dropsy,  rheumatism,  fevers,  cardialgia,  indicres- 
tion,  constipation,  and  mixed  with  Baroos  camphor  are  used  in 
ophthalmia.  The  root  of  the  tree  is  used  in  affections  of  the 
teeth,  constipation,  fevers  of  children,  and  to  destroy  pin  worms. 

PRUNUS  MUME.— 1^  (.Mei).  This  is  said  to  have  been 
indigenous  to  Shensi,  but  is  now  found  in  many  of  the  prov- 
inces. There  are  a  great  many  varieties,  both  wild  and 
cultivated.  There  are  also  several  kinds  of  the  prepared 
fruits.  If  plums  are  gathered  half  ripe  and  smoked,  they 
constitute  what  is  called  ^  |g  (Wu-mei),  "black-plums  ;"  if 
the  green  ones  are  pickled  in  brine  and  then  dried,  thev  are 
called  g  ^  (Pai-mei) ;  they  are  also  made  into  a  confection. 
The  ripe  plums  are  put  in  a  press  and  the  juice  expressed,  to  be 
used  as  an  addition  to  water  for  a  cooling  summer  drink. 
Plums,  if  taken  freely,  are  not  considered  to  be  entirely  free 
from  deleterious  effects.  They  are  said  to  injure  the  teeth, 
harm  the  tendons,  corrode  the  spleen  and  stomach,  and  inflame 
the  diaphragm.  The  "black  plums"  mentioned  above  are 
considered  to  be  carminative,  antifebrile,  and  antispasmodic, 
and  they  are  recommended  in  fluxes,  malaria,  choleraic 
difficulties,  nausea,  intestinal  worms,  fish  and  sulphur  poison- 
ing, and  poisoning  from  the  bite  of  a  horse.      They  are  soaked 


in  water  and  tlie  infusion  given  in  typhoid  fever  to  relieve 
thirst.  The  'Svhite  plums/'  also  known  as  "-salted  plums," 
are  much  relished  as  a  savory  pickle,  aiid  will  be  found  at  most 
Chinese  feasts,  under  the  name  of  ^  |^  (Ch'ing-mei).  Tliey 
are  crushed  and  applied  locally  as  a  styptic  in  incised  wounds, 
in  cancer  of  the  breast,  and  are  taken  internally  in  epilepsy, 
fluxes,  and  choleraic  afFectioiis,  menorrhagia,  and  the  like. 
The  kernels  of  the  seeds  are  considered  strengthening  and 
cooling,  and  are  crushed,  mixed  with  vinegar,  and  applied 
to  a  felon  on  the  finger.  The  flowers  are  added  to  various 
congees  and  other  preparations,  and  are  thought  to  iniprove 
the  strength-giving  qualities  of  these.  The  leaves  are  nsed  in 
fluxes  and  menorrhagia.  The  root  is  prescribed  for  colds  and 
fluxes,  and  it  is  taken,  together  with  that  of  the  peach  and  of 
the  domestic  plum,  and  decocted  in  water  for  a  bath  for  a  new 
born  infant,  with  the  result  that  the  infant  will  remain  free 
from  prickly  heat  and  boils. 

PRUNUS  PERSIC  A.— I'^  (T^ioj.  The  peach  is  indigen- 
ous to  China,  which  is  also  show'n  by  the  character  represent- 
ing it  being  one  of  the  few  ancient,  unchanged  characters. 
The  wood  of  the  tree  is  used  in  fortune  telling,  and  this  is 
indicated  by  the  composition  of  the  character  ;  the  right  hand 
part  meaning  "  omen^'  and  the  left  meaning  *'wood."  It  is 
also  suggested  that  the  right  side  of  the  character  means  a 
million,  and  that  this  refers  to  the  prolific  character  of  the  tree 
as  to  leaves,  flowers,  and  fruit.  The  varieties  of  peaches  in 
China  are  very  numerous,  and  marvelous  stories  are  told  in 
regard  to  the  size  of  some  of  the  friiits.  Also,  there  is  an  account 
of  having  grafted  the  peach  upon  persimmon  and  plum  trees, 
and  prod\icing  a  modified  fruit.  In  the  former  case  it  is  called 
^  ^j^  (Chin-t'ao),  and  in  the  latter  ^  ^fc  (Li-t'ao)  or  ;fg  ^  (Mei- 
t*ao).  It  is  said  that  the  fruit  is  heating  and  produces  fever 
if  taken  in  excess.  It  improves  the  complexion,  and  as  a  fruit, 
belongs  to  the  lungs  and  should  be  freely  used  in  diseases 
of  that  organ.  The  late  variety,  known  as  ^  t^fe  (Tung-t'ao), 
is  recommended  for  the  feverishness  of  work  or  anxiety.  The 
kernel  of  the  seed,  1257,  is  often  combined  with,  or  substituted 
for,  the  kernels  of  the  apricot  seed,  and  it  is  these  which  have 


been  mistaken  for  almonds.  They  are  recommended  for 
conghs,  blood-diseases,  rbenmatism,  amenorrboea,  ague,  post- 
partum hemorrhage,  and  worms.  Crushed  and  mixed  with 
honey,  tliey  make  an  application  for  keeping  the  hands  smooth, 
if  applied  at  night.  The  hairy  pellicle  of  the  .skin  of  the  fruit 
is  used  in  hemorrhages  and  eval  effluvia.  The  fruit  which 
bangs  on  the  tree  all  winter  and  is  gathered  in  the  early 
spring,  is  called  f^^  ^  (T'ao-hsiao),  3^}£.  f^  (T'ao-nu),  and  ijil^  f^ 
(Sben-t'ao).  Another  name  means  "  demon's  skull."  These 
are  regarded  as  slightly  deleterious,  and  have  the  power  of 
overcoming  every  kind,  of  demoniac  influence  and  of  relieving 
many  sorts  of  neuralgic  and  rheumatic  pains.  Profuse  sweat- 
ing in  children,  hemorrhage  in  pregnant  women,  ague,  scald- 
bead,  and  sickness  from  the  over-ingestion  of  peaches  are  all 
treated  with  these.  The  flowers  of  the  peach  tree  are  supposed 
to  have  some  supernatural  power  in  driving  away  the  demon 
of  ill  health,  giving  a  good  color  to  the  complexion,  and  rejoic- 
ing the  countenance.  They  are  regarded  as  diuretic,  vermi- 
fuge, and  quieting,  and  they  are  applied  locally  in  favus  and 
acne,  and  as  a  cosmetic.  The  leaves,  1259,  are  regarded  as 
parasiticide,  antifebrile,  and  astringent,  and  are  prescribed  in 
typhoid  and  other  fevers  as  a  diuretic  and  corrective  remedy, 
and  in  cholera.  The  bark  of  the  tree  and  root,  1258,  are  both 
used,  but  preference  is  given  to  the  latter,  and  especially  to 
the  bark  of  that  root  extending  toward  the  east.  Only  the 
white  inner  bark  is  employed.  It  is  considered  to  be  pro- 
phylactic, parasiticide,  and  quieting.  Extreme  jaundice, 
epidemics,  and  dropsy  are  special  indications  for  its  use.  The 
peach  gum  (f^^  fl^,  T'ao-chiao)  is  also  used  as  a  sedative, 
alterative,  astringent,  and  demulcent  remedy.  Peach-wood 
slips,  l^^fe  ^  (T'ao-fu),  are  used  as  charms  against  evil  spirits. 
These  are  sometimes  affixed  to  the  lintels  of  the  door,  or  the 
lintel  is  made  of  peach  wood.  Posts  of  peach-wood,  called 
^  Wi  (T'ao-chueh),  are  also  set  out  about  the  house  for  the 
same  purpose.  The  epiphyte  growing  on  the  peach  tree,  ^^^  ^ 
^  (T'ao-chi-sheng),  is  said  to  partake  of  the  medicinal  prop- 
erties of  the  tree,  as  do  also  the  grubs,  )|?|^  -^  (T'ao-tu),  which 
infest  the  wood.  The  f^  felt  (Yu-t'ao)  is  the  nectarine,  and 
^   ij'Jfe  (Ping-t'ao)  and   [g;  t^fe  (Ho-t'ao)  are  the  names  of  a  flat 


variety,  of  excellent  flavor  and  of  foreign  origin.  The  peaches 
of  Honan  province  are  especially  of  fine  quality  and  flavor. 
The  difficnlty  is  that  the  Chinese  almost  never  allow  the  fruit 
to  ripen  on  the  tree,  but  pluck  and  eat  it  quite  green.  Former- 
ly a  sort  of  vinegar  was  made  from  the  pulp  of  ripe  peaches. 

PRUNUS  PSEUDO-CERASUS.— ^  f;!lS  (Ying-t'ao). 
This,  tiie  Chinese  or  bastard-cherry,  is  very  similar  to  the 
European  kind,  but  differs  from  it  in  having  its  flowers  grow 
in  racemes,  instead  of  in  fascicles,  and  in  the  stems  being 
hairy.  The  classical  name  is  ^  \^]^  (Han-t'ao).  The  large, 
sweet  cherries  are  called  H  ^  (Yai-mi).  The  fruit  is  said  to 
harmonize  the  centers,  to  benefit  the  disposition,  and  to  give 
a  good  complexion  and  a  hopeful  will.  It  prevents  the  loss  of 
virility  and  checks  fluxes.  The  leaves  of  the  tree  are  bruised 
and  applied  in  snake  bite.  The  root  on  the  east  side  of  the 
tree  is  good  in  pin  worms.  The  twigs  are  rubbed  together 
with  Sa/viiiia  na/ans^  Gleditschia  officinalis^  and  pickled  plums 
([^  ;f^),  and  used  as  an  application  for  freckles.  Tiie  flowers 
are  also  used  as  a  cosmetic.  The  fruit  of  the  cherry  is  often 
preserved  with  honey  and  used  as  a  sweet-meat. 

PRUNUS  SPINUL03A.— 11^  zf:  (Lin-mu).  This  is  an 
identification  of  Faber's  ;  but  upon  what  authority  he  does  not 
state.  The  Pentsao  givc^  little  description  of  the  tree,  except  to 
say  that  it  is  a  large  tree  growing  in  the  mountainous  districts 
of  Central  China,  that  it  bears  a  white  flower,  and  that  its  wood 
is  used  in  dyeing  brown,  and  the  leaves  are  sometimes  distilled 
with  spirits.  Rice  is  cooked  with  the  lye  from  the  ashes  of 
this  tree,  and  eaten  to  cure  dyspepsia  and  intestinal  worms, 

PRUNUS  TOMENTOSA.  — ^J  if  'ik  (Shan-ying-t'ao\ 
^  \%  (Chu-t'ao),  ^  \%  (Li-t'ao),  fg  fg  (Mei-t'ao).  This  cherry 
does  not  have  a  good  taste,  so  it  is  not  much  eaten.  It  has 
the  same  qualities  and  medicinal  uses  as  the  ordinary  cherry. 

PRUNUS  TRIFLORA,  Prumis  domcstica.—^  (Li),  B  M. 
^  (Chia-ch'ing-tzu).  Although  the  character  for  this  plum  is 
very  old,  the  tree  is  not  mentioned  as  being  indigenous  to 
China  ;  but  on   the  other  hand  the  equivalent  Sanscrit  name  of 


!^  ^M  'M  (Cliii-liiig-chia'>  is  given,  indicating  that  it  may  have 
been  inlroduced  from  India  or  Persia.  There  are  very  many 
varieties  oi"  these  plums  in  China  (Li  Shih-chen  says  nearly  a 
hundred)  varying  in  size,  color,  shape,  and  flavor.  INIost  of 
the  finest  varieties  are  found  in  the  northern  provinces.  Those 
plums  which  do  not  sink  in  water  are  considered  deleterious, 
and  should  not  be  eaten.  If  eaten  in  excess,  they  are  thought 
to  cause  dropsical  swelling.  There  is  also  some  suggestion  of 
them  causing  choleraic  difficulties.  When  eaten  dried,  they 
are  thought  to  drive  away  chronic  di.sease  and  harmonise  the 
centers.  They  pertain  to  the  liver,  and  should  be  eaten  in 
diseases  of  that  organ.  The  kernels  of  the  seeds  are  used  in 
sprains,  bruises,  injuries  to  bones,  in  hysterical  phantom  tumor, 
and  in  dark  spots  on  the  face  (ff).  Their  ingestion  is  said  to 
improve  the  complexion.  The  white  bark  of  the  root  is 
considered  to  be  very  cooling,  and  is  therefore  used  in  thirst 
and  febrile  difficulties.  In  decoction  it  is  also  used  in  ulcers, 
toothache,  fluxes,  menorrhagia,  leucorrhoea,  and  fevers  of 
children.  The  flowers  are  added  to  cosmetic  preparations.  The 
leaves  are  used  in  intenuittent  fever  and  epileptoid  affections 
of  children.  The  gum  of  the  tree  is  recommended  in  pannus, 
to  stop  pain  and  relieve  swelling. 

PSORALEA  CORYLIFOLIA.— ^  f-  flg-  (Pu-ku-chih). 
^  Ik  !^fi  (P'o-ku-chih),  1042,  ^  El  |&  (P'o-ku-chih).  This 
drug  is  said  to  come  from  Persia,  and  the  above  names  are  prob- 
ably transliterations.  The  plant  is  now  found  in  Lingnan 
and  Szechuan.  The  flat,  oval  or  slightly  reniform,  black  one- 
seeded  legumes  are  about  two  or  three  lines  long,  and  often 
retain  the  persistent,  five-lobed  calyx.  They  have  an  aromatic 
odor,  and  a  bitter,  aromatic  flavor.  They  are  regarded  as 
highly  aphrodisiac  and  tonic  to  the  genital  organs,  and  are 
prescribed  in  all  forms  of  sexual  incompetency.  Threatened 
abortion,  the  discomforts  of  piegnaucy,  insufficient  erections, 
polyuria,  and  incontinence  of  urine  in  children,  are  difficulties 
for  which  the  drug  is  administered. 

PTERIS  AQUALINA.— fj  (Chiieh).  The  diff"erent 
kinds  of  ferns  are  not  clearly  distinguished  from  each  other. 


But  the  description  given  in  the  Pentsao  answers  well  enough 
to  PU'7'is.  There  is  some  confounding  of  the  genus  with 
Osmtinda,  The  thallus  and  root-stock  are  both  eaten  and  used 
medicinally,  and  they  are  sweet,  mucilaginous,  and  cooliiio-. 
They  expel  fever,  benefit  the  water  passages,  and  promote 
sleep.  Tonic  properties  are  also  ascribed  to  them.  d|.  p 
j§  %  (Chiug-k'ou-pien-ts'ao),  E  >i  ^  (Feiig-wei-tsao),  ifj;  ^ 
:^  (Hung-mao-ts'ao),  and  4^  'fej^  [^  (Wu-kung-ts'ao),  1461,  are 
other  names  for  Pleris^  but  are  not  distinguished  in  the  Pentsao. 
7JC  ^*  (Shui-chiieh)  is  Ccratopteris  thalictroides^  and  is  much 
esteemed  as  a  food.  The  root-stock